CN106954823B - Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN106954823B
CN106954823B CN201710214453.8A CN201710214453A CN106954823B CN 106954823 B CN106954823 B CN 106954823B CN 201710214453 A CN201710214453 A CN 201710214453A CN 106954823 B CN106954823 B CN 106954823B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
temperature
stages
control time
keeping
slowly
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CN201710214453.8A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN106954823A (en
Inventor
魏连会
刘宇峰
董艳
孙兴荣
姬妍茹
宋淑敏
杨庆丽
高媛
姜颖
石杰
张正海
王月明
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences Daqing Branch
Original Assignee
Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences Daqing Branch
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences Daqing Branch filed Critical Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences Daqing Branch
Priority to CN201710214453.8A priority Critical patent/CN106954823B/en
Publication of CN106954823A publication Critical patent/CN106954823A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN106954823B publication Critical patent/CN106954823B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23VINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO FOODS, FOODSTUFFS OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
    • A23V2002/00Food compositions, function of food ingredients or processes for food or foodstuffs

Abstract

A black water chestnut and a preparation method thereof belong to the technical field of food processing. In the black water chestnut prepared by the invention, the content of the nutrient components of each 100g of black water chestnut is as follows: 445-455 KJ of energy, 2.0-2.4 g of protein, 0.3-0.4 g of fat, 21.3-24.7 g of carbohydrate, 11.5-13.3 g of reducing sugar in terms of glucose, 10.3-12.7 g of total sugar in terms of sucrose, 11.65-13.76 mg of total polyphenol, 722-750 mg of melanoidin, 12-17 mg of sodium, 15.4-17.7 mg of iron, 8-10 mg of calcium, 25-27 mg of phosphorus, 70.6-74.1 g of water and 1.6-2 g of ash. The product of the invention is not added with any food additive in the processing process, is sour, sweet and delicious, has pleasant color and luster, and is a healthy food with multiple health care effects of oxidation resistance, tumor resistance, bacteria resistance and the like.

Description

Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of food processing; in particular to black water chestnut and a preparation method thereof.
Background
The water chestnut, commonly known as water chestnut, also known as Chinese chestnut and black tea, is a medicinal and edible food material, has tender meat quality, is delicious and sweet in juice, is crisp and tasty, has the reputation of underground snow pears, and is regarded as ginseng in south China in the north. The water chestnut contains various nutrient substances such as moisture, carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fiber, mineral substances and the like. The traditional Chinese medicine considers that: the water chestnut is cold in nature and sweet in taste, and has the health-care effects of clearing heat, eliminating phlegm, promoting the production of body fluid, stimulating appetite, improving eyesight, clearing away voice, helping digestion, dispelling the effects of alcohol and the like. The method is mainly distributed in areas such as Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi and Shandong, is an important vegetable planting variety in the south of China and has rich resources.
The water chestnut is rich in nutrition, and the fresh corm contains protein, carbohydrate, fat, crude fiber, ash, phosphorus, calcium, iron, and a small amount of carotene and vitamin C. The phosphorus contained in the water chestnuts is higher in rhizome vegetables, can promote the growth and development of a human body and maintain the requirements of physiological functions, has great benefits on the development of tooth bones, can promote the metabolism of three substances of sugar, fat and protein in the body, and regulates the acid-base balance, so that the water chestnuts are suitable for children to eat. The water chestnut is rich in functional active factors such as polyphenols, flavonoids, sterols, polysaccharides and the like, so that the water chestnut has various health-care functions of antioxidation, antibiosis, immunoregulation, tumor resistance and the like.
Water chestnut is a good current food, generally fresh food is taken as the main food, but the water content is high, the storage is very difficult, the shelf life of the product is limited, and the benign development of the water chestnut planting industry is seriously influenced. Therefore, the method is particularly important for the fine and further processing of the water chestnut products. However, at present, the processed products of the water chestnuts mainly comprise primary processed products such as water chestnut pickled vegetables, water chestnut cans, water chestnut beverages, water chestnut sugared preserved fruits and the like, the added value of the products is low, the economic benefit is poor, and the processing enterprises lack enthusiasm. Meanwhile, the primary product is processed by adding more food additives, is rich in chemical components such as high sugar, high salt, preservatives and the like, and is not beneficial to the health of human bodies after being eaten for a long time. Meanwhile, the health-care functional components of the water chestnuts are often destroyed by a general primary processing technology, so that the product popularization is difficult, the market share is low, the income increase of farmers is difficult, and the subsequent development of the water chestnut industry chain is seriously influenced, so that the development of novel water chestnut deep-processing products with multiple health-care functions and the innovation technology are urgent.
With the improvement of science and technology and the improvement of the living standard of people, people pay more attention to diet nutrition, and tend to green, natural, pollution-free and additive-free foods with health care efficacy. The black water chestnut is a product which meets the concept and the requirement. The health care tea is prepared by aging by adopting a variable temperature fermentation technology, no food additive is added, while the original nutrient components are kept, the polyphenols are obviously increased, and the functional components, namely the melanoidin, are newly added, so that the health care effects of oxidation resistance, tumor resistance, bacteria resistance and the like of the product are greatly improved. Solves the problems that fresh water chestnuts are difficult to store and store, the processing mode of the primary processed product is single, the added value of the product is low, the health care function is poor and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide black water chestnut and a preparation method thereof. The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the black water chestnut contains the following nutrient components in each 100g of black water chestnut: 445-455 KJ of energy, 2.0-2.4 g of protein, 0.3-0.4 g of fat, 21.3-24.7 g of carbohydrate, 11.5-13.3 g of reducing sugar in terms of glucose, 10.3-12.7 g of total sugar in terms of sucrose, 11.65-13.76 mg of total polyphenol and 722-750 mg of melanoidin.
The mineral content of the black water chestnut of the invention per 100g is as follows: 12-17 mg of sodium, 15.4-17.7 mg of iron, 8-10 mg of calcium and 25-27 mg of phosphorus.
The other contents of the black water chestnut per 100g are as follows: 70.6-74.1 g of water and 1.6-2 g of ash.
The preparation method of the black water chestnut comprises the following steps:
step 1, raw material selection: selecting fresh water chestnuts without damage of diseases and insect pests as raw materials;
step 2, raw material cleaning: washing the water chestnuts selected in the step 1 with clear water, and draining water on the surfaces of the water chestnuts for later use after the water chestnuts are washed;
step 3, bagging and sealing: putting the water chestnuts for standby in the step 2 into a high-temperature-resistant food-grade plastic bag, sealing, putting into a closed fermentation container, and preparing for fermentation and ripening;
and 4, fermenting and ripening: setting fermentation temperature to perform a variable-temperature fermentation process, wherein the variable-temperature fermentation process is set to be divided into 15 stages, and the specific temperature parameters of each stage are as follows:
a first stage: slowly raising the temperature from 20-25 ℃ to 63-65 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 hours;
two stages: slowly raising the temperature from 63-65 ℃ to 103-107 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 103-107 ℃ to 80-85 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.3-0.5 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 80-85 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 12 hours;
and a fifth stage: slowly reducing the temperature from 80-85 ℃ to 76-79 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature constant at 76-79 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 24 hours;
seven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 76-79 ℃ to 73-76 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.03-0.07 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 73-76 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 72 hours;
nine stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 73-76 ℃ to 68-72 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature constant at 68-72 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
eleven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 68-72 ℃ to 63-66 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature constant at 63-66 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 63-66 ℃ to 60-63 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.02-0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature constant at 60-63 ℃ for 72 h;
fifteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 60-63 ℃ to 38-42 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.15 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 h;
and 5, low-temperature drying: taking the black water chestnuts fermented and matured in the step (4) out of the sealed fermentation container, opening the sealed plastic package, pouring the black water chestnuts into a food-grade stainless steel plate, putting the food-grade stainless steel plate into a forced air drying oven, heating and drying to remove the surface moisture of the product, wherein the drying temperature is set to be 38-42 ℃, and the drying time is set to be 48 hours;
step 6, low-temperature after-ripening: and (5) transferring the dried black water chestnuts in the step (5) into a refrigerator at 0-10 ℃, after-ripening for 1-15 days at a low temperature, and then vacuumizing and packaging to obtain the finished black water chestnuts.
The novel process for producing the black water chestnuts adopts an accurate temperature change process and a long-term stable constant-temperature fermentation method, reduces energy loss, reasonably regulates and controls key temperature points and time of fermentation, promotes formation of flavor substances in the black water chestnuts, and accumulates more secondary metabolites. The steps of the invention
The second stage of the invention: slowly raising the temperature from 63-65 ℃ to 103-107 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h; aims to initiate Maillard reaction and heat sterilization, and prevent putrefying bacteria from propagating in large quantity in the subsequent reaction process to influence the product quality.
The fourth stage of the invention: the temperature is kept constant at 83 ℃, the temperature control time is 12 hours, the aim is to continuously carry out the Maillard chain reaction, reasonably control the reaction temperature and time and control the generation of harmful components such as corresponding byproducts of the Maillard reaction.
The sixth stage of the invention: the temperature is kept constant at 78 ℃ for 24h, so that the aim of generating a large amount of the antioxidant total polyphenol of the water chestnuts is fulfilled.
The eighth stage of the invention: the temperature is kept constant at 75 ℃ for 72h, so as to generate reducing sugar which endows the water chestnut with special sweet taste.
The tenth stage of the invention: keeping the temperature at 70 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48h, so as to generate the chufa polysaccharide with the functions of removing free radicals, inhibiting bacteria and keeping fresh.
The twelfth stage of the invention: keeping the temperature at 65 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48h to generate the special sour taste and flavor substances of the water chestnuts so as to achieve the proper sour and sweet taste of the mature water chestnuts.
The fourteenth stage of the present invention: the temperature is kept constant at 63 ℃ for 72h, so that a large amount of functional active factors such as melanoidin in the black water chestnut can be generated.
The fifteenth stage of the present invention: the temperature is finally stabilized at 40 ℃, and the temperature control time is 4h, so that a large amount of functional active ingredients and flavor substances in the black water chestnut are enriched, and the comprehensive health care effect of the product is enhanced.
The processing process of the black water chestnut product does not add any food additive, the product is sour, sweet and delicious, and has pleasant color and luster, so that the edible safety, the proper mouthfeel and the proper appearance of the black water chestnut are ensured.
Compared with the water chestnuts, the content of reducing sugar and polyphenol of the black water chestnuts is obviously increased, and the functional active ingredient melanoidin is newly added, so that the health-care effect of the water chestnuts is greatly improved, and the black water chestnuts are health-care food with multiple effects of oxidation resistance, tumor resistance, bacteria resistance and the like, and can meet the requirements of food for resisting aging, preventing diseases and improving human immunity.
The components of each 100g of fresh water chestnut are determined as follows: the beverage contains 275KJ of energy, 1.3g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 14.2g of carbohydrate, 9mg of sodium, 83.0g of water, 1.2g of ash, 6.8g of reducing sugar in terms of glucose, 6.6g of total sugar in terms of sucrose, 21mg of phosphorus, 11.5mg of iron, calcium content below a detection line and 1.95mg of total polyphenol. Compared with raw water chestnuts, the content of protein, fat, sodium, iron, phosphorus and ash of the black water chestnuts is slightly increased and does not change obviously, but the content of reducing sugar is increased by one time, so that the taste of the black water chestnuts is sweeter, particularly the total polyphenol is increased by 6 times, and more importantly, the melanoidin health-care effect factor of 722-750 mg/100g is increased.
The Maillard reaction of the water chestnuts in the fermentation process controls the reaction through a temperature-changing program, effectively controls the generation of harmful substance acrylamide which is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction, generates dark brown melanoidin, endows the black water chestnuts with proper color and flavor, and generates more nutrient substances.
The novel added component melanoidin of the black water chestnut has multiple health effects of resisting oxidation, resisting hypertension, resisting bacteria, inhibiting metal protease, preventing decayed teeth, resisting inflammation and the like.
The preparation method of the black water chestnuts expands the technical means of water chestnut processing, develops a novel food with health care effect, and greatly improves the additional value of the water chestnuts.
Detailed Description
The first embodiment is as follows:
the black water chestnut contains the following nutrient components in each 100g of black water chestnut: energy 452KJ, protein 2.2g, fat 0.4g, carbohydrate 23.5g, reducing sugar 12.3g calculated by glucose, total sugar 11.7g calculated by sucrose, total polyphenol 12.76mg, melanoidin 740 mg.
The mineral content of the black water chestnut according to the embodiment is as follows per 100g of the black water chestnut: 15mg of sodium, 16.7mg of iron, 9mg of calcium and 27mg of phosphorus.
In the black water chestnut according to the embodiment, every 100g of the black water chestnut contains the following other components: water content 72.1g, ash content 1.8 g.
By using the black water chestnuts in the embodiment, the antioxidation effect of the black water chestnuts on the SPF-grade KM mouse is tested by observing the blood index in the animal body. The experimental mode is that 30 KM mice with the weight of 18g-22g are selected, the experiment is randomly divided into three groups according to the weight of the mice, wherein the group 1 is a blank control group, the group 2 is a crude water chestnut extract test group, the group 3 is a crude water chestnut extract test group, the number of the mice in each group is 10, and the mice are male and female. Each group of mice was fed for 30 days in the experimental setting. The preparation method of the crude water chestnut extract comprises the steps of cutting 1kg of water chestnuts into small blocks of about 0.3-1.0 mm, adding 5L of distilled water, boiling with strong fire, decocting with slow fire for 4 hours, filtering to obtain 4.9L of water chestnut extract, concentrating the water chestnuts by using a rotary evaporator to obtain 0.5L of water chestnut concentrate, and sterilizing by using a high-pressure steam method for later use. The crude extract of raw water chestnut is prepared according to the same method. The normal saline is used for intragastric administration in group 1 every day, the crude water chestnut extract is used for intragastric administration in group 2, and the crude water chestnut extract is used for intragastric administration in group 3. The amount of each intragastric administration is 0.2 ml/intragastric administration. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum is determined within 24 hours after the eyeball is subjected to last gastric lavage. The results of the experiment are shown in table 1: from the table 1, it can be seen that the crude water chestnut extract can significantly improve the activity of T-AOC in the serum of mice, and the activity of the crude water chestnut extract in the test group for improving the T-AOC in the serum of mice is poor and has no significant difference with the control group. The antioxidant effect of the fermented and matured black water chestnut extract is greatly improved.
TABLE 1 Effect of crude extract of water chestnut on T-AOC in mouse serum
Note: p <0.01, very significant
The second embodiment is as follows:
the preparation method of the black water chestnuts according to the first embodiment comprises the following steps:
step 1, raw material selection: selecting fresh water chestnuts without damage of diseases and insect pests as raw materials;
step 2, raw material cleaning: washing the water chestnuts selected in the step 1 with clear water, and draining water on the surfaces of the water chestnuts for later use after the water chestnuts are washed;
step 3, bagging and sealing: putting the water chestnuts for standby in the step 2 into a high-temperature-resistant food-grade plastic bag, sealing, putting into a closed fermentation container, and preparing for fermentation and ripening;
and 4, fermenting and ripening: setting fermentation temperature to perform a variable-temperature fermentation process, wherein the variable-temperature fermentation process is set to be divided into 15 stages, and the specific temperature parameters of each stage are as follows:
a first stage: the temperature is slowly increased from 25 ℃ to 64 ℃, the temperature increasing speed is 0.13 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
two stages: the temperature is slowly increased from 64 ℃ to 105 ℃, the temperature increasing speed is 0.14 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 105 ℃ to 83 ℃, the temperature reduction speed is 0.37 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 83 ℃ for 12 h;
and a fifth stage: the temperature is slowly reduced from 83 ℃ to 78 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.08 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature constant at 78 ℃ for 24 h;
seven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 78 ℃ to 75 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 75 ℃ for 72 h;
nine stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 75 ℃ to 70 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.08 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature at 70 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48 h;
eleven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 70 ℃ to 65 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.08 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature constant at 65 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 65 ℃ to 63 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.03 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature at 63 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 72 h;
fifteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 63 ℃ to 40 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 h.
And 5, low-temperature drying: taking the black water chestnuts fermented and matured in the step (4) out of the sealed fermentation container, opening the sealed plastic package, pouring the black water chestnuts into a food-grade stainless steel plate, putting the food-grade stainless steel plate into a forced air drying oven, heating and drying to remove the surface moisture of the product, setting the drying temperature to be 40 ℃ and the drying time to be 48 hours;
step 6, low-temperature after-ripening: and (5) transferring the dried black water chestnuts obtained in the step (5) into a cold storage at 5 ℃, after-ripening for 5 days at a low temperature, and then vacuumizing and packaging to obtain the finished black water chestnuts.
The third concrete implementation mode:
the black water chestnut contains the following nutrient components in each 100g of black water chestnut: 455KJ of energy, 2.4g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 24.7g of carbohydrate, 13.3g of reducing sugar in terms of glucose, 12.7g of total sugar in terms of sucrose, 13.76mg of total polyphenol and 750mg of melanoidin.
The mineral content of the black water chestnut according to the embodiment is as follows per 100g of the black water chestnut: 17mg of sodium, 17.7mg of iron, 10mg of calcium and 27mg of phosphorus.
In the black water chestnut according to the embodiment, every 100g of the black water chestnut contains the following other components: moisture 74.1g, ash 2 g.
By using the black water chestnuts in the embodiment, the antioxidation effect of the black water chestnuts on the SPF-grade KM mouse is tested by observing the blood index in the animal body. The experimental mode is that 30 KM mice with the weight of 18g-22g are selected, the experiment is randomly divided into three groups according to the weight of the mice, wherein the group 1 is a blank control group, the group 2 is a crude water chestnut extract test group, the group 3 is a crude water chestnut extract test group, the number of the mice in each group is 10, and the mice are male and female. Each group of mice was fed for 30 days in the experimental setting. The preparation method of the crude water chestnut extract comprises the steps of cutting 1kg of water chestnuts into small blocks of about 0.3-1.0 mm, adding 5L of distilled water, boiling with strong fire, decocting with slow fire for 4 hours, filtering to obtain 4.9L of water chestnut extract, concentrating the water chestnuts by using a rotary evaporator to obtain 0.5L of water chestnut concentrate, and sterilizing by using a high-pressure steam method for later use. The crude extract of raw water chestnut is prepared according to the same method. The normal saline is used for intragastric administration in group 1 every day, the crude water chestnut extract is used for intragastric administration in group 2, and the crude water chestnut extract is used for intragastric administration in group 3. The amount of each intragastric administration is 0.2 ml/intragastric administration. The content of lipid peroxide degradation product Malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood serum is measured within 24 hours after the last gastric lavage. The results of the experiment are shown in table 2: from table 2, it can be seen that the crude water chestnut extract can significantly reduce the content of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in mouse serum, and the crude water chestnut extract test group has poor activity of reducing Malondialdehyde (MDA) in mouse serum, and has no significant difference from the control group. The antioxidant effect of the fermented and matured black water chestnut extract is greatly improved.
TABLE 2 Effect of crude extract of water chestnut on Malondialdehyde (MDA) in mouse serum
Note: p <0.01, very significant
The fourth concrete implementation mode:
the preparation method of the black water chestnuts according to the third embodiment comprises the following steps:
step 1, raw material selection: selecting fresh water chestnuts without damage of diseases and insect pests as raw materials;
step 2, raw material cleaning: washing the water chestnuts selected in the step 1 with clear water, and draining water on the surfaces of the water chestnuts for later use after the water chestnuts are washed;
step 3, bagging and sealing: putting the water chestnuts for standby in the step 2 into a high-temperature-resistant food-grade plastic bag, sealing, putting into a closed fermentation container, and preparing for fermentation and ripening;
and 4, fermenting and ripening: setting fermentation temperature to perform a variable-temperature fermentation process, wherein the variable-temperature fermentation process is set to be divided into 15 stages, and the specific temperature parameters of each stage are as follows:
a first stage: the temperature is slowly increased from 25 ℃ to 65 ℃, the temperature increasing speed is 0.13 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
two stages: the temperature is slowly increased from 65 ℃ to 107 ℃, the temperature increasing speed is 0.14 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 107 ℃ to 85 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.37 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 85 ℃ for 12 h;
and a fifth stage: the temperature is slowly reduced from 85 ℃ to 79 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature at 79 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 24 hours;
seven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 79 ℃ to 76 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 76 ℃ for 72 h;
nine stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 76 ℃ to 72 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature at 72 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48 h;
eleven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 72 ℃ to 66 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature at 66 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 66 ℃ to 63 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature at 63 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 72 h;
fifteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 63 ℃ to 42 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.09 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 h;
and 5, low-temperature drying: taking the black water chestnuts fermented and matured in the step (4) out of the sealed fermentation container, opening the sealed plastic package, pouring the black water chestnuts into a food-grade stainless steel plate, putting the food-grade stainless steel plate into a forced air drying oven, heating and drying to remove the surface moisture of the product, setting the drying temperature to be 42 ℃, and setting the drying time to be 48 hours;
step 6, low-temperature after-ripening: and (5) transferring the dried black water chestnuts obtained in the step (5) into a cold storage at 10 ℃, after-ripening for 15 days at a low temperature, and then vacuumizing and packaging to obtain the finished black water chestnuts.

Claims (8)

1. The black water chestnut is characterized in that: the content of the nutrient components of each 100g of black water chestnut is as follows: 445-455 KJ of energy, 2.0-2.4 g of protein, 0.3-0.4 g of fat, 21.3-24.7 g of carbohydrate, 11.5-13.3 g of reducing sugar in terms of glucose, 10.3-12.7 g of total sugar in terms of sucrose, 11.65-13.76 mg of total polyphenol and 722-750 mg of melanoidin;
putting the water chestnuts to be used into a high-temperature-resistant food-grade plastic bag, sealing, putting into a closed fermentation container, and preparing for fermentation and ripening;
setting fermentation temperature to perform a variable-temperature fermentation process, wherein the variable-temperature fermentation process is set to be divided into 15 stages, and the specific temperature parameters of each stage are as follows:
a first stage: slowly raising the temperature from 20-25 ℃ to 63-65 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 hours;
two stages: slowly raising the temperature from 63-65 ℃ to 103-107 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 103-107 ℃ to 80-85 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.3-0.5 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 80-85 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 12 hours;
and a fifth stage: slowly reducing the temperature from 80-85 ℃ to 76-79 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature constant at 76-79 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 24 hours;
seven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 76-79 ℃ to 73-76 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.03-0.07 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 73-76 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 72 hours;
nine stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 73-76 ℃ to 68-72 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature constant at 68-72 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
eleven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 68-72 ℃ to 63-66 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature constant at 63-66 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 63-66 ℃ to 60-63 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.02-0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature constant at 60-63 ℃ for 72 h;
fifteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 60-63 ℃ to 38-42 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05-0.15 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 hours.
2. The black water chestnut of claim 1, wherein: the mineral content of each 100g of black water chestnut is as follows: 12-17 mg of sodium, 15.4-17.7 mg of iron, 8-10 mg of calcium and 25-27 mg of phosphorus.
3. The black water chestnut of claim 1, wherein: every 100g of black water chestnuts contains the following other contents: 70.6-74.1 g of water and 1.6-2 g of ash.
4. A method for preparing black water chestnuts according to any one of claims 1 to 3, which is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
step 1, raw material selection: selecting fresh water chestnuts without damage of diseases and insect pests as raw materials;
step 2, raw material cleaning: washing the water chestnuts selected in the step 1 with clear water, and draining water on the surfaces of the water chestnuts for later use after the water chestnuts are washed;
step 3, bagging and sealing: putting the water chestnuts for standby in the step 2 into a high-temperature-resistant food-grade plastic bag, sealing, putting into a closed fermentation container, and preparing for fermentation and ripening;
and 4, fermenting and ripening: setting fermentation temperature to perform a variable-temperature fermentation process, wherein the variable-temperature fermentation process is set to be divided into 15 stages, and the specific temperature parameters of each stage are as follows:
a first stage: slowly raising the temperature from 20-25 ℃ to 63-65 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 hours;
two stages: slowly raising the temperature from 63-65 ℃ to 103-107 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 103-107 ℃ to 80-85 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.3-0.5 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 80-85 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 12 hours;
and a fifth stage: slowly reducing the temperature from 80-85 ℃ to 76-79 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature constant at 76-79 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 24 hours;
seven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 76-79 ℃ to 73-76 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.03-0.07 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 73-76 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 72 hours;
nine stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 73-76 ℃ to 68-72 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature constant at 68-72 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
eleven stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 68-72 ℃ to 63-66 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature constant at 63-66 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 63-66 ℃ to 60-63 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.02-0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature constant at 60-63 ℃ for 72 h;
fifteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 60-63 ℃ to 38-42 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.15 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 h;
and 5, low-temperature drying: taking the black water chestnuts fermented and matured in the step (4) out of the sealed fermentation container, opening the sealed plastic package, pouring the black water chestnuts into a food-grade stainless steel plate, putting the food-grade stainless steel plate into a forced air drying oven, heating and drying to remove the surface moisture of the product, wherein the drying temperature is set to be 38-42 ℃, and the drying time is set to be 48 hours;
step 6, low-temperature after-ripening: and (5) transferring the dried black water chestnuts in the step (5) into a refrigerator at 0-10 ℃, after-ripening for 1-15 days at a low temperature, and then vacuumizing and packaging to obtain the finished black water chestnuts.
5. The method for preparing black water chestnuts according to claim 4, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the specific temperature parameters of each stage in the variable temperature fermentation process in the step 4 are as follows:
a first stage: slowly raising the temperature from 25 ℃ to 64 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
two stages: slowly raising the temperature from 64 ℃ to 105 ℃, wherein the temperature raising speed is 0.1-1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 5 h;
three stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 105 ℃ to 83 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.3-0.5 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
the fourth stage: keeping the temperature constant at 83 ℃ for 12 h;
and a fifth stage: the temperature is slowly reduced from 83 ℃ to 78 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
six stages: keeping the temperature constant at 78 ℃ for 24 h;
seven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 78 ℃ to 75 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.03-0.07 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
eight stages: keeping the temperature constant at 75 ℃ for 72 h;
nine stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 75 ℃ to 70 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
ten stages: keeping the temperature at 70 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 48 h;
eleven stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 70 ℃ to 65 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05-0.1 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
twelve stages: keeping the temperature constant at 65 ℃ and controlling the temperature for 48 hours;
thirteen stages: slowly reducing the temperature from 65 ℃ to 63 ℃, wherein the temperature reduction speed is 0.02-0.05 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 1 h;
fourteen stages: keeping the temperature at 63 ℃ constant, and controlling the temperature for 72 h;
fifteen stages: the temperature is slowly reduced from 63 ℃ to 40 ℃, the cooling speed is 0.05-0.15 ℃/min, and the temperature control time is 4 h.
6. The method for preparing black water chestnuts according to claim 4, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the drying temperature was set to 40 ℃ in step 5.
7. The method for preparing black water chestnuts according to claim 4, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and 6, carrying out low-temperature after-ripening at the temperature of 0 ℃ for 1d in step 6.
8. The method for preparing black water chestnuts according to claim 4, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and 6, the low-temperature after-ripening temperature is 10 ℃, and the low-temperature after-ripening time is 15 d.
CN201710214453.8A 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof Active CN106954823B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201710214453.8A CN106954823B (en) 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201710214453.8A CN106954823B (en) 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN106954823A CN106954823A (en) 2017-07-18
CN106954823B true CN106954823B (en) 2020-06-30

Family

ID=59484921

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201710214453.8A Active CN106954823B (en) 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN106954823B (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102224917A (en) * 2011-04-29 2011-10-26 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Production methods of fermented black garlic
CN102450618A (en) * 2011-09-30 2012-05-16 赵铁林 Manufacture method for black garlic
CN105146603A (en) * 2015-09-23 2015-12-16 黑龙江省科学院 Black chestnuts and preparing method thereof
CN105475922A (en) * 2015-09-23 2016-04-13 黑龙江省科学院 Black potato and preparation method thereof
CN105707778A (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-06-29 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Making method of preserved black jerusalem artichoke

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102224917A (en) * 2011-04-29 2011-10-26 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Production methods of fermented black garlic
CN102450618A (en) * 2011-09-30 2012-05-16 赵铁林 Manufacture method for black garlic
CN105146603A (en) * 2015-09-23 2015-12-16 黑龙江省科学院 Black chestnuts and preparing method thereof
CN105475922A (en) * 2015-09-23 2016-04-13 黑龙江省科学院 Black potato and preparation method thereof
CN105707778A (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-06-29 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Making method of preserved black jerusalem artichoke

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"马蹄饮料的制作技术";岳哲;《广州食品工业科技》;19870430(第4期);第43页"马蹄营养成分表" *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN106954823A (en) 2017-07-18

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN104263588A (en) Method for preparing hawthorn wine by taking hawthorn fruit and hawthorn leaves as raw material
CN105124077A (en) Passion fruit and tomato tea bag
CN107012063A (en) A kind of mulberries fruit vinegar and preparation method thereof
CN101684446A (en) Grape vinegar and preparation method thereof
CN103461415B (en) Mud snail bread and processing method thereof
CN104726320B (en) A kind of fig honey vinegar and preparation method
KR20030053094A (en) The process of making Korean herb medicine kimchi for costitutional group
KR20120071858A (en) Fermented extract of garlic and manufacturing process of the same
CN103989221A (en) Alga and blueberry composite beverage and processing method thereof
CN106954823B (en) Black water chestnut and preparation method thereof
KR101327802B1 (en) Fermented extract of eel and manufacturing process of the same
CN104195001A (en) Hawthorn wine and brewing method thereof
CN103750311A (en) Walnut/red date buccal tablet
CN103518842A (en) Honey, lucid ganoderma, fruit and vegetable yoghurt and preparation method thereof
CN103251011A (en) Healthcare pickle mainly prepared from jerusalem artichoke and preparation method of healthcare pickle
CN103976221B (en) A kind of blueberry parfait and preparation method thereof
KR101572580B1 (en) Herbal medicine composition having improved adaptability of taking medicine and preparation method thereof
CN106804810A (en) A kind of catchweed bedstraw herb heat-clearing and detoxicating tea jelly and preparation method thereof
CN105349395A (en) Preparation method of hawthorn fruit vinegar
KR20120071890A (en) Fermented extract of animal or vegetable foods and manufacturing process of the same
CN105124663A (en) Beverage containing resveratrol and preparation method of same
CN104982589A (en) Manufacturing process of lemon and chrysanthemum beverage
KR20190140738A (en) Vinegar compositions comprising tonic material and manufacturing method thereof
KR101619974B1 (en) Fermented drinks with improved immunity function using shiitake and manufacturing method for therefor
CN111690496A (en) Hawthorn and passion fruit wine

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant