CN106931680B - Hydrogen energy and solar energy complementary heat pump system and operation method thereof - Google Patents

Hydrogen energy and solar energy complementary heat pump system and operation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106931680B
CN106931680B CN201710205974.7A CN201710205974A CN106931680B CN 106931680 B CN106931680 B CN 106931680B CN 201710205974 A CN201710205974 A CN 201710205974A CN 106931680 B CN106931680 B CN 106931680B
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heat
water
temperature
cooling water
solar collector
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CN106931680A (en
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郝义国
杨宇飞
柴国民
欧阳瑞
吴波
熊钢
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Chongqing Dida Industrial Technology Research Institute Co ltd
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Wuhan Industrial Technology Research Institute Of Geo Resoures Environment Co ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B27/00Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy
    • F25B27/002Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy
    • F25B27/005Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy in compression type systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B27/00Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy
    • F25B27/02Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy using waste heat, e.g. from internal-combustion engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B41/00Fluid-circulation arrangements
    • F25B41/30Expansion means; Dispositions thereof
    • F25B41/31Expansion valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B41/00Fluid-circulation arrangements
    • F25B41/30Expansion means; Dispositions thereof
    • F25B41/37Capillary tubes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids
    • H01M8/04007Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids related to heat exchange
    • H01M8/04029Heat exchange using liquids
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/274Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies using waste energy, e.g. from internal combustion engine

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Thermal Sciences (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Sustainable Energy (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Sustainable Development (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Manufacturing & Machinery (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Electrochemistry (AREA)
  • General Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Fuel Cell (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy, which comprises a fuel cell power generation system, a heat dissipation system and a composite flat-plate solar collector, wherein the heat dissipation system, the fuel cell power generation system and the composite flat-plate solar collector are sequentially communicated to form a cooling water loop, the heat dissipation system pumps cooling water into the fuel cell power generation system, the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the fuel cell power generation system, the temperature of the cooling water is increased and flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of the cooling water, the temperature of the cooling water is reduced and flows back to the heat dissipation system, the cooling water further dissipates heat in the heat dissipation system, and the temperature of the cooling water is further reduced to be capable of cooling the fuel cell power generation system again. The invention is environment-friendly, and the comprehensive utilization system of the waste heat of the fuel cell is completely utilized, thereby improving the comprehensive utilization rate of the hydrogen energy.

Description

Hydrogen energy and solar energy complementary heat pump system and operation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of thermal power, in particular to a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy and an operation method thereof.
Background
The solar heat pump is a heat pump which takes solar energy as a low-temperature heat source, consumes certain high-grade energy (generally electric energy or mechanical energy) and utilizes the solar energy after the temperature level of the solar energy is improved. In a specific implementation manner, the solar heat pump may use a vapor compression type heat pump, a stirling type heat pump, etc. as an intermediate link, and uses the solar heat collected by the heat collector as a heat absorption source of the evaporator, where the solar energy plays a role of an auxiliary heat source, so that such heat pumps are also often called as solar auxiliary heat pumps. At present, a solar auxiliary heat pump combining a solar heat collector and a vapor compression heat pump is common.
Solar-assisted heat pumps are an important form of solar energy utilization, but because they consume high-grade energy sources, such as: electric energy or mechanical energy, and a solar-assisted heat pump cannot completely depend on solar energy to work, so that the system is not a complete renewable energy utilization system and cannot be independently operated away from a power grid. In addition, because solar energy has the intermittent characteristic, solar heat energy cannot be collected at night and in rainy days, the lowest temperature of a low-temperature heat source required by the operation of the heat pump cannot be reached, and the continuous operation of the solar auxiliary heat pump cannot be maintained at the moment.
The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) taking hydrogen as fuel has the characteristics of wide fuel source, cleanness, environmental protection, high electric energy conversion efficiency and low working temperature, and the PEMFC can continuously generate electric power without being limited by weather conditions as long as hydrogen is continuously supplied to the PEMFC. More than 50% of the energy of hydrogen input to the PEMFC is converted into electric energy, and less than 50% is converted into heat. Because the heat temperature is lower, the utilization value is not large generally, and only white emission can be realized. If the waste heat is to be fully utilized, the temperature of the waste heat needs to be raised to a higher level.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of this, the embodiment of the present invention provides a new energy utilization system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy, so as to solve the problems that a solar auxiliary heat pump cannot be separated from a power grid to operate, and the temperature of the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is not high.
The embodiment of the invention provides a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy, which comprises a fuel cell power generation system, a heat dissipation system and a composite flat-plate solar collector, wherein the heat dissipation system, the fuel cell power generation system and the composite flat-plate solar collector are sequentially communicated to form a cooling water loop, the cooling water is pumped into the fuel cell power generation system by the heat dissipation system, the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the fuel cell power generation system, the temperature of the cooling water rises and flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of the cooling water when the sunlight is insufficient, the temperature of the cooling water is reduced and flows back to the heat dissipation system, the cooling water further dissipates the heat in the heat dissipation system, and the temperature of the cooling water is further reduced to be capable of cooling the fuel cell power generation system again.
Further, the composite flat-plate solar collector comprises transparent flat glass, a middle interlayer, a selective absorption coating, a flow channel, a filling layer and a heat preservation layer, wherein the middle interlayer, the selective absorption coating, the flow channel and the filling layer are all arranged in the heat preservation layer, the flow channel, the selective absorption coating, the middle interlayer and the transparent flat glass are sequentially arranged from bottom to top, sunlight penetrates through the transparent flat glass, penetrates through the middle interlayer and irradiates on the selective absorption coating, the selective absorption coating has high absorption rate and low emissivity, when solar energy is sufficient, the selective absorption coating absorbs incident sunlight, when the sun is absent or insufficient, the selective absorption coating absorbs heat of cooling water, the temperature of the selective absorption coating rises, the filling layer is filled at the outer side of the flow channel, and the selective absorption coating transmits the absorbed heat to the flow channel through the filling layer, the protective layer prevents heat loss.
Further, the flow channel comprises a water flow channel and a refrigerant flow channel, the water flow channel and the refrigerant flow channel are not communicated with each other, the refrigerant flow channel is arranged below the water flow channel, and the selective absorption coating transfers the absorbed heat to the water circulating in the water flow channel and the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant flow channel through the filling layer; the middle interlayer is an air layer or a vacuum layer, the filling layer is solid or liquid with excellent heat conducting performance, and the filling layer is foam metal or heat conducting liquid.
Further, the composite flat-plate solar collector is sequentially communicated with a compressor, a condenser and a throttling element to form a heat collecting loop, the compressor is driven by electric power generated by a fuel cell power generation system, the compressor compresses refrigerant gas into high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas, the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas enters the condenser and is condensed into high-temperature high-pressure liquid in the condenser, the high-temperature high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature low-pressure gas-liquid mixture through the throttling element, the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector, the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture absorbs heat in the composite flat-plate solar collector and is evaporated into refrigerant gas again, and the refrigerant gas enters the compressor again to be compressed again.
Furthermore, the condenser is sequentially communicated with a second water pump and a hot water storage tank to form a hot water circulation loop, the second water pump pumps water in the hot water storage tank into the condenser to absorb condensation heat, the water temperature rises, and then the water flows back to the hot water storage tank.
Further, a fourth valve is arranged between the second water pump and the condenser, the second water pump is communicated with a cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a third valve is arranged between the second water pump and the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, the hot water storage tank is communicated with a cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a fifth valve is arranged between the hot water storage tank and the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a second valve is arranged between the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector and the heat dissipation system, and a first valve is arranged between the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector and the fuel cell power generation system;
the heat dissipation system comprises a radiator, a first water pump, a heat dissipation fan and an expansion water tank, wherein the first water pump pumps cooling water out of the bottom of the radiator, the expansion water tank supplies the cooling water for the radiator and provides a volume expansion space required by water temperature change, the heat dissipation fan is arranged on one side of the radiator, and the heat dissipation fan accelerates convection of air outside the radiator so as to accelerate heat dissipation of the radiator;
the fuel cell power generation system comprises a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack and a direct current-direct current converter, wherein the hydrogen and oxygen in the air react in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack to generate direct current, and the direct current is converted into stable direct current through the direct current-direct current converter and is output or supplied to a compressor;
the condenser is a refrigerant-water heat exchanger, and is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, a sleeve-type heat exchanger or a plate heat exchanger;
the throttling element is a throttling capillary tube, a thermal expansion valve, an electronic expansion valve, a throttling short tube or a throttling orifice plate.
When sunlight is sufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs heat of solar energy, the first valve, the second valve and the fourth valve are closed, and the third valve and the fifth valve are opened; turning off the first water pump and operating the second water pump; the composite flat-plate solar collector collects solar heat energy, the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector, water absorbs the heat energy in the composite flat-plate solar collector, the water temperature rises and then flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank, the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector until the water temperature in the whole hot water storage tank rises, and therefore solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank.
An operation method of a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy comprises the steps that when the sun is absent or insufficient sunlight exists, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs heat of cooling water, a first valve and a second valve are opened, a third valve, a fourth valve and a fifth valve are closed, a second water pump is closed, the first water pump is operated, hydrogen in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack reacts with oxygen in air to generate direct current, the direct current is converted into stable direct current through a direct current-direct current converter to be output, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump extracts the cooling water from the bottom of a radiator and pumps the cooling water into the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack, the cooling water takes reaction heat of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack and flows to the composite flat-plate solar collector, and flows back to the radiator after being cooled in the composite flat-plate solar collector, and further cooled in a heat sink.
When the sun does not exist or the sunlight is insufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of cooling water, the fourth valve is opened, the first valve, the second valve, the third valve and the fifth valve are closed, the first water pump is closed, the second water pump is operated, the refrigerant gas is compressed into high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas by the compressor and then enters the condenser, the second water pump pumps the water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank into the condenser, the water pumped into the condenser absorbs the condensation heat of the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas which is condensed into high-temperature high-pressure liquid, the water temperature rises and flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank, the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the condenser until the water temperature in the whole hot water storage tank rises, and the solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank.
When the sun is absent or the sunlight is insufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of cooling water, a first valve, a second valve and a fourth valve are opened, a third valve and a fifth valve are closed, a first water pump and a second water pump are operated, hydrogen in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack reacts with oxygen in the air to generate direct current, the direct current is converted into stable direct current through a direct current-direct current converter to drive a compressor, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump extracts the cooling water from the bottom of a radiator and pumps the cooling water into the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack, and the cooling water takes away the reaction heat of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack and flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector; meanwhile, the compressor compresses the refrigerant gas into high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas, the refrigerant gas enters the condenser, the second water pump pumps water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank into the condenser, the water pumped into the condenser absorbs the condensation heat of the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas which is condensed into high-temperature and high-pressure liquid, the water temperature rises and flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank, the high-temperature and high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature and low-pressure gas-liquid mixture through the throttling element, and the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector; the cooling water absorbing heat in the composite flat-plate solar collector releases heat to the refrigerant gas-liquid mixture, the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture absorbs heat and is evaporated into refrigerant gas again, and the cooling water flows back to the radiator for further cooling.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects: the problems that the proton exchange membrane fuel cell has high electric energy conversion efficiency but low waste heat temperature are solved; the waste heat and solar energy of the low-grade and low-temperature fuel cell are fully utilized to obtain high-grade and high-temperature hot water, so that the utilization value of the waste heat and solar energy of the fuel cell is higher, and the solar energy water heater can be used for occasions such as heating in winter, process heating and the like; the refrigeration compressor, the water pump and the like in the system can be directly driven by direct current generated by a fuel cell, can realize off-line operation, and can also be applied to remote powerless areas such as deserts, islands and the like; the system has multiple operation modes, and can adapt to different seasons and weather conditions; the comprehensive energy utilization system is completely driven by renewable energy sources (hydrogen energy and solar energy), has zero pollution, zero emission and environmental friendliness, and completely utilizes the waste heat of the fuel cell, thereby improving the comprehensive utilization rate of the hydrogen energy.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a hydrogen and solar complementary heat pump system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of the composite flat-plate solar collector in fig. 1.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, embodiments of the present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring to fig. 1, an embodiment of the present invention provides a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy, including a fuel cell power generation system 1, a heat dissipation system 2 and a composite flat-plate solar collector 3, where the heat dissipation system 2, the fuel cell power generation system 1 and the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 are sequentially communicated to form a cooling water loop; the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 is sequentially communicated with the compressor 4, the condenser 5 and the throttling element 6 to form a heat collecting loop, in one embodiment, the condenser 5 is a refrigerant-water heat exchanger, and the condenser 5 is preferably a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, a sleeve-type heat exchanger or a plate heat exchanger; the throttling element 6 is preferably a throttling capillary tube, a thermal expansion valve, an electronic expansion valve, a throttling short tube or a throttling orifice plate; the condenser 5 is communicated with a second water pump 7 and a hot water storage tank 8 in sequence to form a hot water circulation loop.
The fuel cell power generation system 1 includes a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 and a dc-dc converter 102, wherein a hydrogen inlet, a hydrogen outlet, an air inlet and an air outlet are disposed on two sides of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101, hydrogen and oxygen in the air enter the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 and react in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 to generate dc, and the dc is converted into stable dc by the dc-dc converter 102 and output or supplied to the compressor 4.
The heat dissipation system 2 comprises a radiator 201, a first water pump 202, a heat dissipation fan 203 and an expansion water tank 204, wherein the heat dissipation fan 203 is arranged on one side of the radiator 201, the expansion water tank 204 supplies cooling water to the radiator 201 and provides a volume expansion space required when the water temperature changes, the first water pump 202 pumps the cooling water out of the bottom of the radiator 201 and pumps the cooling water into the fuel cell power generation system 1, the cooling water takes away the reaction heat of the fuel cell power generation system 1, the temperature of the cooling water rises and flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, when no sunlight or insufficient sunlight exists, the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 absorbs the heat of the cooling water, the temperature of the cooling water is reduced and flows back to the radiator 201 of the heat dissipation system 2, the heat dissipation fan 203 accelerates the convection of the air outside the radiator 201, further accelerates the heat dissipation of the radiator 201, and further dissipates the cooling water, the temperature of the cooling water is further lowered to be able to cool the fuel cell power generation system 1 again.
Referring to fig. 2, the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 includes a transparent flat-plate glass 301, a middle spacer layer 302, a selective absorbing coating 303, a flow channel 304, a filling layer 305 and a heat insulating layer 306, wherein the middle spacer layer 302, the selective absorbing coating 303, the flow channel 304 and the filling layer 305 are all disposed in the heat insulating layer 306, the flow channel 304, the selective absorbing coating 303, the middle spacer layer 302 and the transparent flat-plate glass 301 are sequentially disposed from bottom to top, the filling layer 305 is filled outside the flow channel 304, in one embodiment, the flow passages 304 include a water flow passage 3041 and a refrigerant flow passage 3042, the water flow passage 3041 and the refrigerant flow passage 3042 are not communicated with each other, the refrigerant flow passage 3042 is below the water flow passage 3041, the intermediate barrier layer 302 is an air layer or a vacuum layer, preferably a vacuum layer, the filling layer 305 is a solid or liquid with excellent heat conductivity, and the filling layer 305 is preferably a foam metal or a heat conductive liquid.
Sunlight penetrates through the transparent flat glass 301, penetrates through the middle interlayer 302 and irradiates on the selective absorption coating 303, the selective absorption coating 303 has high absorption rate and low emissivity, when the sunlight is sufficient, the selective absorption coating 303 absorbs the incident sunlight, when the sunlight is not available or the sunlight is insufficient, the selective absorption coating 303 absorbs the heat of cooling water, the temperature of the selective absorption coating 303 rises, the selective absorption coating 303 transfers the absorbed heat to water circulating in the water flow channel 3041 and refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant flow channel 3042 through the filling layer 305, the water circulating in the water flow channel 3041 comes from a cooling water circuit or a hot water storage tank 8, and the protection layer 306 prevents the heat from being dissipated.
The compressor 4 is driven by electric power generated by the fuel cell power generation system 1, the compressor 4 compresses refrigerant gas into high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas, the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas enters the condenser 5, the second water pump 7 pumps water in the hot water storage tank 8 into the condenser 5 to absorb condensation heat, the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas is condensed into high-temperature high-pressure liquid, the water temperature rises, the high-temperature high-pressure liquid flows back to the hot water storage tank 8, the high-temperature high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature low-pressure gas-liquid mixture through the throttling element 6, the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture absorbs heat in the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, evaporates into refrigerant gas again, and enters the compressor 4 again to be compressed.
In an embodiment, a fourth valve 12 is arranged between the second water pump 7 and the condenser 5, the second water pump 7 is communicated with a cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, a third valve 11 is arranged between the second water pump 7 and the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, the hot water storage tank 8 is communicated with a cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, a fifth valve 13 is arranged between the hot water storage tank 8 and the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, a second valve 10 is arranged between the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 and the radiator 201 of the heat dissipation system 2, and a first valve 9 is arranged between the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 and the fuel cell power generation system 1.
When the sunlight is sufficient, the heat of the solar energy collected in the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 is transferred to the condenser in a heat exchange mode, and the water which is collected by the condenser 5 and absorbs the heat of condensation heat can flow into the hot water storage tank 8; when the sun is absent, the heat of the cooling water absorbed by the reaction heat collected in the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 flows into the hot water storage tank 8, so that the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 8 is increased, and thus a heat pump effect is achieved.
An operation method of a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy comprises the following steps: when the sunlight is sufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 absorbs the heat of the solar energy, the first valve 9, the second valve 10 and the fourth valve 12 are closed, and the third valve 11 and the fifth valve 13 are opened; the first water pump 202 is turned off, and the second water pump 7 is operated; the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 collects solar heat energy, the second water pump 7 pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank 8 and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, the water absorbs the heat energy in the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, the water temperature rises and then flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank 8, the second water pump 7 pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank 8 and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 until the water temperature in the whole hot water storage tank 8 rises, and solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank 8.
The fuel cell power generation system 1 and the compressor 4 do not work, and the heat energy of the sun is collected only by the composite flat-plate solar collector 3, so that the solar energy heat collector is suitable for the sunny weather or summer.
An operation method of a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy is provided, when the sun is absent or the sunlight is insufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 absorbs the heat of the cooling water, the fourth valve 12 is opened, the first valve 9, the second valve 10, the third valve 11 and the fifth valve 13 are closed, the first water pump 202 is closed, the second water pump 7 is operated, the refrigerant gas is compressed into the refrigerant gas with high temperature and high pressure by the compressor 4 and then enters the condenser 5, the second water pump 7 pumps the water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank 8 into the condenser 5, the water pumped into the condenser 5 absorbs the condensation heat of the refrigerant gas with high temperature and high pressure condensed into high temperature and high pressure liquid, the water temperature rises, and flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank 8, and the second water pump 7 pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank 8 and pumps the water into the condenser 5 until the water temperature in the whole hot water storage tank 8 rises, so that the solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank 8.
The fuel cell power generation system 1 does not work, the compressor 4 works, the compressor 4 is powered by a power grid, and solar heat energy collected by the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 is used as a low-temperature heat source. The mode is suitable for winter and spring with insufficient sunlight, and can be used in occasions of taking electricity from a power grid.
A running method of a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy is provided, when no sun exists or sunlight is insufficient, a composite flat plate solar collector 3 absorbs heat of cooling water, a first valve 9 and a second valve 10 are opened, a third valve 11, a fourth valve 12 and a fifth valve 13 are closed, a second water pump 7 is closed, a first water pump 202 is run, hydrogen in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 reacts with oxygen in air to generate direct current, the direct current is converted into stable direct current through a direct current-direct current converter 102 to be output, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump 202 pumps the cooling water from the bottom of a radiator 201 and pumps the cooling water into the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101, the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 and flows to the composite flat plate solar collector 3, after the composite flat plate solar collector 3 is cooled, and flows back to the heat sink 201 and is further cooled in the heat sink 201.
Only the fuel cell power generation system 1 is operated and the compressor 4 is not operated. The mode is suitable for occasions which only need to supply power independently and do not need to utilize the waste heat of the fuel cell.
An operation method of a heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy is characterized in that when the sun is absent or insufficient sunlight exists, a composite flat-plate solar collector 3 absorbs heat of cooling water, a first valve 9, a second valve 10 and a fourth valve 12 are opened, a third valve 11 and a fifth valve 13 are closed, a first water pump 202 and a second water pump 7 are operated, hydrogen in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 reacts with oxygen in air to generate direct current, the direct current is converted into stable direct current through a direct current-direct current converter 102 to drive a compressor 4, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump 202 extracts the cooling water from the bottom of a radiator 201 and pumps the cooling water into the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101, and the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack 101 and flows to the composite flat-plate solar collector 3; meanwhile, the compressor 4 compresses the refrigerant gas into high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas, the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas enters the condenser 5, the second water pump 7 pumps water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank 8 into the condenser 5, the water pumped into the condenser 5 absorbs the condensation heat of the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas condensed into high-temperature and high-pressure liquid, the water temperature rises and flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank 8, the high-temperature and high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature and low-pressure gas-liquid mixture through the throttling element 6, and the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector 3; the cooling water having absorbed heat in the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 releases heat to the refrigerant gas-liquid mixture, the refrigerant gas-liquid mixture at low temperature and low pressure absorbs heat and evaporates again to be refrigerant gas, and the cooling water flows back to the radiator 201 to be further cooled.
The fuel cell power generation system 1 and the compressor 4 work, the waste heat of the fuel cell power generation system 1 and the sun collected by the composite flat-plate solar collector 3 are used as low-temperature heat sources, and meanwhile, direct current generated by the fuel cell power generation system 1 is used for driving the compressor 4.
The invention overcomes the defects that the proton exchange membrane fuel cell has high electric energy conversion efficiency but low waste heat temperature; the waste heat and solar energy of the low-grade and low-temperature fuel cell are fully utilized to obtain high-grade and high-temperature hot water, so that the utilization value of the waste heat and solar energy of the fuel cell is higher, and the solar energy water heater can be used for occasions such as heating in winter, process heating and the like; the refrigeration compressor, the water pump and the like in the system can be directly driven by direct current generated by a fuel cell, can realize off-line operation, and can also be applied to remote powerless areas such as deserts, islands and the like; the system has multiple operation modes, and can adapt to different seasons and weather conditions; the comprehensive energy utilization system is completely driven by renewable energy sources (hydrogen energy and solar energy), has zero pollution, zero emission and environmental friendliness, and completely utilizes the waste heat of the fuel cell, thereby improving the comprehensive utilization rate of the hydrogen energy.
In this document, the terms front, back, upper and lower are used to define the components in the drawings and the positions of the components relative to each other, and are used for clarity and convenience of the technical solution. It is to be understood that the use of the directional terms should not be taken to limit the scope of the claims.
The features of the embodiments and embodiments described herein above may be combined with each other without conflict.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (8)

1. A heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy is characterized by comprising a fuel cell power generation system, a heat dissipation system and a composite flat-plate solar collector, wherein the heat dissipation system, the fuel cell power generation system and the composite flat-plate solar collector are sequentially communicated to form a cooling water loop, the heat dissipation system pumps cooling water into the fuel cell power generation system, the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the fuel cell power generation system, the temperature of the cooling water rises and flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of the cooling water when the sunlight is insufficient, the temperature of the cooling water is reduced and flows back to the heat dissipation system, the cooling water further dissipates heat in the heat dissipation system, and the temperature of the cooling water is further reduced to be capable of cooling the fuel cell power generation system again;
the composite flat-plate solar collector comprises transparent flat glass, a middle interlayer, a selective absorption coating, a flow channel, a filling layer and a heat insulation layer, wherein the middle interlayer, the selective absorption coating, the flow channel and the filling layer are all arranged in the heat insulation layer, the flow channel, the selective absorption coating, the middle interlayer and the transparent flat glass are sequentially arranged from bottom to top, sunlight penetrates through the transparent flat glass, penetrates through the middle interlayer and irradiates on the selective absorption coating, the selective absorption coating has high absorption rate and low emissivity, when solar energy is sufficient, the selective absorption coating absorbs incident sunlight, when the sun is absent or insufficient, the selective absorption coating absorbs heat of cooling water, the temperature of the selective absorption coating rises, the filling layer is filled at the outer side of the flow channel, and the selective absorption coating transmits the absorbed heat to the flow channel through the filling layer, the heat-insulating layer prevents heat loss;
the composite flat-plate solar collector is sequentially communicated with a compressor, a condenser and a throttling element to form a heat collecting loop, the compressor is driven by electric power generated by a fuel cell power generation system, refrigerant gas is compressed into high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas by the compressor, the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant gas enters the condenser and is condensed into high-temperature high-pressure liquid, the high-temperature high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature low-pressure gas-liquid mixture by the throttling element, the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector, and the low-temperature low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture absorbs heat and is evaporated into refrigerant gas again in the composite flat-plate solar collector and enters the compressor again to be compressed again.
2. The hydrogen-and-solar complementary heat pump system according to claim 1, wherein the flow passages comprise a water flow passage and a refrigerant flow passage, the water flow passage and the refrigerant flow passage are not communicated with each other, the refrigerant flow passage is located below the water flow passage, and the selective absorption coating transfers absorbed heat to water circulating in the water flow passage and refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant flow passage through the filling layer; the middle interlayer is an air layer or a vacuum layer, the filling layer is solid or liquid with excellent heat conducting performance, and the filling layer is foam metal or heat conducting liquid.
3. The system according to claim 1, wherein the condenser is connected to a second water pump and a hot water storage tank in sequence to form a hot water circulation loop, and the second water pump pumps the water in the hot water storage tank into the condenser to absorb condensation heat, so that the water temperature is raised and then flows back to the hot water storage tank.
4. The heat pump system with hydrogen energy and solar energy complementation according to claim 3, wherein a fourth valve is arranged between the second water pump and the condenser, the second water pump is communicated with the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a third valve is arranged between the second water pump and the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, the hot water storage tank is communicated with the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a fifth valve is arranged between the hot water storage tank and the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector, a second valve is arranged between the cooling water outlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector and the heat dissipation system, and a first valve is arranged between the cooling water inlet end of the composite flat-plate solar collector and the fuel cell power generation system; the heat dissipation system comprises a radiator, a first water pump, a heat dissipation fan and an expansion water tank, wherein the first water pump pumps cooling water out of the bottom of the radiator, the expansion water tank supplies the cooling water for the radiator and provides a volume expansion space required by water temperature change, the heat dissipation fan is arranged on one side of the radiator, and the heat dissipation fan accelerates convection of air outside the radiator so as to accelerate heat dissipation of the radiator; the fuel cell power generation system comprises a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack and a direct current-direct current converter, wherein hydrogen and oxygen in air react in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack to generate direct current, and the direct current is converted into stable direct current through the direct current-direct current converter and is output or supplied to a compressor; the condenser is a refrigerant-water heat exchanger, and is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, a sleeve-type heat exchanger or a plate heat exchanger; the throttling element is a throttling capillary tube, a thermal expansion valve, an electronic expansion valve, a throttling short tube or a throttling orifice plate.
5. The complementary heat pump system of claim 4, wherein when sunlight is sufficient, the hybrid flat-plate solar collector absorbs heat of solar energy, the first, second and fourth valves are closed, and the third and fifth valves are opened; turning off the first water pump and operating the second water pump; the composite flat-plate solar collector collects solar heat energy, the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector, the water absorbs the heat energy in the composite flat-plate solar collector, the water temperature rises and then flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank, the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the composite flat-plate solar collector until the water temperature in the whole hot water storage tank rises, and therefore the solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank.
6. The heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy according to claim 4, wherein when there is no sun or the sun is insufficient, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of the cooling water, the first valve and the second valve are opened, the third valve, the fourth valve and the fifth valve are closed, the second water pump is closed, the first water pump is operated, the hydrogen in the PEM fuel cell stack reacts with the oxygen in the air to generate DC power and is converted into stable DC power by the DC-DC converter, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump pumps the cooling water from the bottom of the radiator and pumps the cooling water into the PEM fuel cell stack, the cooling water takes away the heat of reaction of the PEM fuel cell stack and flows to the composite flat-plate solar collector, and after the cooling water in the composite flat-plate solar collector, and then flows back to the radiator and is further cooled in the radiator.
7. The complementary hydrogen and solar heat pump system according to claim 4, wherein in the absence of sun or insufficient sunlight, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs the heat of the cooling water, opens the fourth valve, closes the first valve, the second valve, the third valve and the fifth valve, closes the first water pump, operates the second water pump, the compressor compresses the refrigerant gas into high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas, and then the refrigerant gas enters the condenser, the second water pump pumps water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank into the condenser, the water pumped into the condenser absorbs the condensation heat of the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas condensed into high-temperature and high-pressure liquid, the water temperature is increased, and the second water pump pumps water from the bottom of the hot water storage tank and pumps the water into the condenser until the temperature of the water in the whole hot water storage tank is increased, so that the solar energy is stored in the hot water storage tank.
8. The heat pump system with complementary hydrogen energy and solar energy according to claim 4, wherein when there is no sun or insufficient sunlight, the composite flat-plate solar collector absorbs heat of cooling water, the first valve, the second valve and the fourth valve are opened, the third valve and the fifth valve are closed, the first water pump and the second water pump are operated, hydrogen in the PEM fuel cell stack reacts with oxygen in air to generate direct current, the direct current is converted into stable direct current through the direct current-direct current converter to drive the compressor, when the hydrogen reacts with the oxygen in the air, the first water pump pumps the cooling water from the bottom of the radiator and pumps the cooling water into the PEM fuel cell stack, and the cooling water takes away reaction heat of the PEM fuel cell stack and flows to the composite flat-plate solar collector; meanwhile, the compressor compresses the refrigerant gas into high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas, the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas enters the condenser, the second water pump pumps water at the bottom of the hot water storage tank into the condenser, the water pumped into the condenser absorbs the condensation heat of the high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant gas condensed into high-temperature and high-pressure liquid, the water temperature rises and flows back to the top of the hot water storage tank, the high-temperature and high-pressure liquid is changed into low-temperature and low-pressure gas-liquid mixture through the throttling element, and the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture flows into the composite flat-plate solar collector; the cooling water absorbing heat in the composite flat-plate solar collector releases heat to the refrigerant gas-liquid mixture, the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas-liquid mixture absorbs heat and is evaporated into refrigerant gas again, and the cooling water flows back to the radiator for further cooling.
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