CN104932021A - Constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing - Google Patents

Constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104932021A
CN104932021A CN201410100436.8A CN201410100436A CN104932021A CN 104932021 A CN104932021 A CN 104932021A CN 201410100436 A CN201410100436 A CN 201410100436A CN 104932021 A CN104932021 A CN 104932021A
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ray tracing
velocity
angle
modeling
common image
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芮拥军
滕厚华
张凯
单联瑜
王延光
尚新民
冮明川
苗永康
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China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
Geophysical Research Institute of Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Co
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China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
Geophysical Research Institute of Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Co
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Abstract

The invention provides a constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing. The constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing comprises the steps of: extracting angle domain common image gathers; automatically fitting the residual curvature of the extracted angle gathers, and calculating a travel time residual by means of a conversion relationship between the travel time residual and a depth residual; by means of a reverse ray tracing method, recording a ray arc length, and calculating a sensitivity matrix; calculating a slow degree disturbance and updating a speed model; and stacking the front depth migration and the extracted angle domain common image gathers, iterating the steps until all controlled layers are updated. The constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing realizes high migration speed analysis efficiency and high precision in waveform inversion. On condition that a waveform inversion technique cannot be applied in practice, tomography speed inversion has certain advantages and theoretical advantages as a speed updating method.

Description

Based on the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method of Inverse ray tracing
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of geophysical exploration, particularly relate to a kind of constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing.
Background technology
Tomography is applied to medical science the earliest, and early 1980s is introduced into applied geophysics field, and how main research utilizes seismic event, electromagnetic wave or other data to earth internal imaging, has entered practical stage since the nineties in 20th century.
The theoretical foundation of tomography is Radon conversion, i.e. u (ρ, θ)=∫ lf (x, y) ds.From the angle of interior of articles image reconstruction, the image of an object slice is two space variable x, and the function of y, is called image function, is designated as f (x, y); With incident wave " irradiation " object of different directions, the wave field information observed is at least the function of incident wave direction θ and observation station position ρ Two Variables, is called projection function, is designated as u (ρ, θ).Within 1917, Radon proves, the projection function u (ρ, θ) of known all incidence angle θs, can Recovery image function f (x, y) uniquely.From the meaning of chromatography, the character such as such as slowness exception, decay of model can add up by the seismic signal (at least can be approximate like this in high frequency limit) propagated along reflection paths, when multiple tracks reflection paths is propagated through this model from many directions, the information being enough to reconstruct this model just can be provided.
For geophysics medium velocity chromatography conversion method, projection function is generally (or disturbance quantity when walking) when walking, slowness (or slowness the is abnormal) distribution of picture function normally underground medium.Therefore, Tomography Velocity inverting mainly solves a system of linear equations: L Δ s=Δ t
Wherein, L is the matrix of m × n dimension, element l ijthe physical meaning of representative is the ray length of i-th ray in a jth grid, providing, being commonly referred to sensitivity kernel function (or sensitivity matrix) by just drilling; Δ s is a n × 1 dimension group, and the physical meaning of representative is the slowness value (slowness changing value) in each grid; Δ t is a m × 1 dimension group, and the physical meaning of representative is the whilst on tour of ray (travel-time difference); What dimension m represented is the sum of ray, and n is the lattice number of rate pattern.
Speed is the important parameter of migration imaging and geologic interpretation.In recent years due to the widespread use of prestack depth domain imaging, the Method and Technology setting up rate pattern from geological data is developed rapidly and is applied.Different from the acquiring method of sensitivity kernel function according to the wave field characteristics utilized, chromatography conversion method can be respectively the tomographic inversion modeling based on ray, the limited frequency chromatography based on wave theory.In ray tomography, whilst on tour is obtained by focus-detection field test, then follows the trail of with the reflection of given background velocity field the whilst on tour obtained and compares.According to Fermat principle, the relation between whilst on tour disturbance and velocity disturbance is linear, carries out the velocity field that back projection just obtains renewal along reflection paths to whilst on tour disturbance.Wave theory chromatography postpones to realize by scattered wave field being replaced whilst on tour.Wave field is also obtained by focus-detection field test, and the wave field obtained with given background velocity field forward simulation contrasts, then by the velocity field wave field disturbance back projection of measurement being obtained in the medium of propagation path renewal.From this view point, both implementation procedures are unified.Difference is, wave equation be utilize the approximate or Rytov of Born approximate carry out linearizing.Ray tomography method implementation procedure is relatively simple, and precision is relatively high, uses comparatively extensive in application.
Because ray tomography principle is simple, the data volume of utilization is little (only using whilst on tour information), and the nonlinear degree of inverse problem is relatively weak, forward modelling and inverting solve relatively stable, and counting yield is high, more weak to the dependence of initial model, therefore, ray tomography is most widely used.But, ray tomography is by the restriction of its theory, can only through the finite part of object, high to the susceptibility of limited perspective, usual requirement change of velocity of wave in the scope of a wavelength is very little, the yardstick of heterogeneous body with seismic event appearance than much larger, and requiring that dielectric model is level and smooth, these all limit its range of application.For the relative merits of ray tomography, we have invented a kind of constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing newly, solve above technical matters.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of take into account migration velocity analysis efficiency and the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing of precision of waveform inversion.
Object of the present invention realizes by following technical measures: based on the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method of Inverse ray tracing, should comprise: step 1, and extracted angle domain common image gathers based on the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method of Inverse ray tracing; Step 2, automatic Fitting pickup angle gathers residue curvature, utilizes the transformational relation of whilst on tour residual sum degree of depth residual error to ask for whilst on tour residual error; Step 3, utilizes Inverse ray tracing method, and recording ray arc length, asks for sensitivity matrix; Step 4, asks for slowness disturbance by LSQR method, renewal speed model; And step 5, pre-stack depth migration and extraction angle domain common image gathers, iteration carries out above-mentioned steps, until all key-courses complete renewal.
Object of the present invention also realizes by following technical measures:
In step 1, the rate pattern obtained by general velocity analysis, as initial velocity model, uses the skew of relief surface Gaussian beam carry out migration imaging and extract angle domain common image gathers.
In step 2, on the basis of conventional automatic pick method, utilize the relational expression of ADCIGs road collection residue curvature and angle, residue curvature corresponding to each angle is picked up in matching.
In step 3, migrated section picks up interface, layer position, set up ray tracing and just drilling required reference velocity model, then utilize antidromic illumination ray-tracing scheme to ask for sensitivity matrix.
In step 3, every bar directions of rays of ray tracing is corresponding with the shooting angle of angle domain common image gathers, carries out Inverse ray tracing using the imaging point at interface as the starting point of ray, makes it to match with observation data by adjustment shooting angle.
In step 4, by whilst on tour residual error, sensitivity matrix, set up the inversion equation group adding regularization factors; Utilize LSQR method solving equation group and renewal speed model.
In step 4, utilize Boundary Using Sonic Logging control refutation process and retrain, amendment inversion equation, with log data sound wave curve constraint velocity inversion result, refutation process iteration is carried out, and finally obtains the tomographic inversion method for solving under borehole restraint.
In steps of 5, the rate pattern that renewal obtains is for pre-stack depth migration and extract angle domain common image gathers, whether even up according to angle domain common image gathers and accuracy requirement to speed, judge whether also to need iteration again, if also do not evened up, then repeat step 1 to step 5, until meet accuracy requirement, otherwise carry out the velocity inversion of lower one deck, successively analyze from top to bottom, until all layer analysis are complete.
The constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing in the present invention, belong to the Tomography Velocity Inverse modeling method in seismic data process, the method is a kind of velocity inversion method between wave equation migration velocity analysis and waveform inversion, it has taken into account the efficiency of migration velocity analysis and the precision of waveform inversion, when waveform inversion technology also cannot practical, it is advanced that Tomography Velocity inverting has certain advantage and theory as speed update method.Under study for action, the present invention adopts typical exploratory area model, will carry out precision analysis and compare, with the accuracy of verification method and applicability Tomography Velocity inversion method with waveform inversion method.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of a specific embodiment of the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of sand-conglomerate body model initial velocity field in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of sand-conglomerate body model initial offset result in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of initial angle territory common imaging gather in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 5 is antidromic illumination raypath figure in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram of the velocity field in one embodiment of the invention after the modeling of sand-conglomerate body model modification;
Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of migration result after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades;
Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of the angle domain common image gathers after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades;
Fig. 9 is the schematic diagram of the correct velocity field of sand-conglomerate body model in one embodiment of the invention;
Figure 10 is rate curve comparison diagram before and after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades.
Embodiment
For making above and other object of the present invention, feature and advantage can become apparent, cited below particularly go out preferred embodiment, and coordinate institute's accompanying drawings, be described in detail below.
As shown in Figure 1, Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing of the present invention.
In step 101, extract angle domain common image gathers.The rate pattern obtained by general velocity analysis, as initial velocity model (as Fig. 2), uses the skew of relief surface Gaussian beam carry out migration imaging (as Fig. 3) and extract angle domain common image gathers (as Fig. 4).Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of sand-conglomerate body model initial velocity field in one embodiment of the invention; Obtain the stacking velocity field of time domain based on CMP road collection, then utilize DIX formula to be converted to the interval velocity field of Depth Domain, set up initial velocity field.Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of sand-conglomerate body model initial offset result in one embodiment of the invention; Because initial velocity is inaccurate, the construction location of relative complex is inaccurate, imaging precision is poor, there is the phenomenons such as obvious diffraction interference.Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of initial angle territory common imaging gather in one embodiment of the invention; When speed is inaccurate, the rally of imaging road shows certain curvature, upwards or curved downwards.Angle gathers presents and significantly upwarps trend as shown in the figure, illustrates that initial velocity is less than normal.Flow process enters into step 102.
In step 102, automatic Fitting pickup angle gathers residue curvature, utilizes the transformational relation of whilst on tour residual sum degree of depth residual error to ask for whilst on tour residual error.The angle domain common image gathers pickup residue depth difference extracted, asks for whilst on tour residual error in the relation of degree of depth surplus and whilst on tour residual error.
The present invention is on the basis of conventional automatic pick method, and utilize the relational expression of ADCIGs road collection residue curvature and angle, residue curvature corresponding to each angle is picked up in matching.Different from the automatic pick method of routine, the method by the impact of capacitor gap, can not obtain the residue curvature of accurate ADCIGs road collection.
The calculated amount calculating whilst on tour residual error due to traditional chromatography velocity inversion is large, efficiency and precision comparison low, and the whilst on tour residual error in the residue curvature information of angle domain common image gathers and Tomography Velocity inversion equation group has and directly contacts, the present invention is by the whilst on tour residual error in the residue curvature information calculating computed tomography velocity inversion system of equations of angle domain common image gathers.Flow process enters into step 103.
In step 103, utilize Inverse ray tracing method, recording ray arc length, asks for sensitivity matrix.Migrated section picks up interface, layer position, sets up ray tracing and just drilling required reference velocity model, then utilize antidromic illumination ray-tracing scheme to ask for sensitivity matrix.Based on the Tomography Velocity inverting of angle domain common image gathers, the acquisition of its travel-time difference is no longer dependent on ray tracing and is just drilling and provide whilst on tour information, but only need obtain sensitivity matrix.Every bar directions of rays of ray tracing must be corresponding with the shooting angle of angle domain common image gathers, carries out Inverse ray tracing using the imaging point at interface as the starting point of ray, makes it to match with observation data by adjustment shooting angle.Fig. 5 is antidromic illumination raypath figure in one embodiment of the invention, threw model arrive ground acceptance point from imaging point excitation ray.All imaging point excitation ray records obtain ray arc length and are recorded in sensitivity matrix.Flow process enters into step 104.
In step 104, ask for slowness disturbance by LSQR method, renewal speed model.By whilst on tour residual error, sensitivity matrix, set up the inversion equation group adding regularization factors; Utilize LSQR method solving equation group and renewal speed model.Consider the Very Ill-conditioned of chromatography equation, the present invention adopts LSQR method to solve chromatography system of equations.In order to improve the stability of tomographic inversion, add the regularization of first order derivative type.Meanwhile, Boundary Using Sonic Logging is utilized to control refutation process and retrain, amendment inversion equation, with log data sound wave curve constraint velocity inversion result.Refutation process iteration is carried out, and finally obtains the tomographic inversion method for solving under borehole restraint.Flow process enters into step 105.
In step 105, pre-stack depth migration and extraction angle domain common image gathers; Iteration carries out said process, until all key-courses complete renewal.Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram of the velocity field in one embodiment of the invention after the modeling of sand-conglomerate body model modification; As can be seen from the figure the layer position after upgrading is more clear, and it is more accurate that structure is portrayed.The rate pattern that renewal obtains is for pre-stack depth migration (as Fig. 7) and extract angle domain common image gathers.Whether even up according to angle domain common image gathers and accuracy requirement to speed, judge whether also to need again iteration (as Fig. 8).If also do not evened up, then repeat flow process above, until meet accuracy requirement; Otherwise carry out the velocity inversion of lower one deck.Successively analyze from top to bottom, until all layer analysis are complete.Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of migration result after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades; Visible to utilize Tomography Velocity field to carry out offseting the result obtained more clear, and underground structure is recovered well.Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of the angle domain common image gathers after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades; The lineups of the angle domain common image gathers in figure are all well evened up, and velocity analysis is complete, and the precision of inversion speed field is higher.Flow process terminates.
Fig. 9 is the schematic diagram of the correct velocity field of sand-conglomerate body model in one embodiment of the invention; Figure 10 is rate curve comparison diagram before and after one embodiment of the invention medium velocity upgrades.Can find that Tomography Velocity and true velocity are substantially identical by contrast, velocity error, in the scope that systematic error allows, proves validity and the accuracy of the method.
The constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing in the present invention, based on Inverse ray tracing method, theoretical based on tomographic inversion, finally setting up a migration velocity field is pre-stack depth migration service.The method is the ray tomography velocity modeling method based on Angle Domain Common Image Gather, based on Inverse ray tracing, ask for sensitivity matrix, extracts whilst on tour residual error from the residue curvature of imaging road collection.Simultaneously in order to improve the precision of inverting, when inversion equation is set up, logging speed is added regularization matrix, to reduce the multi-solution of inverting.

Claims (8)

1. based on the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method of Inverse ray tracing, it is characterized in that, should comprise based on the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method of Inverse ray tracing:
Step 1, extracts angle domain common image gathers;
Step 2, automatic Fitting pickup angle gathers residue curvature, utilizes the transformational relation of whilst on tour residual sum degree of depth residual error to ask for whilst on tour residual error;
Step 3, utilizes Inverse ray tracing method, and recording ray arc length, asks for sensitivity matrix;
Step 4, asks for slowness disturbance by LSQR method, renewal speed model; And
Step 5, pre-stack depth migration and extraction angle domain common image gathers, iteration carries out above-mentioned steps, until all key-courses complete renewal.
2. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 1, the rate pattern obtained by general velocity analysis, as initial velocity model, uses the skew of relief surface Gaussian beam carry out migration imaging and extract angle domain common image gathers.
3. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 2, on the basis of conventional automatic pick method, utilize the relational expression of ADCIGs road collection residue curvature and angle, residue curvature corresponding to each angle is picked up in matching.
4. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 3, migrated section picks up interface, layer position, set up ray tracing and just drilling required reference velocity model, then utilize antidromic illumination ray-tracing scheme to ask for sensitivity matrix.
5. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, in step 3, every bar directions of rays of ray tracing is corresponding with the shooting angle of angle domain common image gathers, carry out Inverse ray tracing using the imaging point at interface as the starting point of ray, make it to match with observation data by adjustment shooting angle.
6. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 4, by whilst on tour residual error, sensitivity matrix, sets up the inversion equation group adding regularization factors; Utilize LSQR method solving equation group and renewal speed model.
7. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 6, it is characterized in that, in step 4, Boundary Using Sonic Logging is utilized to control refutation process and retrain, amendment inversion equation, with log data sound wave curve constraint velocity inversion result, refutation process iteration is carried out, and finally obtains the tomographic inversion method for solving under borehole restraint.
8. the constraint chromatography velocity modeling method based on Inverse ray tracing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in steps of 5, the rate pattern that renewal obtains is for pre-stack depth migration and extract angle domain common image gathers, whether even up according to angle domain common image gathers and accuracy requirement to speed, judge whether also to need iteration again, if also do not evened up, then repeat step 1 to step 5, until meet accuracy requirement, otherwise carry out the velocity inversion of lower one deck, successively analyze from top to bottom, until all layer analysis are complete.
CN201410100436.8A 2014-03-18 2014-03-18 Constrained tomography speed modeling method based on reverse ray tracing Pending CN104932021A (en)

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