CN107297407B - Die-pressing quenching composite forming method for aluminum alloy plate and integrated device thereof - Google Patents

Die-pressing quenching composite forming method for aluminum alloy plate and integrated device thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107297407B
CN107297407B CN201710291517.4A CN201710291517A CN107297407B CN 107297407 B CN107297407 B CN 107297407B CN 201710291517 A CN201710291517 A CN 201710291517A CN 107297407 B CN107297407 B CN 107297407B
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aluminum alloy
die
blank holder
forming
alloy plate
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CN107297407A (en
Inventor
陈世超
赖思旸
顾瑞瑩
刘奇
王武荣
韦习成
鞠晓峰
徐祥和
孙代豫
顾泽宇
毛鑫
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Beijing Transpacific Technology Development Ltd
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Beijing Transpacific Technology Development Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/02Stamping using rigid devices or tools
    • B21D22/022Stamping using rigid devices or tools by heating the blank or stamping associated with heat treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D37/00Tools as parts of machines covered by this subclass
    • B21D37/10Die sets; Pillar guides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D37/00Tools as parts of machines covered by this subclass
    • B21D37/16Heating or cooling
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/62Quenching devices
    • C21D1/673Quenching devices for die quenching
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/002Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working by rapid cooling or quenching; cooling agents used therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon

Abstract

The invention discloses a die-pressing quenching composite forming method of an aluminum alloy plate and an integrated device thereof, the process of the invention heats a flat plate type blank holder and cools a female die and a male die; then carrying out solution heat treatment on the aluminum alloy plate in a heating furnace; conveying the aluminum alloy plate with good solid solution and heat preservation from the heating furnace to a blank holder for centering placement, and ensuring that the plate is still in a high-temperature state before forming; then, carrying out die assembly to finish the cooling and quenching process of the aluminum alloy part in a die assembly state, and ensuring that the shape of the part is not changed in the quenching process; and opening the die, synchronously releasing the aluminum alloy part and the blank holder from the male die, taking out the formed part, quickly moving the formed part into an aluminum alloy plate with good solid solution and heat preservation according to the beat, and finally performing strengthening treatment on the aluminum alloy part to obtain the final aluminum alloy part. The method for carrying out die pressing quenching forming on the aluminum alloy plate by adopting the inverted concave-convex die and the compound die is suitable for preparing the aluminum alloy plate part capable of being subjected to heat treatment.

Description

Die-pressing quenching composite forming method for aluminum alloy plate and integrated device thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to a metal material pressure processing technology and a device thereof, in particular to a hot forming method and a device thereof for metal material cold die quenching, which are applied to the technical field of plate forming and continuous forming.
Background
In order to meet the energy crisis and meet the rapid development requirements in the automobile field, the advanced manufacturing technology of parts, such as light weight, becomes the focus of attention in the manufacturing and processing field. One way of light weight is to optimize the design by using a brand new design concept, simplify the structure, reduce the weight and achieve the purpose of light structure; another effective approach is to use lightweight materials with low specific gravity, such as high-strength steel, aluminum-magnesium alloy, and carbon fiber, which are widely used in the automobile manufacturing industry. Compared with the traditional steel, the aluminum alloy has the density of steel 1/3 and high specific strength, and can easily realize the weight reduction of an automobile by more than 35% by replacing the steel. At present, 6000 series and 7000 series aluminum alloy materials are mainly applied to automobiles, and the strengthening phase of 6000 series alloy is mainly Mg2Si, so that the automobile alloy has excellent corrosion resistance, higher strength and plasticity and good comprehensive mechanical property. The 7000 series aluminum alloy has zinc as main alloy element, and can obtain higher strength, better corrosion resistance and good welding performance through a proper heat treatment process, but has lower plasticity.
Both 6000 series and 7000 series wrought aluminum alloys can be improved in strength by the solution + aging T6 heat treatment method. For the aluminum alloy parts, stamping forming is usually adopted at normal temperature, and then T6 solid solution and time-effect heat treatment are carried out on the taken parts. However, this method of cold forming has two problems: firstly, the poor normal temperature formability of the aluminum alloy plate can cause the fracture defect of a formed part with a complex shape during cold forming, so that the forming efficiency is low; secondly, in the process of taking out the part after the part is formed and carrying out solid solution and aging T6 treatment, the part needs solid solution heating and quenching cooling, and the size precision of the part is poor because the part is easy to deform and rebound under the action of thermal stress.
In recent years, a hot forming method aiming at cold die quenching of aluminum alloy plate parts is developed, and the used male die and female die are both in a cold state. The preheated sheet is quickly placed between the male and female dies and the forming is completed in a short time. In the part forming process, cooling water is introduced into a cooling channel of the concave-convex die to realize the cooling of the die, and then the die pressing cooling reaches the critical quenching cooling speed of the plate. The temperature of the hot plate is reduced too fast after the hot plate is contacted with the cold concave-convex die, so that the temperature of the plate during forming is lower than the required hot forming temperature, and the temperature distribution on the plate is very uneven, thereby causing the defects of local wrinkling, cracking and the like of a formed part. Therefore, the hot forming method is still difficult to be used for forming aluminum alloy plates, especially for structural members/inner plate covering members with complicated shapes.
In addition, in the prior chinese patent "cold and hot compound die forming method for aluminum alloy sheet metal part" with patent reference No. 201210124230, a hot forming method for aluminum alloy sheet is disclosed, in which a male die and a blank holder are used in a cooling state, and a female die is used in a heating state. The method comprises the steps of firstly heating a female die, then placing an aluminum alloy plate on the female die for heating, carrying out die assembly molding after heating to a deformation temperature, and then rapidly separating the die, and then leaving the part on a blank holder and a male die to finish cooling and quenching. The method ensures that the forming can be carried out at higher temperature, and is beneficial to forming parts with complex shapes. However, the following problems are involved in molding: firstly, the method requires that the formed aluminum alloy part is quickly separated from the female die along with the male die and the blank holder and is left on the blank holder and the male die to finish cooling and quenching, and the part is in a free non-die-closing state because the part is separated from the male die and the female die in the quenching process, so that the problem of part rebound caused by quenching stress cannot be solved, the matching precision of the part after quenching is low, and the reject ratio is obviously increased. Secondly, the method needs to place the plate on a female die and heat the plate to the forming temperature, and the plate and the die occupy most of time in the whole forming process, so that the forming efficiency is low, and the method is not suitable for industrial continuous production; meanwhile, the female die for ensuring the key appearance precision of the part is heated to more than 500 ℃ required by solid solution, so that the precision of the die is seriously reduced, the precision of the molded surface is seriously reduced, and the precision of the part is further reduced.
In summary, the existing thermal forming method for the aluminum alloy plate has low forming efficiency, is easy to cause technical problems of local wrinkling, cracking, resilience and the like, and cannot meet the requirement of large-scale industrial production of the aluminum alloy plate.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems in the prior art, the invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provide the die pressing, quenching and composite forming method and the integrated device thereof for the aluminum alloy plate.
In order to achieve the purpose of the invention, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a die-pressing quenching composite forming method for an aluminum alloy plate comprises the following steps:
a. initializing the working state of the forming die: installing a flip-chip forming die on a hydraulic machine, enabling a male die to be arranged below a female die, enabling the male die fixed on a base to be in a static state all the time in the whole forming process, providing an ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the base of the hydraulic machine, ejecting a flat blank holder to a position higher than the highest point of the male die to serve as a working initial position of the flat blank holder, enabling the female die to be fixed on a middle beam of the hydraulic machine and be in a die opening position, and enabling the forming die to be in an initialization state;
b. heating the flat plate type blank holder reaching the initial working position in the step a to 500-600 ℃ to enable the flat plate type blank holder to be in a high-temperature thermal state;
c. b, introducing cooling water with the temperature of 10-25 ℃ into a preset cooling channel of the female die and the male die to enable the female die and the male die initialized in the step a to be in a low-temperature cold state;
d. setting a heating process in the previous process of forming the forming die in the step a, carrying out heating treatment on an aluminum alloy plate to be formed by using a heating furnace, carrying out solution heat treatment on the aluminum alloy plate in the heating furnace to 500-600 ℃, and keeping the solution heat for 30-60 minutes;
e. when the forming die is used for forming, the aluminum alloy plate which is subjected to solid solution and heat preservation in the step d is quickly taken out of the heating furnace according to the first-in first-out principle, and is conveyed to the flat plate type blank holder which is in the high-temperature thermal state in the step a, and the positioning pins are used for assisting the aluminum alloy plate to be placed in a centering manner, so that the aluminum alloy plate is still in the high-temperature state before being formed, and the plate is still in the high-temperature state before being formed;
f. b, rapidly descending the female die initialized in the step a at a speed of 50-100 mm per second, enabling the female die to be matched with the flat plate type blank holder, then synchronously pressing down the female die and the flat plate type blank holder until the female die and the male die are completely matched, carrying out compression molding on the aluminum alloy plate to obtain an aluminum alloy formed part, keeping matching for 5-10 seconds under the matching pressure, completing the cooling and quenching process of the aluminum alloy formed part in the matching state, and ensuring that the shape of the aluminum alloy formed part is not changed in the quenching process;
g. after the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step f is cooled and quenched, moving the female die upwards to recover to a die opening position, providing an ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in a press base to eject the flat blank holder to an initial position higher than the highest point of the male die, and enabling the formed aluminum alloy formed part and the flat blank holder to be synchronously separated from the male die, so that the aluminum alloy formed part is taken out; then quickly moving the next aluminum alloy plate which is subjected to the solution heat preservation treatment in the step d according to the beat, and continuously repeating the steps e to g to obtain a subsequently prepared aluminum alloy formed part, thereby continuously carrying out the die-pressing quenching composite forming process of the aluminum alloy plates;
h. and g, carrying out low-temperature artificial aging strengthening or natural aging strengthening on the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step g at the temperature of 100-200 ℃ to finally obtain the aluminum alloy part.
As the preferable technical scheme of the invention, cooling water is introduced into the cooling channels of the female die and the male die, and the temperature of the female die and the male die is adjusted by adjusting the flow rate of the cooling water according to different quenching critical cooling speeds of different series of aluminum alloys.
The invention provides an aluminum alloy heat treatment and hot forming integrated device, which comprises a heating furnace and a hot forming device, wherein the heating furnace and the hot forming device are sequentially connected by processes to form front and rear process equipment;
the hot forming device is composed of a reverse forming die driven by a hydraulic press and mainly comprises a female die, a male die, a flat blank holder, a hydraulic press base and a hydraulic force transmission rod, wherein the female die is fixedly arranged on a middle beam of the hydraulic press, a high-temperature hot aluminum alloy plate obtained after solution heat treatment of a heating furnace is conveyed to the flat blank holder through a conveying device for positioning and fixing, the female die is driven by hydraulic pressure to carry out downward die assembly and upward die assembly to carry out pressure forming processing on the aluminum alloy plate, the male die is arranged below the female die, the male die is fixedly arranged on the hydraulic press base to enable the male die to be in a static state all the time in the whole forming process, the force transmission end of the hydraulic force transmission rod provides ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the hydraulic press base, the flat blank holder can be ejected to a position higher than the highest point of the flat blank holder, the outer edge boss of the female die and the flat plate type blank holder can form a clamping mechanism to clamp and fix two ends of an aluminum alloy plate, a heating device is arranged to heat the flat plate type blank holder through the heating device and control and adjust the hot temperature of the flat plate type blank holder, a cooling system is further arranged to cool the female die and the male die through the cooling system and control and adjust the cold temperature of the female die and the male die, and the aluminum alloy plate is cooled during mold closing pressure forming processing so that the aluminum alloy plate can reach the quenching critical cooling speed.
According to a further preferable technical scheme of the scheme, when the high-temperature thermal-state aluminum alloy plate obtained after the solution heat treatment of the heating furnace is conveyed to the flat plate blank holder through the conveying device, the positioning pins are used for assisting the aluminum alloy plate to be placed in a centering mode, the positioning pins are arranged on the flat plate blank holder, and two ends of the aluminum alloy plate are respectively positioned and fixed on the flat plate blank holder through the positioning pins, so that the positioning process is completed.
As a further preferable technical solution of the above scheme, the heating device of the flat-plate blank holder adopts heating rods, a series of heating rods are distributed in the flat-plate blank holder, and the temperature of the heating rods is controlled by an external heating device.
As a further preferable technical solution of the above scheme, the cooling systems of the female die and the male die both adopt cooling water channel devices, the cooling water channels are distributed in the female die and the male die, and the temperature of the female die and the temperature of the male die are adjusted by controlling and adjusting the flow rate of cooling water in the cooling water channel devices.
As a further preferable technical scheme of the scheme, the heating furnace is a continuous roller furnace, the conveying device is integrated into the heating furnace, the aluminum alloy plate is subjected to solution heat treatment in the continuous roller furnace, and after the solution heat treatment is completed, the obtained high-temperature hot aluminum alloy plate is directly conveyed to the flat-plate blank holder through the roller conveying device.
As a further preferable technical solution of the above scheme, the hydraulic device for driving the hydraulic dowel bar adopts a single-acting hydraulic press, the hydraulic dowel bar is driven to jack, and when the female die moves downward to perform die assembly, the female die further transmits thrust to the hydraulic dowel bar through the flat blank holder, so that the hydraulic dowel bar retracts.
As a further preferable technical solution of the above, the hydraulic dowel bar can also be lowered and retracted by its own weight.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following obvious and prominent substantive characteristics and remarkable advantages:
1. the invention adopts an inverted forming die, a female die is arranged on the upper part, a male die and a blank holder are arranged on the lower part, and the die pressing quenching thermal forming of the aluminum alloy part is carried out by a composite die which is heated by a heating rod inserted into the blank holder and a control loop, and the female die and the male die are in a cold state by introducing cooling water;
2. according to the invention, the plate subjected to solution heat treatment is quickly conveyed to the preheated blank holder from the heating furnace, so that the time required for heating the plate on the mold to achieve solution and heat preservation is avoided, and the assembly line operation is adopted, thereby greatly shortening the forming time and improving the production efficiency;
3. after the plate is conveyed by the conveying device of the device, the plate is contacted with the hot blank holder, so that the rapid cooling of the aluminum material with extremely high thermal conductivity when the aluminum material is contacted with the cold die can be avoided, the forming can be carried out at high temperature, and the forming of parts with complex shapes is facilitated;
4. when the device cools and quenches the formed part, the plate is in the die assembly constraint of the male die and the female die, so that the plate can be prevented from deforming and rebounding in the cooling process, and a part with extremely good dimensional precision is obtained;
5. the process only needs to heat the flat-plate blank holder with smaller size, and the flange edge of the part at the blank holder part is usually cut off before subsequent flanging, so that the precision of the key molded surface in the cavity of the part die cannot be influenced even if slight thermal deformation or insufficient quenching speed exists;
6. the method for carrying out die pressing quenching forming on the aluminum alloy plate by adopting the inverted concave-convex die and the cold-hot composite die is suitable for preparing the aluminum alloy plate part capable of being subjected to heat treatment, and can meet the requirement of industrial large-scale automatic production.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of the structural state of an apparatus before mold clamping in an integrated device for heat treatment and thermal forming of aluminum alloy in an embodiment of the invention, when performing press quenching composite forming on an aluminum alloy plate.
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an apparatus for conveying an aluminum alloy sheet and centering the sheet by a conveying device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of the structural state of the equipment after mold assembly when the integrated device for heat treatment and thermoforming of aluminum alloy performs press quenching composite forming on an aluminum alloy plate according to the embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic view showing the structure of the main apparatus for press molding and quenching in an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The preferred embodiments of the invention are detailed below:
the first embodiment is as follows:
in this embodiment, referring to fig. 1 to 4, an aluminum alloy heat treatment and hot forming integrated device includes a heating furnace 4 and a hot forming device, which are sequentially connected to form a front-process and a rear-process device, wherein the heating furnace 4 can perform solution heat treatment on an aluminum alloy plate 1 before forming;
the thermal forming device is composed of a hydraulic press driven inverted forming die, and mainly comprises a female die 6, a male die 3, a flat blank holder 2, a hydraulic press base 10 and a hydraulic transmission rod 9, wherein the female die 6 is fixedly arranged on a middle beam of the hydraulic press, a high-temperature thermal aluminum alloy plate 1 obtained after solution heat treatment by a heating furnace 4 is conveyed to the flat blank holder 2 through a conveying device for positioning and fixing, the female die 6 is driven by hydraulic pressure to carry out downward die assembly and upward die assembly, the aluminum alloy plate 1 is subjected to pressure forming processing, the male die 3 is arranged below the female die 6, the male die 3 is fixedly arranged on the hydraulic press base 10, so that the male die 3 is always in a static state in the whole forming process, the force transmission end of the hydraulic transmission rod 9 provides ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the hydraulic press base 10, the flat blank holder 2 can be ejected, and the flat blank holder 2 can be ejected to the position higher, as an initialization position of the flat blank holder 2 before the die-closing pressure forming processing, an outer edge boss of the female die 6 and the flat blank holder 2 can form a clamping mechanism to clamp and fix two ends of the aluminum alloy plate 1, the heating device 8 is arranged to heat the flat blank holder 2 through the heating device 8 and control and adjust the thermal state temperature of the flat blank holder 2, the cooling system 7 is further arranged to cool the female die 6 and the male die 3 through the cooling system 7 and control and adjust the cold state temperature of the female die 6 and the male die 3, and the aluminum alloy plate 1 is cooled during the die-closing pressure forming processing, so that the aluminum alloy plate 1 can reach the quenching critical cooling speed.
In this embodiment, referring to fig. 1 and 2, when the high-temperature thermal aluminum alloy plate 1 obtained after the solution heat treatment in the heating furnace 4 is transferred to the flat blank holder 2 by the transfer device, the positioning pins 5 are used to assist the aluminum alloy plate 1 to be centered, the two positioning pins 5 are disposed on the flat blank holder 2, the two ends of the aluminum alloy plate 1 are respectively positioned and fixed on the flat blank holder 2 by the positioning pins 5, and the aluminum alloy plate 1 is mounted between the two positioning pins 5, thereby completing the positioning process. In the embodiment, the aluminum alloy plate 1 subjected to the solution heat treatment is quickly conveyed to the preheated flat plate type blank holder 2 from the heating furnace 4, so that the time for heating the aluminum alloy plate 1 on the mold to achieve solution heat treatment and heat preservation is avoided, the assembly line operation is adopted, the forming time is greatly shortened, and the production efficiency is improved.
In the embodiment, referring to fig. 1 to 4, the heating device 8 of the flat blank holder 2 is a heating rod, a series of heating rods are distributed in the flat blank holder 2, and the temperature of the heating rods is controlled by an external heating device.
The heating method of the flat-plate blank holder 2 is to heat the built-in heating rod, so that the heat preservation effect of the aluminum alloy plate 1 after being transferred onto the flat-plate blank holder 2 is realized, and the influence of the rapid temperature reduction on the formability of the aluminum alloy plate 1 is avoided. The cooling systems 7 of the female die 6 and the male die 3 both adopt cooling water channel devices, the cooling water channels are distributed in the female die 6 and the male die 3, the temperature of the female die 6 and the temperature of the male die 3 are adjusted by controlling and adjusting the flow rate of cooling water in the cooling water channel devices, and the quenching treatment effect on the aluminum alloy plate 1 is achieved during hot forming.
In the embodiment, referring to fig. 1 to 4, the heating furnace 4 is a continuous roller furnace, the conveying device is integrated into the heating furnace 4, the aluminum alloy sheet 1 is subjected to solution heat treatment in the continuous roller furnace, and after the solution heat treatment is completed, the obtained high-temperature thermal aluminum alloy sheet 1 is directly conveyed to the flat blank holder 2 through the roller conveying device.
In this embodiment, referring to fig. 1 to 4, a hydraulic device for driving the hydraulic dowel bar 9 is a single-acting hydraulic machine, the hydraulic dowel bar 9 is driven to be pushed forward, and when the female die 6 moves downward for mold closing, the female die 6 further transmits thrust to the hydraulic dowel bar 9 through the flat blank holder 2, so that the hydraulic dowel bar 9 retracts.
In this embodiment, referring to fig. 1 to 4, the method for performing the press quenching composite forming of the aluminum alloy plate by using the integrated apparatus for heat treatment and thermal forming of the aluminum alloy of this embodiment includes the following steps:
a. initializing the working state of the forming die: installing a flip-chip forming die on a hydraulic machine, enabling the male die 3 to be arranged below the female die 6, enabling the male die 3 fixed on a hydraulic machine base 10 to be in a static state all the time in the whole forming process, providing an ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the hydraulic machine base 10, ejecting the flat blank holder 2 to a position higher than the highest point of the male die 3 to serve as a working initial position of the flat blank holder 2, enabling the female die 3 to be fixed on a middle beam of the hydraulic machine and to be in a die opening position, and enabling the forming die to be in an initialization state; FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a multifunctional high-speed hydraulic press with a built-in heating furnace 4 used in a method for carrying out die-pressing quenching composite forming on an aluminum alloy plate 1 before die assembly;
b. heating the flat plate type blank holder 2 reaching the initial working position in the step a to 600 ℃ to enable the flat plate type blank holder 2 to be in a high-temperature thermal state;
c. b, introducing cooling water with the temperature of 10 ℃ into preset cooling channels of the female die 6 and the male die 3 to enable the female die 6 and the male die 3 initialized in the step a to be in a low-temperature cold state;
d. setting a heating process in the previous process of forming the forming die in the step a, carrying out heating treatment on the aluminum alloy plate 1 to be formed by using a heating furnace 4, carrying out solution heat treatment on the aluminum alloy plate 1 in the heating furnace to 500 ℃, keeping the solution heat for 60 minutes, and keeping the temperature as required;
e. when the forming die is used for forming, the aluminum alloy plate 1 subjected to solid solution and heat preservation in the step d is quickly taken out of the heating furnace 4 according to the first-in first-out principle, and is conveyed to the flat plate type blank holder 2 which is in the high-temperature hot state in the step a, the positioning pin 5 is used for assisting the aluminum alloy plate 1 to be placed in a centering way, the aluminum alloy plate 1 is maintained to be in the high-temperature state before forming, and the aluminum alloy plate 1 is ensured to be in the high-temperature state before forming; after the aluminum alloy plate 1 is conveyed, the aluminum alloy plate 1 is contacted with the hot flat plate type blank holder 2, so that the rapid cooling of the aluminum alloy plate 1 with extremely high thermal conductivity when being contacted with a cold die can be avoided, the forming can be carried out at high temperature, and the subsequent forming of parts with complex shapes is facilitated;
f. the female die 6 initialized in the step a rapidly descends at a speed of 100 millimeters per second, so that the female die 6 is firstly matched with the flat plate type blank holder 2, then the female die 6 and the flat plate type blank holder 2 are synchronously pressed down until the female die 6 and the male die 3 are completely matched, the aluminum alloy plate 1 is subjected to compression molding to obtain an aluminum alloy formed part, the die is kept matched for 10 seconds under the matched pressure, the cooling and quenching process of the aluminum alloy formed part in the matched state is completed, and the shape of the aluminum alloy formed part is ensured not to change in the quenching process; FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the aluminum alloy plate 1 after being matched with a multifunctional high-speed hydraulic press with a built-in heating furnace 4 used in the die-pressing quenching composite forming method; during cooling quenching, the aluminum alloy formed part is in a die assembly constraint of the female die 6 and the male die 3, so that the aluminum alloy formed part can be prevented from deforming and rebounding in the cooling process, and a part with extremely good dimensional precision can be obtained through subsequent processes;
g. after the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step f is cooled and quenched, the female die 6 is moved upwards to be restored to the die opening position, the flat-plate blank holder 2 is ejected to the initial position higher than the highest point of the male die 3 by using the blank holder ejecting force provided by the hydraulic pad in the hydraulic machine base 10, so that the formed aluminum alloy formed part and the flat-plate blank holder 2 are synchronously separated from the male die 3, and the aluminum alloy formed part is taken out; then quickly moving the next aluminum alloy plate 1 which is subjected to the solution heat preservation treatment in the step d according to the beat, and continuously repeating the steps e to g to obtain a subsequently prepared aluminum alloy formed part, thereby continuously carrying out the die pressing quenching composite forming process of the aluminum alloy plates;
h. and g, carrying out low-temperature artificial aging strengthening on the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step g at the temperature of 200 ℃ to finally obtain the aluminum alloy part. After the forming, when the temperature of the aluminum alloy part is lower than 50 ℃, the defects of wrinkling, cracking, springback and the like are not generated, and the shape and the size are stable. In the embodiment, only the plate type blank holder 2 with a smaller size needs to be heated, and the flange of the part, located at the plate type blank holder 2, of the aluminum alloy part prepared in the embodiment is cut off before subsequent flanging, so that the accuracy of a key profile in a part die cavity cannot be influenced even if slight thermal deformation exists or the quenching speed is insufficient, an aluminum alloy part product with excellent quality can be obtained, and the requirement of industrial large-batch automatic production can be met.
In this embodiment, cooling water is passed through the cooling passages of the die 6 and the punch 3, and the temperature of the die 6 and the punch 3 is adjusted by adjusting the flow rate of the cooling water according to the critical cooling rate for quenching of the aluminum alloy of this embodiment.
The embodiment adopts an integrated process of aluminum alloy heat treatment and hot forming. The heat treatment process comprises the following steps: carrying out solution treatment and hot forming on the aluminum alloy plate, and simultaneously carrying out quenching treatment and aging treatment on the aluminum alloy plate. The embodiment solves the problem of low forming efficiency of the heat treatment and hot forming integrated process of the existing aluminum alloy plate 1, and solves the technical problems that a pressure forming aluminum alloy part is easy to cause local wrinkling, cracking, rebounding and the like. In the embodiment, the method for carrying out die pressing quenching forming on the aluminum alloy plate by adopting the inverted concave-convex die and the compound die is suitable for preparing the aluminum alloy plate part capable of being subjected to heat treatment.
Example two:
this embodiment is substantially the same as the first embodiment, and is characterized in that:
the hydraulic dowel bar 9 can also descend and retreat by means of the self weight. The single-acting hydraulic oil cylinder of the device carries out unidirectional stress work, the hydraulic dowel bar 9 serving as the plunger returns by the weight of the hydraulic dowel bar, the working stability of a hydraulic system can be guaranteed, the occurrence of hard interference of the dowel system is reduced, the fault rate of the hydraulic system is reduced, the service life of equipment is prolonged, and the stability of the die-pressing and quenching composite forming process of the aluminum alloy plate is better guaranteed.
The embodiments of the present invention have been described with reference to the accompanying drawings, but the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and various changes can be made according to the purpose of the invention, and any changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations or simplifications made according to the spirit and principle of the technical solution of the present invention shall be equivalent substitutions, as long as the invention is consistent with the purpose of the present invention, and the invention shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention as long as the technical principle and inventive concept of the press-quenching composite forming method for aluminum alloy plate and the integrated device thereof of the present invention are not departed.

Claims (9)

1. The die pressing quenching composite forming method of the aluminum alloy plate is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
a. initializing the working state of the forming die: installing a flip-chip forming die on a hydraulic machine, enabling a male die to be arranged below a female die, enabling the male die fixed on a base to be in a static state all the time in the whole forming process, providing an ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the base of the hydraulic machine, ejecting a flat blank holder to a position higher than the highest point of the male die to serve as a working initial position of the flat blank holder, enabling the female die to be fixed on a middle beam of the hydraulic machine and be in a die opening position, and enabling the forming die to be in an initialization state;
b. heating the flat plate type blank holder reaching the initial working position in the step a to 500-600 ℃ to enable the flat plate type blank holder to be in a high-temperature thermal state;
c. b, introducing cooling water with the temperature of 10-25 ℃ into a preset cooling channel of the female die and the male die, so that the female die and the male die initialized in the step a are in a low-temperature cold state;
d. setting a heating process in the previous process of forming the forming die in the step a, carrying out heating treatment on an aluminum alloy plate to be formed by using a heating furnace, carrying out solution heat treatment on the aluminum alloy plate in the heating furnace to 500-600 ℃, and keeping the solution heat for 30-60 minutes;
e. when the forming die is used for forming, rapidly taking the aluminum alloy plate which is subjected to solid solution and heat preservation in the step d out of the heating furnace according to a first-in first-out principle, conveying the aluminum alloy plate to the flat plate type blank holder which is in the high-temperature thermal state in the step b, and using the positioning pins to assist the aluminum alloy plate to be placed in a centering manner so as to maintain the aluminum alloy plate to be still in the high-temperature state before forming; after the aluminum alloy plate is conveyed, the aluminum alloy plate is contacted with the hot flat plate type blank holder;
f. the female die initialized in the step a rapidly descends at a speed of 50-100 mm per second, so that the female die is firstly matched with the flat plate type blank holder, then the female die and the flat plate type blank holder are synchronously pressed down until the female die and the male die are completely matched, an aluminum alloy plate is subjected to compression molding to obtain an aluminum alloy formed part, the matching of the die is kept for 5-10 seconds under the matching pressure, and the cooling and quenching process of the aluminum alloy formed part in the matching state is completed; during cooling quenching, the aluminum alloy formed part is in a die assembly constraint of the female die and the male die, so that the aluminum alloy formed part is prevented from deforming and rebounding in the cooling process;
g. after the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step f is cooled and quenched, moving the female die upwards to recover to a die opening position, providing an ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in a press base to eject the flat blank holder to an initial position higher than the highest point of the male die, and enabling the formed aluminum alloy formed part and the flat blank holder to be synchronously separated from the male die so as to take out the aluminum alloy formed part; then quickly moving the next aluminum alloy plate which is subjected to the solution heat preservation treatment in the step d according to the beat, and continuously repeating the steps e to g to obtain a subsequently prepared aluminum alloy formed part, thereby continuously carrying out the die pressing quenching composite forming process of the aluminum alloy plates;
h. carrying out low-temperature artificial aging strengthening or natural aging strengthening on the aluminum alloy formed part prepared in the step g at the temperature of 100-200 ℃ to finally obtain an aluminum alloy part; and cutting off the flange of the prepared aluminum alloy part at the flat plate type blank holder part before subsequent flanging, thereby obtaining an aluminum alloy part product.
2. The die-pressing quenching composite forming method of the aluminum alloy plate as claimed in claim 1, wherein: cooling water is introduced into the cooling channels of the female die and the male die, and the temperature of the female die and the male die is adjusted by adjusting the flow rate of the cooling water according to different quenching critical cooling speeds of different series of aluminum alloys.
3. The utility model provides an aluminum alloy heat treatment and thermoforming integrated device, includes heating furnace (4) and thermoforming device, carries out process connection in proper order and forms front and back process equipment, its characterized in that: the heating furnace (4) can carry out solution heat treatment on the aluminum alloy plate (1) before forming;
the hot forming device is composed of a hydraulic press driven inverted forming die and mainly comprises a female die (6), a male die (3), a flat blank holder (2), a hydraulic press base (10) and a hydraulic dowel bar (9), wherein the female die (6) is fixedly arranged on a middle beam of the hydraulic press, a high-temperature hot aluminum alloy plate (1) obtained after solution heat treatment of the heating furnace (4) is conveyed to the flat blank holder (2) through a conveying device for positioning and fixing, the female die (6) is driven by hydraulic pressure to carry out downward die assembly and upward die assembly to carry out pressure forming processing on the aluminum alloy plate (1), the male die (3) is arranged below the female die (6), the male die (3) is fixedly arranged on the hydraulic press base (10) to enable the male die (3) to be in a static state all the time in the whole forming process, the force transmission end of the hydraulic force transmission rod (9) provides ejection blank holder force through a hydraulic cushion in the hydraulic machine base (10), the flat blank holder (2) can be ejected out, the flat blank holder (2) can be ejected to a position higher than the highest point of the male die (3) and used as an initialization position of the flat blank holder (2) before mold clamping pressure forming processing, an outer edge boss of the female die (6) and the flat blank holder (2) can form a clamping mechanism to clamp and fix two ends of an aluminum alloy plate (1), a heating device (8) is arranged, the flat blank holder (2) is heated through the heating device (8), the thermal state temperature of the flat blank holder (2) is controlled and adjusted, a cooling system (7) is further arranged, and the female die (6) and the male die (3) are cooled through the cooling system (7), and controlling and adjusting the cold temperature of the female die (6) and the male die (3), and cooling the aluminum alloy plate (1) during die-clamping pressure forming processing to enable the aluminum alloy plate (1) to reach the quenching critical cooling speed.
4. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3, wherein: when the high-temperature thermal-state aluminum alloy plate (1) obtained after the solution heat treatment of the heating furnace (4) is quickly conveyed to the flat plate type blank holder (2) through the conveying device, the positioning pin (5) is used for assisting the aluminum alloy plate (1) to be placed in a centering mode, the positioning pin (5) is arranged on the flat plate type blank holder (2), two ends of the aluminum alloy plate (1) are respectively positioned and fixed on the flat plate type blank holder (2) through the positioning pin (5), and the positioning process is completed.
5. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3 or 4, wherein: the heating device (8) of the flat plate type blank holder (2) adopts heating rods, a series of heating rods are distributed in the flat plate type blank holder (2), and the temperature of the heating rods is controlled by an external heating device.
6. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3 or 4, wherein: and a cooling system (7) of the female die (6) and the male die (3) adopts a cooling water channel device, cooling water channels are distributed in the female die (6) and the male die (3), and the temperature of the female die (6) and the male die (3) is adjusted by controlling and adjusting the flow rate of cooling water in the cooling water channel device.
7. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3 or 4, wherein: the heating furnace (4) adopts a continuous roller furnace, the conveying device is integrated into the heating furnace (4), the aluminum alloy plate (1) is subjected to solution heat treatment in the continuous roller furnace, and after the solution heat treatment is completed, the obtained high-temperature thermal aluminum alloy plate (1) is directly conveyed to the flat plate type blank holder (2) through the roller conveying device.
8. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3 or 4, wherein: and a hydraulic device for driving the hydraulic dowel bar (9) adopts a single-acting hydraulic machine to jack and drive the hydraulic dowel bar (9), and when the female die (6) moves downwards to carry out die assembly, the female die (6) also transmits thrust to the hydraulic dowel bar (9) through the flat blank holder (2) so as to enable the hydraulic dowel bar (9) to retreat.
9. The integrated apparatus for heat treatment and hot forming of aluminum alloy according to claim 3 or 4, wherein: the hydraulic dowel bar (9) can also descend and retreat depending on the weight of the hydraulic dowel bar.
CN201710291517.4A 2017-04-28 2017-04-28 Die-pressing quenching composite forming method for aluminum alloy plate and integrated device thereof Active CN107297407B (en)

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CN108555140A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-09-21 昆山邦泰汽车零部件制造有限公司 Stablize the hot stamping die of fixed product
CN108213221A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-06-29 昆山邦泰汽车零部件制造有限公司 Drop stamping equipment
CN108160820B (en) * 2017-12-22 2019-07-26 福建祥鑫股份有限公司 A kind of nose wind cap aluminium alloy compression-moulding methods
CN109226401B (en) * 2018-02-07 2020-12-08 蔚来(安徽)控股有限公司 Forming method of aluminum alloy sheet part
CN108817192A (en) * 2018-04-25 2018-11-16 南京航空航天大学 A kind of cooling electric pulse heat forming technology of aluminum alloy synchronous and device
CN109570343B (en) * 2018-11-16 2020-07-28 苏州普热斯勒先进成型技术有限公司 High-strength steel automobile covering part assembly and manufacturing method and device thereof
CN110076246B (en) * 2019-04-25 2020-11-20 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Heat-treatable strengthened aluminum alloy efficient hot forming equipment and method
CN110143034A (en) * 2019-05-06 2019-08-20 武汉理工大学 A kind of fiber-Al alloy composite part shaping techniques
CN110252841B (en) * 2019-07-06 2020-08-04 佛山市欧朗德建材有限公司 Forming method of aluminum alloy plate
CN110252899A (en) * 2019-07-25 2019-09-20 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of titanium alloy thin wall component quickly heats cold mould hot plate manufacturing process
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CN102974675A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-03-20 哈尔滨工业大学 Heat forming method for aluminum alloy sheet metal part after solid solution and water quenching
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