CN102841379B - Method for analyzing pre-stack time migration and speed based on common scatter point channel set - Google Patents

Method for analyzing pre-stack time migration and speed based on common scatter point channel set Download PDF

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CN102841379B
CN102841379B CN201210326938.3A CN201210326938A CN102841379B CN 102841379 B CN102841379 B CN 102841379B CN 201210326938 A CN201210326938 A CN 201210326938A CN 102841379 B CN102841379 B CN 102841379B
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scattering point
road collection
point
common
speed
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CN102841379A (en
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张凯
李振春
周卿
贾正虹
岳玉波
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中国石油大学(华东)
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Abstract

The invention provides a method for analyzing pre-stack time migration and speed based on a common scatter point channel set. The method comprises the following steps of: mapping a pre-stack two-dimensional or three-dimensional data according to an equivalent migration distance principle to obtain the common scatter point channel set; performing NMO (Normal Move-Out) correction on the common scatter point channel set to obtain a root-mean-square speed; stacking the corrected channel sets according to scatter points to obtain a pre-stack time migration result; generating the common scatter point channel set for a plurality of scatter points by utilizing an initial speed (such as, conventional stacking speed); obtaining a root-mean-square speed field at larger control point intervals through interactive speed analysis on the basis of the channel sets; regenerating a new common scatter point channel set at a new speed, and then performing interactive speed analysis; and realizing the pre-stack time migration and speed analysis based on the common scatter point channel set by iterating through the two steps and obtaining a high-precision root-mean-square speed field on the basis of obtaining a high-precision pre-stack time migration result.

Description

A kind of pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection
Technical field
The invention belongs to geological data process field, is a kind of prestack time domain migration imaging and velocity analysis method under structural environment under complicated earth surface, intricately that be applicable to.
Background technology
After common midpoint (CMP-Common Middle Point) road collection disposal route occurs, CMP road collection normal moveout correction (NMO-Normal Move-out), level stack, post-stack migration have formed the flow process (Zhang Kai, 2008) of common seismic migration processing.Conventional speeds analytical approach based on CMP road collection is the important step of this treatment scheme, and it provides velocity field for whole treatment scheme.Conventional treatment method hypothesis underground structure is HORIZONTAL LAYERED MEDIUM WITH HIGH ACCURACY, and the T-X curve of answering at this assumed condition XiaCMP road set pair shows as hyperbolic type.Now by conventional velocity analysis, can determine exactly stack velocity (being approximately equal to root-mean-square velocity-Root Mean Square-RMS speed), then by Dix formula, RMS speed is converted into interval velocity.
In conventional velocity analysis, asking for stack velocity spectrum, is to utilize a series of different test speeds to scan, corresponding to each time, obtain the stack power of a series of corresponding different tests speed.Velocity analysis and normal moveout correction complete simultaneously.Every can be straight line hyperbolic curve smoothing, and stack power reaches maximum speed, is exactly the stack velocity that GaiCMP road set pair is answered.
During HORIZONTAL LAYERED MEDIUM WITH HIGH ACCURACY CMP road collection, apart from equation, be: ; half offset distance, it is the intercept time; We use series of experiments speed , calculate .If , T-X curve school is uneven, and it is maximum that stack power can not reach, and now speed is inaccurate.If , T-X curve is leveling, and it is maximum that stack power reaches, and speed is correct.
The factor that affects velocity analysis result is a lot, but for conventional speeds analysis (i.e. the velocity analysis based on hyperbolic-type T-X curve), main influence factor is, the vertical gradient of speed and strong lateral velocity variation, and these two kinds of factors and inclined reflection layer connect together.And inclined reflection layer can cause reflection spot diffusing phenomenon (Ma Tian, 1997) (as shown in Figure 1), and then appear at the concentrated identical reflection spot (horizontal layer hypothesis) that can not find in CMP road.All of these factors taken together all makes the velocity analysis method effect based on hyperbolical T-X curve bad.In addition, when anisotropy situation appears in the larger or underground medium of offset distance, all can cause T-X curve is not hyperbolical.Now, need to time apart from relation, revise (introducing higher order term).In any case lateral speed change is to cause the limited main cause of conventional speeds analytical approach precision.
When pendage, T-X curve equation is due to stratigraphic dip, and lineups no longer meet hyperbolic shape, and this just need to first do dip moveout (DMO-Dip Move-out) and proofread and correct, eliminate the impact of stratigraphic dip, and then do the velocity analysis that is not subject to inclination effect after DMO.But, present normally used DMO method (Hale, 1986; Deregowski, 1986), be all that the result that is transformed into zero-offset is placed on the position of offset midpoint, so CMP road is concentrated, the problem of the reflection spot disperse of oblique layer is unresolved (Yilmaz, 1979,1980) still.DMO Hou CMP road collection does not represent the reflective information of same point, and also just can not expect to reflect T-X curve is strict hyperbolic curve.Migration before stack can solve the disperse problem of reflection spot.
Imaging road collection after pre-stack time migration can improve the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) of collection, and Ji Yu locus, imaging road is corresponding, and the speed that velocity analysis obtains is also just corresponding with locus.After migration before stack, eliminated the impact of diffracted wave on imaging road collection simultaneously.In the laggard line speed of pre-stack time migration, analyze benefit also just apparent.Reasonably velocity field makes the quality of stacked section be further enhanced conversely, and this processing for low signal-to-noise ratio seismic data is very useful.In strong lateral velocity variation area, pre-stack depth migration is the effective means of complex structure imaging.If but reliable rate pattern without comparison, pre-stack depth migration the possibility of result very undesirable (Bednar, 1999).Because pre-stack time migration is higher than the counting yield of pre-stack depth migration, to the dependence of speed relatively a little less than, therefore, no matter to complex structure imaging still concerning velocity analysis, pre-stack time migration all has certain value.
When speed horizontal change is not bery violent, pre-stack time migration can carry out imaging to steep dip reflection, and improves the lateral resolution of imaging; It can eliminate the interference of diffracted wave to velocity analysis.Meanwhile, the inclination deviation during pre-stack time migration can also underspeed and estimate, and the position after the speed of estimation and skew can be mapped (Fowler, 1986,1997; Deregowski, 1990), therefore velocity analysis being postponed till to pre-stack time migration is (Wang Huazhong, 2002) that are of practical significance very much afterwards.
Prestack time migration method (Zhang based on common scattering point road collection, 2006) remain in essence the offset method (Schleicher of Kirchhoff type, 1993), but it is more much higher than the counting yield of conventional Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration, and its most outstanding advantage is to produce the common scattering point road collection that degree of covering is high, offset distance scope is larger, thereby improve the focus level of velocity spectrum and the precision of velocity estimation.This patent is at Bancroft(1996) on the basis of the offset distance concept of equal value that proposes, associating pre-stack time migration isochronous surface (Ma Tian, 1997) and dipping bed NMO equation inference the mapping formula of offset distance of equal value, based on common scattering point road collection, can realize pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to the increasing for China's most of original oil zone seismic prospecting target reservoir intractability, conventional treatment method cannot meet actual production requirement, and underground complicated steep dip formation, profound layer object reflector, complicated reservoirs are the Main Seismic Areas geological problems faced of current China original oil zone seismic prospecting and a kind of pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection is provided.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection, is characterized in that concrete steps are:
1) implementation procedure of the pre-stack time migration based on common scattering point road collection: (1) obtains common scattering point road collection according to offset distance of equal value former reason prestack two dimension or three-dimensional data mapping; (2) common scattering point road collection is carried out to NMO correction, obtain root-mean-square velocity; (3) be that correction Hou road collection is superimposed by scattering point, obtain pre-stack time migration result;
2) implementation procedure of pre-stack time migration velocity analysis: first utilize initial velocity (as conventional stack velocity) to generate the common scattering point road collection of several scattering points.Based on these road collection, by interactive speed, analyze the controlled some root-mean-square velocity field that interval is larger; Then with new speed, regenerate new common scattering point road collection again, then carry out interactive speed analysis;
3) by above two steps, can iteration realize pre-stack time migration and the velocity analysis based on common scattering point road collection, on the basis that obtains high precision pre-stack time migration result, obtain high-precision root-mean-square velocity field.
The construction method of described two-dimentional common scattering point road collection is: theoretical according to kirchhoff (Kirchhoff) integral offset, all energy weighted stacking that come from same scattering point are played to the picture that is used as this scattering point, for speed, be uniform dielectric in, from focus to scattering point return acceptance point seismic event whilst on tour be double square root equation, be expressed as:
????????????????????????(1)
Wherein, for the central point (MP) of shot point and the geophone station lateral separation to scattering point (SP), it is half offset distance between focus acceptance point, the vertical whilst on tour of round trip or the shift time of scattering point corresponding position, in the milder medium of velocity variations, above-mentioned whilst on tour is close like setting up, and speed wherein substitutes with root-mean-square velocity; While considering the NMO of inclination effect, apart from equation, be rewritten as:
?????????????????????????????????????????(2)
Wherein for self excitation and self receiving whilst on tour, for stratigraphic dip.Above formula can be by (NMO) time of the normal-moveout correction after normal-moveout correction be expressed as:
????????????????????????????????(3)
When wherein second equation described dip moveout correction apart from relation.By first equation of equation (3) formula, can be obtained:
,?????????????????????????????????(4)
From the angle of geometric seismology, in uniform dielectric, the reflected signal in a certain moment of seismic trace may be the impulse response equation of pre-stack time migration from take on the ellipse that focus and acceptance point be focus, and its track can be become by following the Representation Equation:
,???????????????????????????????(5)
By (4) formula and (5) Shi Ke get:
,?????????????????????(6)
Define offset distance of equal value , that is: , (7)
While obtaining the scattering point of single square root form by (6) formula apart from relation:
,???????????????????????(8)
From formula (8), can know, concept by means of common offset, the scattared energy relevant with a certain scattering point is hyperbola distribution, apart from relation, earthquake data before superposition can be mapped to a kind of new migration before stack road collection when above-mentioned, be on common scattering point road collection, this conversion process does not change whilst on tour, and each sampling point of pre stack data is repeated to such mapping additive process, has just generated a series of common scattering points road collection.
The construction method of described three-dimensional common scattering point road collection is: for stereo observing system, supposition is independently at different orientations ray whilst on tour, circle on any shot point and circle on any acceptance point shot point to scattering point, to the whilst on tour of acceptance point, be identical again, if shot point to the radial distance of scattering point is with acceptance point to the radial distance of scattering point, be time, three-dimensional kinematics character just can be come by two-dimensional kinematics feature equivalent, now introduces variable with , its expression formula is equation (9) and (10):
??????????????????????????????????(9)
?????????????????????????????????(10)
Apart from relation, equation (7) formula is rewritten becomes (11) formula when new:
????????????????????????????(11)
For three-dimensional data, utilize this formula can carry out the collection mapping of common scattering point road, can obtain three-dimensional common scattering point road collection.
Advantage of the present invention is: be not subject to the restriction of HORIZONTAL LAYERED MEDIUM WITH HIGH ACCURACY hypothesis, can be adapted to accurately image and the velocity analysis of target reservoir under deep layer intricately that breakpoint, fault block grow.Velocity field is more accurate, and pre-stack time migration quality of profile is higher.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Reflection spot dispersion effect diagram in Fig. 1 tilted strata situation.
The cautious floor map of scattering point and big gun in Fig. 2 stereo observing system situation.
The coverage diagram of Ji He CSP road, Fig. 3 two dimension CMP road collection.
Pre-stack time migration and the velocity analysis result of Fig. 4 Two-dimensional Carbon Carbonate Rocks model data based on common scattering point road collection; Fig. 4 (a) is the corresponding CMP road collection in this 2-D data CDP945 position and velocity spectrum; Common scattering point road collection and velocity spectrum that Fig. 4 (b) CDP945 position is corresponding; Fig. 4 (c) is based on CMP road collection conventional stacking section; Stacked section behind the moving school of Fig. 4 (d) common scattering point road collection; Fig. 4 (e) is the root-mean-square velocity field obtaining based on after the collection velocity analysis of common scattering point road.
Exploratory area, Fig. 5 Eastern China three-dimensional real data crossline981 line result; Fig. 5 (a) real data CDP1095 position conventional CMP method velocity spectrum; Fig. 5 (b) CDP1095 position common scattering point road collection and velocity spectrum; Fig. 5 (c) real data conventional stacking result; Fig. 5 (d) common scattering point road collection stack result.
Embodiment
1. the implementation procedure of pre-stack time migration:
Common scattering point road collection time apart from relation, be hyperbolic type,, there is not the concentrated reflection spot disperse problem in CMP road in the substantially corresponding same scattering point of the lineups of each hyperbolic type.Take common scattering point road collection as basis, adopt conventional normal-moveout correction (NMO) and overlap-add procedure just can obtain the picture of this scattering point, the picture of all common scattering points has formed pre-stack time migration result.Thus, the pre-stack time migration based on common scattering point road collection is realized by following three steps: (1) obtains common scattering point road collection according to offset distance of equal value former reason prestack two dimension or three-dimensional data mapping; (2) be that common scattering point road collection is carried out to NMO correction, obtain root-mean-square velocity; (3) be that correction Hou road collection is superimposed by scattering point, obtain pre-stack time migration result.While processing pickup velocity for three-dimensional data, need in two directions (side line direction in length and breadth) to carry out respectively process above, to improve the precision of velocity analysis, this is the difference of 3D processing and 3D processing.
2. the implementation procedure of pre-stack time migration velocity analysis
In actual conventional processing, based on CMP road, collection velocity analysis obtains stacking velocity field by iterative analysis, and in like manner the process of the velocity analysis based on common scattering point road collection may be summarized to be: first utilize initial velocity (as conventional stack velocity) to generate the common scattering point road collection of several scattering points.Based on these road collection, by interactive speed, analyze the controlled some root-mean-square velocity field that interval is larger; Then with new speed, regenerate new common scattering point road collection again, then carry out interactive speed analysis.At the beginning, can select less scattering point (interval, reference mark is larger) to carry out speed and pick up alternately, along with iterations increases, the raising of velocity accuracy, can progressively encrypt the scattering point (interval, reference mark is less) of analysis.So repeatedly iteration, can analyze and obtain more rational root-mean-square velocity field.New velocity field can improve the imaging precision of common scattering point road collection on the one hand, also can be on the other hand pre-stack depth migration reliable initial velocity field is provided.
By above two steps, can iteration realize pre-stack time migration and the velocity analysis based on common scattering point road collection, on the basis that obtains high precision pre-stack time migration result, obtain high-precision root-mean-square velocity field.
Wherein, the method for the structure of two-dimentional common scattering point road collection is:
The theoretical foundation of offset distance concept of equal value is that kirchhoff (Kirchhoff) integral offset is theoretical.This theory thinks that subsurface model can be regarded as by a lot of scattering points and forms, and ground observation signal can be considered the stack of the scattared energy on all arrival earth's surface.The essence of Kirchhoff integration migration before stack is exactly that all energy weighted stacking that come from same scattering point are played to the picture that is used as this scattering point.For speed, be uniform dielectric in, from focus to scattering point return acceptance point seismic event whilst on tour be double square root equation, be expressed as:
????????????????????????(1)
Wherein, for the central point (MP) of shot point and the geophone station lateral separation to scattering point (SP), half offset distance between focus acceptance point, the vertical whilst on tour of round trip or the shift time of scattering point corresponding position.In the milder medium of velocity variations, above-mentioned whilst on tour is close like setting up, and speed is wherein with root-mean-square velocity substitute.
While considering the NMO of inclination effect, apart from equation, be rewritten as:
??????????????????????????????????(2)
Wherein for self excitation and self receiving whilst on tour, for stratigraphic dip.Above formula can be by (NMO) time of the normal-moveout correction after normal-moveout correction be expressed as:
????????????????????????????(3)
When wherein second equation described dip moveout correction apart from relation.By first equation of equation (3) formula, can be obtained:
,???????????????????????????????(4)
From the angle of geometric seismology, in uniform dielectric, the reflected signal in a certain moment of seismic trace may be the impulse response equation of pre-stack time migration from take on the ellipse that focus and acceptance point be focus.Its track can be become by following the Representation Equation:
,???????????????????????????????(5)
By (4) formula and (5) Shi Ke get:
,?????????????????????(6)
Define offset distance of equal value , that is: , (7)
While obtaining the scattering point of single square root form by (6) formula apart from relation:
,???????????????????????(8)
The basic concept of reflection seismology is exactly to think that backscattering is the most basic circulation way of reflection wave, therefore by single square root travel-time equation, can derive the prestack time migration method based on common scattering point (CSP-Common Scattering Point) road collection.Data-mapping closes and ties up to without being simplified for single square root equation by two square roots in the situation of any hypothesis, thereby has simplified calculating.From formula (8), can know, by means of the concept of common offset, the scattared energy relevant with a certain scattering point is hyperbola distribution.Apart from relation, earthquake data before superposition can be mapped to a kind of new migration before stack road collection when above-mentioned,, on common scattering point road collection, this conversion process does not change whilst on tour.Each sampling point of pre stack data is repeated to such mapping additive process, just generated a series of common scattering points road collection.
Pre-stack time migration based on common scattering point road collection and velocity analysis method are formed underground regarding as by scattering point, the common scattering point road collection extracting is corresponding with ground location, be not subject to the restriction of HORIZONTAL LAYERED MEDIUM WITH HIGH ACCURACY hypothesis, can be adapted to accurately image and the velocity analysis of target reservoir under deep layer intricately that breakpoint, fault block grow.
The construction method of three-dimensional common scattering point road collection is:
The structure of high precision common scattering point road collection and the feature of road collection under two-dimensional case are the theoretical foundation of common scattering point road collection mapping.For stereo observing system supposition, at different orientations ray whilst on tour, be independently (shown in Fig. 2), circle on any shot point and circle on any acceptance point shot point to scattering point, to the whilst on tour of acceptance point, be identical again.If shot point to the radial distance of scattering point is with acceptance point to the radial distance of scattering point, be time, three-dimensional kinematics character just can be come equivalent by two-dimensional kinematics feature.Now introduce variable with , its expression formula is equation (9) and (10):
??????????????????????????????????(9)
?????????????????????????????????(10)
Apart from relation, equation (7) formula is rewritten becomes (11) formula when new:
????????????????????????????(11)
For three-dimensional data, utilize this formula can carry out the collection mapping of common scattering point road, can obtain three-dimensional common scattering point road collection.Common scattering point road collection is with the obvious advantage, therefore uses so the root-mean-square velocity velocity field that method acquires is more accurate, and pre-stack time migration quality of profile is higher.
Offset distance theory of equal value be take scattering theory as basis, during the common scattering point road collection that obtains, apart from relation, is hyperbolic type.With conventional CMP(Common Middle Point-CMP) road collection compares, and common scattering point road collection has certain advantage.
(1) common scattering point road collection is described be subsurface scattering point time apart from relation, the substantially corresponding same scattering point of the lineups of each hyperbolic type, road collection is not affected by stratigraphic dip, does not have the concentrated reflection spot disperse problem in CMP road.
(2) the common scattering point road that a certain scattering point is corresponding integrates and can be obtained by the corresponding CMP of all central points road collection mapping in migration aperture (radius is as the semicircle of R).YuCMP road collection is compared, and the offset distance scope of common scattering point road collection is large (can cover whole migration aperture) more.Offset distance of equal value interval and scope be can be artificially given, can obtain the data that BiCMP road collection offset distance scope is large and track pitch is little, the energy that large offseting distance data are conducive to velocity spectrum focuses on, and the speed that analysis is obtained and scattering point are mapped.
(3) in the mapping process of common scattering point road collection, there is the process of data stack, can realize the automatic interpolation of data, improve the anti-alias effect of data.Therefore, the pre-stack time migration based on common scattering point road collection and velocity analysis method go for irregular and data sparse sampling.

Claims (3)

1. pre-stack time migration and the velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection, is characterized in that concrete steps are:
1) implementation procedure of the pre-stack time migration based on common scattering point road collection: (1) obtains common scattering point road collection according to offset distance of equal value former reason prestack two dimension or three-dimensional data mapping; (2) common scattering point road collection is carried out to NMO correction, obtain root-mean-square velocity; (3) be that correction Hou road collection is superimposed by scattering point, obtain pre-stack time migration result; 2) implementation procedure of pre-stack time migration velocity analysis: first utilize initial velocity to generate the common scattering point road collection of several scattering points; Based on these road collection, by interactive speed, analyze the controlled some root-mean-square velocity field that interval is larger; Then with new speed, regenerate new common scattering point road collection again, then carry out interactive speed analysis; 3) by above two steps, can iteration realize pre-stack time migration and the velocity analysis based on common scattering point road collection, on the basis that obtains high precision pre-stack time migration result, obtain high-precision root-mean-square velocity field; The construction method of two dimension common scattering point road collection is: theoretical according to kirchhoff (Kirchhoff) integral offset, all energy weighted stacking that come from same scattering point are played to the picture that is used as this scattering point, for speed, be uniform dielectric in, from focus to scattering point return acceptance point seismic event whilst on tour be double square root equation, be expressed as:
????????????????????????(1)
Wherein, for the central point (MP) of shot point and the geophone station lateral separation to scattering point (SP), half offset distance between focus acceptance point, be the vertical whilst on tour of round trip or the shift time of scattering point corresponding position, in the milder medium of velocity variations, above-mentioned whilst on tour is close like setting up, and speed is wherein with root-mean-square velocity substitute; While considering the NMO of inclination effect, apart from equation, be rewritten as:
?????????????????????????????????????????(2)
Wherein for self excitation and self receiving whilst on tour, for stratigraphic dip;
Above formula can be by (NMO) time of the normal-moveout correction after normal-moveout correction be expressed as:
????????????????????????????????(3)
When wherein second equation described dip moveout correction apart from relation;
?by first equation of equation (3) formula, can be obtained:
,?????????????????????????????????(4)
From the angle of geometric seismology, in uniform dielectric, the reflected signal in a certain moment of seismic trace may be the impulse response equation of pre-stack time migration from take on the ellipse that focus and acceptance point be focus, and its track can be become by following the Representation Equation:
,???????????????????????????????(5)
By (4) formula and (5) Shi Ke get:
,?????????????????????(6)
Define offset distance of equal value , that is: , (7)
While obtaining the scattering point of single square root form by (6) formula apart from relation:
,???????????????????????(8)
From formula (8), can know, concept by means of common offset, the scattared energy relevant with a certain scattering point is hyperbola distribution, apart from relation, earthquake data before superposition can be mapped to a kind of new migration before stack road collection when above-mentioned, be on common scattering point road collection, this conversion process does not change whilst on tour, and each sampling point of pre stack data is repeated to such mapping additive process, has just generated a series of common scattering points road collection.
2. a kind of pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection according to claim 1, the construction method that it is characterized in that three-dimensional common scattering point road collection is: for stereo observing system, supposition is independently at different orientations ray whilst on tour, circle on any shot point and circle on any acceptance point shot point to scattering point, to the whilst on tour of acceptance point, be identical again, if shot point to the radial distance of scattering point is with acceptance point to the radial distance of scattering point, be time, three-dimensional kinematics character just can be come by two-dimensional kinematics feature equivalent, now introduces variable with , its expression formula is equation (9) and (10):
??????????????????????????????????(9)
?????????????????????????????????(10)
Apart from relation, equation (7) formula is rewritten becomes (11) formula when new:
????????????????????????????(11)
For three-dimensional data, utilize this formula can carry out the collection mapping of common scattering point road, can obtain three-dimensional common scattering point road collection.
3. a kind of pre-stack time migration and velocity analysis method based on common scattering point road collection according to claim 1, is characterized in that: initial velocity is conventional stacking speed.
CN201210326938.3A 2012-09-06 2012-09-06 Method for analyzing pre-stack time migration and speed based on common scatter point channel set CN102841379B (en)

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许卓等.基于等效偏移距的偏移成像方法.《吉林大学学报(地球科学版)》.2007, *

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