CN107589446B - The tomography velocity modeling method of wave path is calculated using Gaussian beam - Google Patents

The tomography velocity modeling method of wave path is calculated using Gaussian beam Download PDF

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CN107589446B
CN107589446B CN201610529432.0A CN201610529432A CN107589446B CN 107589446 B CN107589446 B CN 107589446B CN 201610529432 A CN201610529432 A CN 201610529432A CN 107589446 B CN107589446 B CN 107589446B
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CN107589446A (en
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蔡杰雄
倪瑶
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China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute
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Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute
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Abstract

A kind of tomography velocity modeling method calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, comprising the following steps: step 1: deviating to obtain angle domain common image gathers by Gaussian beam, and it is poor to pick up remaining time using trace gather;Step 2: the expression formula of wave path chromatography kernel function is established using the Born approximation of wave equation;Step 3: calculating background wave field Green's function using Gaussian beam propagation operator;Step 4: the expression formula calculating computed tomography kernel function based on Green's function and chromatography kernel function.Method of the invention is suitable for complicated structure, stability with higher and modeling accuracy.

Description

The tomography velocity modeling method of wave path is calculated using Gaussian beam
Technical field
The present invention relates to seismic data velocity modeling fields in oil-gas exploration and development, in particular to a kind of to utilize Gaussian beam meter Calculate the tomography velocity modeling method of wave path, the seism processing that can be used in geophysical prospecting for oil.
Background technique
In south China with western high-dip structure area, subsurface structure is complicated, and the lateral variation in velocity of seismic wave is big, earthquake There is biggish challenges for data imaging and velocity modeling.Gaussian beam Prestack depth migration is not only applicable to complex area construction Imaging, and be suitble to match with Tomography Velocity inverting and carry out speed update iteration.Compared with the rapid development of offset method, speed is built Lag is but compared in the development of mould method, is not able to satisfy imaging method to the needs of rate pattern.Currently, layer when walking based on ray Analysing inverting is most widely used speed update method, and more accurate background velocity mould is capable of providing in simple structure Type, but its spatial resolution is inadequate, it is insensitive to Low Velocity Body.In complex model, conventional ray propagation is easy to appear caustic Problem, and only consider due to communication process the mesh point on ray, the chromatography matrix of building is very sparse and ill, leads to numerical value It solves unstable.Another velocity modeling method --- full waveform inversion method theoretically provides the inverting knot of highest resolution Fruit, but be limited to its perfect assumes to data and there is variety of problems in practical applications.Therefore, expect one kind for complicated structure Make the velocity modeling method with higher stability and modeling accuracy.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide it is a kind of using Gaussian beam calculate wave path tomography velocity modeling method, Stability still with higher and modeling accuracy when suitable for complicated structure.
The present invention uses following solution:
A kind of tomography velocity modeling method calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: deviating to obtain angle domain common image gathers by Gaussian beam, pick up remaining time using the trace gather Difference;
Step 2: the expression formula of wave path chromatography kernel function is established using the Born approximation of wave equation;
Step 3: calculating background wave field Green's function using Gaussian beam propagation operator;
Step 4: the expression formula based on the Green's function and the chromatography kernel function calculates the chromatography kernel function;
Step 5: building chromatographs equation as shown in following formula (1):
∫ K Δ sdr=Δ d (1)
In formula (1), right-hand vector Δ d indicates that remaining time is poor, and left end matrix K indicates chromatography kernel function, left end Δ s is speed inverse renewal amount to be solved.
Preferably, the expression formula of the chromatography kernel function is indicated by the background wave field Green's function.
Preferably, the expression formula of the chromatography kernel function is stated by following formula (4):
Wherein,Indicate shot point end kernel function,Indicate geophone station end kernel function, ω indicates circular frequency, v0Represent background Speed, pSAnd pRIt respectively indicates shot point to set out the slowness vector to set out with geophone station, GSIndicate that shot point sets out to the Green of imaging point Function, GRIndicate that geophone station sets out to the Green's function of imaging point, G0Indicate that shot point sets out to the Green's function of geophone station, G0* generation Table G0Conjugate function, xsIndicate that the shot point coordinate of generation background wave field, x are expressed as picpointed coordinate, y is indicated from shot point xsTo at The spatial point coordinate that the straight line of picture point x is passed through, Im indicate imaginary part.
Preferably, the background wave field Green's function is stated by following formula (9):
Wherein, x is expressed as picpointed coordinate, and y is indicated from shot point xsThe spatial point coordinate passed through to the straight line of imaging point x, ω indicates circular frequency, and p indicates the slowness vector of Gaussian beam,Indicate initial incidence angle of the Gaussian beam in earth's surface, u (y, x, p, ω) It indicates with the Gaussian beam of rectangular coordinate system expressed as parameters, Φ indicates that initial amplitude coefficient, P (s) and Q (s) indicate dynamics ray The parameter of tracking, v (s) indicate the speed of vertical point on central ray, and τ (s) is indicated along central ray when walking, n representation space one Point arrives the distance of central ray.
Preferably, the initial amplitude coefficient is stated by following formula (10):
Wherein, ωrIt indicates to refer to circular frequency, w0Indicate the original width of Gaussian beam, v (x) indicates the point that hangs down on central ray Speed.
Preferably,
Wherein,
Wherein, α indicates the angle of the central ray direction of propagation and z-axis, and z-axis is directed toward vertical downward direction.
Preferably, numerical solution is carried out to the formula (6) using Runge Kutta method, and is counted by following formula (8) Calculate the initial value of the formula (6):
Wherein, ωrIt indicates to refer to circular frequency, w0Indicate the original width of Gaussian beam, vinitialIndicate the speed of earth's surface eye point Degree.
Preferably, by following formula (11) calculate the chromatography kernel function by:
Wherein,Indicate shot point end kernel function,Indicate geophone station end kernel function, ω indicates circular frequency, v0Represent background Speed, pSAnd pRIt respectively indicates shot point to set out the slowness vector to set out with geophone station, u indicates that Gaussian beam function, u* indicate being total to for u Yoke function, xsIndicate that the shot point coordinate of generation background wave field, x are expressed as picpointed coordinate, y is indicated from shot point xsTo the straight of imaging point x The spatial point coordinate that line is passed through,Indicate initial incidence angle of the Gaussian beam in earth's surface, Φ0ΦR, Φ s respectively indicate from shot point to Initial amplitude coefficient corresponding to the Perturbation that the Perturbation and shot point that ambient field, the geophone station of geophone station set out set out, Im table Show imaginary part.
Compared with prior art, conventional the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows being substituted using Gaussian beam operator calculating computed tomography wave path Ray carries out back projection, while the flexible steady advantage for keeping conventional ray tomography technology, improves inversion operator precision, Improve the spatial resolution of conventional ray tomography inverting.In addition, constructing the smaller inversion matrix of pathosis using Gaussian beam operator The computational stability of tomographic inversion can be improved.Finally improve the precision of complicated structure speed chromatography modeling.
Detailed description of the invention
Disclosure exemplary embodiment is described in more detail in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the disclosure it is above-mentioned and other Purpose, feature and advantage will be apparent.
Fig. 1 shows the tomography velocity modeling method using Gaussian beam calculating wave path accoding to exemplary embodiment Flow chart;
Fig. 2 shows single-frequency Gaussian beams described in formula in exemplary embodiment (5);
Fig. 3 shows the Green's function of multiple Gaussian beam integral representations described in formula in exemplary embodiment (9);
Chromatography kernel function described in formula (11) under 20Hz and 40Hz in Fig. 4 a and Fig. 4 b difference display example embodiment;
Theoretical model in Fig. 5 display example embodiment, wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates distance;
Any big gun trace gather that theoretical model in Fig. 6 display example embodiment extracts, wherein ordinate indicates time sample Point, abscissa indicate road number;
Initial model in Fig. 7 display example embodiment, wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates distance;
Initial model migrated section in Fig. 8 display example embodiment, wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates Distance;
Fig. 9 is shown in the exemplary embodiment to the initial model progress Gaussian beam chromatography update of Fig. 7 as a result, wherein indulging Coordinate representation depth, abscissa indicate distance;
Figure 10 shows the migrated section of the Gaussian beam tomographic inversion model using Fig. 9, and wherein ordinate indicates depth, horizontal seat Mark indicates distance;
Figure 11 is shown to carry out that conventional ray tomography updates as a result, wherein ordinate indicates depth to the initial model of Fig. 7, Abscissa indicates distance;
Figure 12 shows the Gaussian beam migrated section of the more new model using Figure 11, and wherein ordinate indicates depth, abscissa Indicate distance;
Figure 13 a, 13b, 13c are shown respectively utilizes the initial model of Fig. 7, the Gaussian beam chromatography more new model of Fig. 9, Figure 11 The corresponding migration imaging trace gather of conventional ray tomography more new model, wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates angle.
Specific embodiment
Preferred embodiment of the present disclosure is more fully described below with reference to accompanying drawings.Although showing the disclosure in attached drawing Preferred embodiment, however, it is to be appreciated that may be realized in various forms the disclosure without that should be limited by embodiments set forth here System.On the contrary, thesing embodiments are provided so that the disclosure is more thorough and complete, and can be complete by the scope of the present disclosure Ground is communicated to those skilled in the art.
The purpose of tomography velocity modeling is exactly to construct to chromatograph equation as shown in following formula (1):
∫ K Δ sdr=Δ d (1)
In formula (1), right-hand vector Δ d indicates the residual move out time of imaging trace gather, and left end matrix K indicates chromatography core letter Number, represents path and the weight of back projection, and left end Δ s is slowness to be solved (speed is reciprocal) renewal amount.Of the invention Innovation is to seek chromatography kernel function K, based on chromatography kernel function K building chromatography equation, so as to solve slowness (speed Degree is reciprocal) renewal amount.
Equation is chromatographed shown in formula (1) in order to construct, exemplary embodiment of the present invention is implemented according to following procedure:
(1) it seeks the right-hand vector Δ d of chromatography equation: extracting angle domain common image gathers using Gaussian beam offset, utilize The trace gather pick up remaining time difference as chromatograph equation right-hand vector Δ d, the step for it is similar with Conventional chromatography imaging;
(2) divide three steps to seek chromatography kernel function K: establishing wave path chromatography core letter first with the Born approximation of wave equation The expression formula of number K;Then background wave field Green's function is calculated using Gaussian beam propagation operator;Finally utilize the Green's function and layer Analyse the expression formula calculating computed tomography kernel function K of kernel function K.
Below with reference to the tomography speed for calculating wave path using Gaussian beam of Fig. 1 detailed description accoding to exemplary embodiment Spend modeling method, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: deviating to obtain angle domain common image gathers by Gaussian beam, it is poor to pick up remaining time using the trace gather
It is deviated by Gaussian beam and extracts angle domain common image gathers, it is poor to pick up remaining time using the trace gather.The step Similar with Conventional chromatography imaging method, details are not described herein.
Step 2: the expression formula of wave path chromatography kernel function K is established using the Born approximation of wave equation
According to scattering theory, Born scattered field can be expressed as following formula (2):
Wherein, S0Indicate background wave field;v0Indicate background velocity;k0Indicate background wave number;xsIt indicates to generate background wave field Source point (i.e. shot point) coordinate;X is expressed as picpointed coordinate, and Δ S indicates the scattered field from shot point to imaging point;Y indicate scattered field from Shot point xsThe spatial point coordinate passed through to the straight line of imaging point x;The velocity disturbance of Δ v (y) representation space point y, scattered field Δ S It is as caused by velocity disturbance Δ v;GsIndicate that shot point sets out to the Green's function of imaging point;pSIndicate the slowness vector of shot point;ω Indicate circular frequency.
The relationship disturbed when available imaging domain is walked with velocity disturbance, such as following public affairs are disturbed when formula (2) are substituted into Shown in formula (3):
Wherein, Δ tGBMIndicate that the remaining time picked up in the common imaging gather of Gaussian beam deviation angle domain is poor;θ,Respectively Indicate the subtended angle and azimuth in trace gather;GSIndicate that shot point sets out to the Green's function of imaging point, GRIndicate geophone station set out at The Green's function of picture point, G0Indicate that shot point sets out to the Green's function of geophone station, GS、GR、G0Collectively form background wave field Green's letter Number G;G0* G is represented0Conjugate function, Im indicate imaginary part.
Formula (3) indicates the relationship of disturbance and velocity disturbance when imaging domain is walked, and the relationship is by background wave field Green's function G (including GS、GRAnd G0) indicate.
Therefore, the expression formula of frequency domain wave path chromatography kernel function K can be expressed as following formula (4):
Obviously, it includes two components, i.e. shot point end kernel function that formula (4), which expresses chromatography kernel function K,And geophone station end Kernel functionThe expression formula for chromatographing kernel function K is indicated by background wave field Green's function G.
Step 3: calculating background wave field Green's function using Gaussian beam propagation operator
Single-frequency Gaussian beam can be expressed as following formula (5):
Wherein, u (s, n, ω) indicates that single-frequency Gaussian beam, s indicate that central ray propagates arc length, and n representation space is a little in The distance of heart ray, ω indicate circular frequency, and τ is indicated along central ray when walking, and v indicates to hang down on central ray the speed of point, P and Q indicates the parameter that kinetics ray-tracing acquires, in which:
Wherein,
Wherein, α is the angle of the center ray direction of propagation and z-axis, and z-axis is directed toward vertical downward direction.
Fig. 2 shows the example for the single-frequency Gaussian beam that formula (5) indicate.
Formula (6) is first-order ordinary differential equation system, generally carries out numerical solution using Runge Kutta method.Equation group Initial value such as formula (8) shown in:
Wherein, ωrIt indicates to refer to circular frequency, w0Indicate the original width (initial Gaussian beam is plane wave) of Gaussian beam, vinitialIndicate the speed of earth's surface eye point.Formula (5) are substituted into after acquiring P and Q according to formula (6) to (8), are obtained by integral Background wave field Green's function G, as shown in following formula (9):
Wherein, p indicates the slowness vector of Gaussian beam,Indicate initial incidence angle of the Gaussian beam in earth's surface, u (y, x, p, ω) It indicates with the Gaussian beam of rectangular coordinate system expressed as parameters, Φ indicates that initial amplitude coefficient, P (s) and Q (s) indicate dynamics ray The parameter of tracking can be calculated by above formula (6) and be obtained, the speed for the point that hangs down on v (s) expression central ray, in τ (s) expression When walking of heart ray, n representation space a little arrive the distance of central ray.
Φ is the initial amplitude coefficient of above-mentioned superposition integral formula (9), which can be by carrying out with parsing Green's function Comparison is to acquire, as shown in following formula (10):
Fig. 3 shows the example of the Green's function of multiple Gaussian beam integral representations described in formula (9).
Step 4: utilizing Green's function and chromatography kernel function expression formula calculating computed tomography kernel function K
The Green's function G that formula (9) are calculated substitutes into formula (4), can calculate the chromatography kernel function K based on Gaussian beam, As shown in following formula (11):
Wherein, u indicates Gaussian beam function, is determined by formula (5), and u* indicates the conjugate function of u, Φ0And ΦR,Φs It respectively indicates corresponding to ambient field, the Perturbation of geophone station and the Perturbation of shot point from shot point to geophone station just Beginning peak factor is determined by formula (10).
Fig. 4 a and Fig. 4 b show chromatography kernel function described in formula (11) under 20Hz and 40Hz respectively.
Finally, the chromatography kernel function of the remaining time difference and formula (11) obtained according to step 1, is based on formula (1) Solve slowness (speed is reciprocal) renewal amount.
Using example
In order to illustrate effect of the invention, a theoretical model is devised in this example and (is sat as shown in figure 5, wherein indulging Mark indicates depth, and abscissa indicates distance), which laterally includes 731 grids (CDP number), and grid spacing 10m is longitudinal Including 550 grids, grid spacing 10m.The model is for subsequent forward modeling and verifying offset effect.
Any 3 big gun trace gathers (as shown in Figure 6) are extracted in theoretical model forward modeling based on Fig. 5, in Fig. 6, when ordinate expression Between sampling point, abscissa indicate road number, sampling interval 1ms.
It is (as shown in Figure 7) as initial model progress Gaussian beam offset and output angle road to design a constant gradient model Collection.In Fig. 7, ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates distance.
Fig. 8 shows the Gaussian beam migrated section using Fig. 7 initial model, and wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates Distance.It can be seen that the migration result diffraction of initial model does not restrain, imaging depth is not also right.
Fig. 9 shows that method according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention carries out Gaussian beam chromatography to the initial model of Fig. 7 and updates As a result, wherein ordinate indicate depth, abscissa indicate distance.
Figure 10 shows the migrated section of the Gaussian beam tomographic inversion model using Fig. 9, and wherein ordinate indicates depth, horizontal seat Mark indicates distance.As can be seen from Figure 10 diffracted wave is restrained, and reflecting interface can playback to correct depth location, graben position The lineups for setting place focus more preferably, illustrate that Gaussian beam tomographic inversion is better than conventional ray layer in the violent region of lateral speed change Analysis method.
Figure 11 is shown to carry out that conventional ray tomography updates as a result, wherein ordinate indicates depth to the initial model of Fig. 7, Abscissa indicates distance.
Figure 12 shows the Gaussian beam migrated section of the more new model using Figure 11, and wherein ordinate indicates depth, abscissa Indicate distance.The migration result of comparison diagram 10 and Figure 12, it can be seen that the migration result of conventional ray tomography more new model is slightly worse The migration result of more new model is chromatographed in Gaussian beam.
Figure 13 a, 13b, 13c are shown respectively utilizes the initial model of Fig. 7, the Gaussian beam chromatography more new model of Fig. 9, Figure 11 The corresponding migration imaging trace gather of conventional ray tomography more new model, wherein ordinate indicates depth, and abscissa indicates angle.Pass through Comparison, which can be seen that initial angle gathers lineups, to be occurred upwarping phenomenon, illustrates that initial velocity is less than normal, and is obtained by tomographic inversion Rate pattern offset after angle gathers obtained evening up well.With the comparison of conventional ray tomography it is found that Gaussian beam chromatography extracts Angle gathers be more nearly true velocity model extraction angle gathers.
Above-mentioned technical proposal is a kind of embodiment of the invention, for those skilled in the art, in this hair On the basis of bright principle disclosed, it is easy to make various types of improvement or deformation, it is above-mentioned specific to be not limited solely to the present invention The description of embodiment, therefore the description of front is only preferred, and not restrictive meaning.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of tomography velocity modeling method for calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: deviating to obtain angle domain common image gathers by Gaussian beam, it is poor to pick up remaining time using the trace gather;
Step 2: the expression formula of wave path chromatography kernel function is established using the Born approximation of wave equation;
Step 3: calculating background wave field Green's function using Gaussian beam propagation operator;
Step 4: the expression formula based on the Green's function and the chromatography kernel function calculates the chromatography kernel function;
Step 5: building chromatographs equation as shown in following formula (1):
∫ K Δ sdr=Δ d (1)
In formula (1), right-hand vector Δ d indicates that remaining time is poor, and left end matrix K indicates chromatography kernel function, and left end Δ s is For speed inverse renewal amount to be solved;
Wherein, the expression formula of the chromatography kernel function is indicated by the background wave field Green's function;
Wherein, the expression formula of the chromatography kernel function is stated by following formula (4):
Wherein,Indicate shot point end kernel function,Indicate geophone station end kernel function, ω indicates circular frequency, v0Represent background speed Degree, pSAnd pRIt respectively indicates shot point to set out the slowness vector to set out with geophone station, GSIndicate that shot point sets out to Green's letter of imaging point Number, GRIndicate that geophone station sets out to the Green's function of imaging point, G0Indicate that shot point sets out to the Green's function of geophone station, G0* it represents G0Conjugate function, xsIndicate that the shot point coordinate of generation background wave field, x are expressed as picpointed coordinate, y is indicated from shot point xsTo imaging The spatial point coordinate that the straight line of point x is passed through, Im indicate imaginary part;
Wherein, the background wave field Green's function is stated by following formula (9):
Wherein, x is expressed as picpointed coordinate, and y is indicated from shot point xsThe spatial point coordinate passed through to the straight line of imaging point x, ω are indicated Circular frequency, p indicate Gaussian beam slowness vector, θ indicate Gaussian beam earth's surface initial incidence angle, u (y, x, p, ω) indicate with The Gaussian beam of rectangular coordinate system expressed as parameters, Φ indicate that initial amplitude coefficient, P (s) and Q (s) indicate kinetics ray-tracing Parameter, v (s) indicate the speed of vertical point on central ray, and τ (s) indicates that along central ray when walking, n representation space is a little in The distance of heart ray;
Wherein, the chromatography kernel function is calculated by following formula (11):
Wherein,Indicate shot point end kernel function,Indicate geophone station end kernel function, ω indicates circular frequency, v0Represent background speed Degree, pSAnd pRIt respectively indicates shot point to set out the slowness vector to set out with geophone station, u indicates that Gaussian beam function, u* indicate the conjugation of u Function, xsIndicate that the shot point coordinate of generation background wave field, x are expressed as picpointed coordinate, y is indicated from shot point xsTo the straight line of imaging point x The spatial point coordinate passed through, θ indicate initial incidence angle of the Gaussian beam in earth's surface, Φ0、ΦR、ΦsIt respectively indicates from shot point to inspection Initial amplitude coefficient corresponding to the Perturbation that the Perturbation and shot point that ambient field, the geophone station of wave point set out set out, Im are indicated Imaginary part.
2. the tomography velocity modeling method according to claim 1 for calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, wherein described Initial amplitude coefficient is stated by following formula (10):
Wherein, ωrIt indicates to refer to circular frequency, w0Indicate the original width of Gaussian beam, v (x) indicates the speed of vertical point on central ray Degree.
3. the tomography velocity modeling method according to claim 1 for calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, in which:
Wherein,
Wherein, α indicates the angle of the central ray direction of propagation and z-axis, and z-axis is directed toward vertical downward direction.
4. the tomography velocity modeling method according to claim 3 for calculating wave path using Gaussian beam, wherein utilizing Runge Kutta method carries out numerical solution to the formula (6), and calculates the initial of the formula (6) by following formula (8) Value:
Wherein, ωrIt indicates to refer to circular frequency, w0Indicate the original width of Gaussian beam, vinitialIndicate the speed of earth's surface eye point.
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