CN106908368B - Rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system - Google Patents

Rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106908368B
CN106908368B CN201710148263.0A CN201710148263A CN106908368B CN 106908368 B CN106908368 B CN 106908368B CN 201710148263 A CN201710148263 A CN 201710148263A CN 106908368 B CN106908368 B CN 106908368B
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China
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rainfall
water
soil
unit
drainage
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CN106908368A (en
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李宁
李玉成
刘冠麟
雷铭远
杨洋
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/0806Details, e.g. sample holders, mounting samples for testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N2015/0813Measuring intrusion, e.g. of mercury

Abstract

The invention provides a rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system, which is used for researching the infiltration rule of rainfall in unsaturated soil and is characterized by comprising the following components in parts by weight: the rainfall simulation device comprises a water storage tank, a water flow loop unit connected with the water storage tank, and a spraying component connected with the water flow loop unit and used for simulating rainfall; the rain receiving device comprises a plurality of soil column tube units arranged below the spraying component and a runoff drainage unit arranged on the outer side of the soil column tube units; the data acquisition device comprises a water supply flowmeter arranged in the water flow loop unit, a drainage flowmeter arranged in the runoff drainage unit, and a plurality of sensor units which are respectively arranged on the soil column barrel unit and are used for acquiring rainfall soil column infiltration data; the control system is used for controlling the water supply quantity of the water flow loop unit and the drainage of the runoff drainage unit; and the data analysis device is used for receiving the data acquired by the data acquisition device and analyzing the data to obtain the infiltration rule of the rainfall in the unsaturated soil.

Description

Rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of soil water environment test and relates to a rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system.
Background
The urban garbage mainly comprises coal ash, organic matters (kitchen garbage and paper) and inorganic matters (glass and building garbage). The difficulty in treatment and utilization is brought by the complex diversity of the components of the municipal solid waste. At present, the garbage disposal mode mainly comprises sanitary landfill treatment, composting treatment, incineration and the like, the sanitary landfill is the main mode, and a plurality of sanitary landfill sites face to the field closing, so that the research on the composition of the capping covering layer of the municipal solid waste landfill site is of great significance.
Soil is the best durable earth material in the natural environment. The soil covering layer is widely applied to garbage storage yards, solid waste storage yards and tailings and is mainly used for preventing atmospheric precipitation from entering lower-layer waste so as to avoid polluting the surrounding environment. At present, the soil covering layer is successfully applied to arid and semi-arid regions, and whether the soil covering layer is suitable for the humid climate or not is yet to be further researched. At present, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation methods are mainly adopted to research the soil layer infiltration rule during rainfall, and a rainfall simulation device or a test platform is utilized to obtain test data.
The existing rainfall simulation device has the advantages that some test platforms are cuboid, the water pressure of the water tank inside is a constant water head, and the rainfall simulation device is single in rainfall type and single in rainfall intensity. Some do not consider the pressure effect of earth pillar surface water, do not set up the surface runoff outlet. In short, the existing rainfall simulation device does not consider the influences of time, space change and model surface runoff, can not continuously measure rainfall during the test process, has single rainfall intensity and rainfall type, can not continuously measure intermittent rainfall condition, can not truly simulate rainfall, and can not obtain the law of soil layer infiltration during real rainfall.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the invention provides a rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system, which is used for researching the infiltration rule of rainfall in unsaturated soil and is characterized by comprising the following components in parts by weight: the rainfall simulation device comprises a water storage tank, a water flow loop unit connected with the water storage tank, and a spraying component connected with the water flow loop unit and used for simulating rainfall; the rain receiving device comprises a plurality of soil column tube units arranged below the spraying component and a runoff drainage unit arranged on the outer side of the soil column tube units; the data acquisition device is used for acquiring data and comprises a water supply flowmeter arranged in the water flow loop unit, a drainage flowmeter arranged in the runoff drainage unit and a plurality of sensor units which are respectively arranged on the soil column barrel unit and are used for acquiring rainfall soil column infiltration data; the control system is used for controlling the water supply quantity of the water flow loop unit and the drainage of the runoff drainage unit; and the data analysis device is used for receiving the data acquired by the data acquisition device and analyzing the data to obtain the infiltration rule of the precipitation in the unsaturated soil.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, rivers return circuit water supply unit includes the water pipe, the water pump that the end of intaking is connected with the storage water tank through this water pipe, first solenoid valve and second solenoid valve are equallyd divide and are had a water inlet and two delivery ports respectively, the water inlet of first solenoid valve leads to pipe and the output intercommunication of water pump, a delivery port of first solenoid valve leads to pipe and storage water tank intercommunication, the water inlet of second solenoid valve leads to pipe and another delivery port intercommunication of first solenoid valve, a delivery port of second solenoid valve leads to pipe and storage water tank intercommunication.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: the spraying component comprises a spray head connected with the other water outlet of the second electromagnetic valve and a rainfall distributor arranged in the spray head, and the rainfall distributor is of a porous structure and is used for dispersing water to form simulated raindrops.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: the earth pillar cylinder unit comprises an earth pillar cylinder support, a plurality of earth pillar cylinders which are arranged on the earth pillar cylinder support and are sequentially stacked from top to bottom and filled with earth pillar models, and a first row of water tanks arranged below the earth pillar cylinder support.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: and in the soil column tube unit, the bottom of the soil column tube at the lowest part is provided with a percolation drainage layer.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: the sensor unit comprises a plurality of tensiometers and a plurality of soil moisture sensors, the tensiometers are uniformly arranged on the inner side of the outer wall of the soil column casing along the radial direction and used for measuring the matrix suction force of the soil layer during rainfall, and the soil moisture sensors are arranged on the inner side of the outer wall corresponding to the tensiometers and used for measuring the water content of the soil layer.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, the soil column casing is made of transparent toughened glass.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: in the soil column barrel unit, the uppermost soil column barrel is provided with dimension scales along the radial direction.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, among the soil column section of thick bamboo unit, evenly be provided with a plurality of wash ports along the horizontal plane on the outer wall of the soil column section of thick bamboo of the top, runoff drainage unit includes the annular runoff drain pipe with the wash port intercommunication, the second drainage tank of this runoff drain pipe intercommunication, set up the third solenoid valve between runoff drain pipe and second drainage tank.
The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: the water supply flow meter is arranged between the first electromagnetic valve and the second electromagnetic valve, and the water drainage flow meter is arranged between the third electromagnetic valve and the second water drainage tank.
Action and Effect of the invention
According to the rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the invention, the rainfall intensity can be controlled by adopting the water flow loop unit controlled by the control system; due to the adoption of the rainfall equipartition device, rainfall with different spatial distributions can be simulated; the runoff drainage unit is adopted, so that the influence of surface runoff on a test result can be avoided; due to the adoption of the data acquisition device, the control system and the data analysis device, the rainfall simulation earth column infiltration test system has high automation degree.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a spraying member of the rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system in the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a column tube unit of the rainfall simulation column infiltration test system according to the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view E-E of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a sensor unit of a rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system according to an embodiment of the invention.
Detailed Description
The following description of the embodiments of the present invention will be made with reference to the accompanying drawings.
< example >
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system in an embodiment of the invention.
As shown in fig. 1, a rainfall simulation soil column infiltration testing system (hereinafter referred to as a testing system) 100 of the present embodiment includes a rainfall simulation device 1, a rain-receiving device 2, a data acquisition device 3, a control system 4, and a data analysis device 5.
As shown in fig. 1, the rainfall simulation device 1 includes a water storage tank 11, a water pipe 12, a water pump 13, a first electromagnetic valve 14, a second electromagnetic valve 15, and a spraying member 16.
The water inlet end of the water pump 13 is connected with the water storage tank 11 through a water pipe 12.
The first electromagnetic valve 14 and the second electromagnetic valve 15 are respectively provided with a water inlet and two water outlets, the water inlet of the first electromagnetic valve 14 is communicated with the output end of the water pump 13 through a water pipe 12, and one water outlet of the first electromagnetic valve 14 is communicated with the water storage tank 11 through the water pipe 12. The water inlet of the second electromagnetic valve 15 is communicated with the other water outlet of the first electromagnetic valve 14 through a water pipe 12, and one water outlet of the second electromagnetic valve 15 is communicated with the water storage tank 11 through the water pipe 12.
The water pipe 12, the water pump 13, the first electromagnetic valve 14 and the second electromagnetic valve 15 which are communicated with each other form a water flow loop unit for supplying water and controlling the amount of supplied water.
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a spraying component of the rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system in the embodiment of the invention.
As shown in fig. 1 and 2, the spray member 16 includes a spray head 161 and a rainfall equalizer 162.
The circular nozzle 161 is communicated with the other water outlet of the second electromagnetic valve 15 through a water pipe 12.
The rainfall equipartition devices 162 of the embodiment are two, are circular, and are horizontally installed in the spray head 161, and the circle centers of the two rainfall equipartition devices 162 are located on the central axis of the spray head 161.
One of the two rainfall equalizers 162 is a rainfall equalizer 162a which is uniformly distributed by punching, the other is any one of a rainfall equalizer 162b which is densely distributed in the middle of punching and is densely distributed at the periphery, a rainfall equalizer 162c which is densely distributed in the half of punching and is densely distributed at the periphery, and a rainfall equalizer 162d which is densely distributed in the middle of punching and is densely distributed at the periphery, or the two rainfall equalizers 162 a. The rainfall can be more uniform and more in line with the actual situation by combining according to the specific experimental requirements.
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a column tube unit of the rainfall simulation column infiltration test system in the embodiment of the invention.
As shown in fig. 1 and 3, the rain receiving device 2 includes an earth pillar unit 21 and a runoff drainage unit 22.
The soil column drum unit 21 comprises a soil column drum bracket 211, a soil column drum 212 and a first drainage tank 213.
Two earth pillar barrels 212 containing earth pillar models, which are sequentially stacked from top to bottom, are installed on an earth pillar barrel support 211, and a first water discharge tank 213 is placed below the earth pillar barrel support 211.
The material of the soil column barrel 212 of this embodiment adopts transparent toughened glass, is convenient for observe the test result.
The two layers of soil column barrels 212 are positioned right below the spray nozzle 161, and the upper end of the upper soil column barrel 212 is 2cm away from the spray nozzle 161. And the size of the soil column barrel 212 is consistent with that of the spray head 161, so that uniform rainfall on the soil column surface is ensured, and experimental errors are reduced.
Fig. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view E-E of fig. 3.
As shown in fig. 3 and 4, the outer wall of the upper soil pillar 212 is provided with a dimension scale 212a along a radial direction from the upper end to the lower end, and six drain holes 212b are uniformly arranged at a position 30cm from the upper end along a horizontal plane.
As shown in fig. 1, the bottom of the lower soil pillar 212 is provided with a percolation drain 212c, which allows the drain to flow into the first drain tank 213 right below.
As shown in fig. 1 and 4, the radial flow drainage unit 22 includes a radial flow drainage pipe 221, a third electromagnetic valve 222, and a second drainage tank 223.
The annular radial flow drain pipe 221 communicates with the drain hole 212b, the third solenoid valve 222 communicates with the radial flow drain pipe 221 through a drain pipe, and the second drain tank 223 communicates with the third solenoid valve 222 through a drain pipe.
As shown in fig. 1, the data acquisition device 3 includes a water feed flow meter 31, a water discharge flow meter 32, a tension meter 33, and a soil moisture sensor 34.
The feed water flow meter 31 is provided between the first solenoid valve 14 and the second solenoid valve 15 in the water flow circuit unit, and collects a feed water flow rate.
The drainage flow meter 32 is arranged between the third electromagnetic valve 222 and the second drainage tank 223 in the runoff drainage unit 22 and collects runoff drainage flow.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a sensor unit of a rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system according to an embodiment of the invention.
As shown in fig. 1 and 5, the tensiometer 33 and the soil moisture sensor 34 constitute a sensor unit for collecting infiltration data of a rainfall soil column.
Seven tensiometers 33 are uniformly arranged on the inner side of the outer wall of the two soil cylinders 212 in the radial direction and are used for measuring the substrate suction of the soil layer in rainfall.
Seven soil moisture sensors 34 are provided on the inner side of the outer wall corresponding to the tensiometers 33 for measuring the moisture content of the soil layer.
As shown in fig. 1, the control system 4 controls the first solenoid valve 14 and the second solenoid valve 15 to control the feed water amount of the water flow circuit unit. The control system 4 controls the third solenoid valve 222 to control the drainage of the radial drainage unit 22.
The data analysis device 5 is a computer in this embodiment, and is configured to receive the data acquired by the data acquisition device 3 and analyze the data to obtain an infiltration rule of precipitation in unsaturated soil.
The operation of the rainfall simulation soil column infiltration testing system 100 of the present embodiment is described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The rainfall equipartition device 162a and one of the rainfall equipartition devices 162a, 162b, 162c and 162d are selected to be combined according to the experiment requirement so as to meet the experiment requirement.
The manufactured soil column model is contained in the soil column barrel 212 and manufactured in two layers, wherein the thickness of the lower layer of sandy soil and the upper layer of silty soil is 30 cm. Two soil cylinders 212 are then placed one above the other on the soil cylinder holder 211.
The water tank 11 is filled with a proper amount of water, the control system 4 controls the first electromagnetic valve 14 to the maximum value, and the second electromagnetic valve 15 is opened to the A-B direction. At this time, the water pump 13 is turned on, and water flows out from the water storage tank 11 in the direction of A-A, A-B, and then the water flow is controlled by the control system 4 adjusting the size of the first electromagnetic valve 14. At the moment, part of water in the water pipe 12 is shunted from A to D and then flows back to the water storage tank 11, and the water flow in the A-A flow direction can be seen through the water supply flow meter 31. When the display value of the water supply flowmeter 31 reaches the specified value, the opening direction of the second electromagnetic valve 15 is adjusted from A-B to A-C, and water flows to the nozzle 161. The rainfall was distributed by the rainfall distributor assembly 162, and the rainfall was simulated by spraying to start the test.
The wetting front of the soil column in the experiment was observed through the soil column barrel 212 made of transparent toughened glass.
In the test, the control system 4 controls the third electromagnetic valve 222 to be opened and closed, controls the drainage of the runoff drainage pipe 221, and the drainage flowmeter 32 collects the flow rate of runoff drainage.
Seven tensiometers 33 measure the substrate suction of the soil layers at different positions during rainfall, and seven soil moisture sensors 34 measure the moisture content of the soil layers at different positions.
The data analysis device 5 receives the data collected by the data collection device 3 and analyzes the data to obtain the infiltration rule of the precipitation in the unsaturated soil.
Examples effects and effects
According to the rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system provided by the embodiment, the rainfall intensity can be controlled by adopting the water flow loop unit controlled by the control system; the rainfall equipartition devices are combined differently, so that rainfall distributed in different spaces can be simulated; the runoff drainage unit is adopted, so that the influence of surface runoff on a test result can be avoided; due to the adoption of the data acquisition device, the control system and the data analysis device, the rainfall simulation earth column infiltration test system has high automation degree.
In a word, the rainfall simulation soil column infiltration test system has the advantages of good test data persistence, high test precision, simplicity in use and operation and high automation degree, and can provide effective test data for research on rainfall, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and infiltration rules of rainfall types and soil layers of soil columns.

Claims (6)

1. The utility model provides a rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system for research rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil, its characterized in that has:
the rainfall simulation device comprises a water storage tank, a water flow loop unit connected with the water storage tank, and a spraying component connected with the water flow loop unit and used for simulating rainfall;
the rain receiving device comprises a plurality of soil column cylinder units and runoff drainage units, wherein the soil column cylinder units are vertically arranged below the spraying component;
the data acquisition device is used for acquiring data and comprises a water supply flowmeter arranged in the water flow loop unit, a drainage flowmeter arranged in the runoff drainage unit and a plurality of sensor units which are respectively arranged on the soil column barrel unit and are used for acquiring rainfall soil column infiltration data;
the control system is used for controlling the water supply quantity of the water flow loop unit and the drainage of the runoff drainage unit; and
the data analysis device is used for receiving the data collected by the data collection device and analyzing the data to obtain the infiltration rule of precipitation in unsaturated soil,
wherein the water flow loop unit comprises a water pipe, a water pump with a water inlet end connected with the water storage tank through a water pipe, a first electromagnetic valve and a second electromagnetic valve,
the first electromagnetic valve and the second electromagnetic valve are respectively provided with a water inlet and two water outlets,
the water inlet of the first electromagnetic valve is communicated with the output end of the water pump through a water pipe, one water outlet of the first electromagnetic valve is communicated with the water storage tank through a water pipe,
the water inlet of the second electromagnetic valve is communicated with the other water outlet of the first electromagnetic valve through a water pipe, one water outlet of the second electromagnetic valve is communicated with the water storage tank through a water pipe,
the spraying component comprises a spray head connected with the other water outlet of the second electromagnetic valve and a rainfall equalizer arranged in the spray head,
the two rainfall equipartition devices are both circular and are horizontally arranged in the spray head, the circle centers of the two rainfall equipartition devices are positioned on the central axis of the spray head,
one of the two rainfall equipartition devices is a rainfall equipartition device with uniform distribution of holes, the other is one of a rainfall equipartition device with middle distribution of holes and periphery intensive distribution of holes, a rainfall equipartition device with half dense distribution of holes and periphery intensive distribution of holes, or the two rainfall equipartition devices are rainfall equipartition devices with uniform distribution of holes,
in the soil column cylinder unit, the outer wall of the uppermost soil column cylinder is provided with dimension scales along the radial direction from top to bottom, and six drain holes are uniformly arranged at the position 30cm away from the upper end along the horizontal plane,
in the soil column tube unit, the bottom of the soil column tube at the lowest part is provided with a percolation drainage layer,
the runoff drainage unit comprises an annular runoff drainage pipe communicated with the drainage hole, a second drainage tank communicated with the runoff drainage pipe, and a third electromagnetic valve arranged between the runoff drainage pipe and the second drainage tank.
2. The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system of claim 1, wherein:
the rainfall equipartition device is provided with a porous structure and used for dispersing water to form simulated raindrops.
3. The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system of claim 1, wherein:
the earth pillar cylinder unit comprises an earth pillar cylinder support, a plurality of earth pillar cylinders which are arranged on the earth pillar cylinder support and are sequentially stacked from top to bottom and filled with earth pillar models, and a first row of water tanks arranged below the earth pillar cylinder support.
4. The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system of claim 3, wherein:
wherein the sensor unit includes a plurality of tensiometers and a plurality of soil moisture sensors,
the tensiometer is uniformly arranged on the inner side of the outer wall of the soil column casing along the radial direction and is used for measuring the matrix suction force of a soil layer during rainfall,
the soil moisture sensor corresponds the tensiometer sets up on the outer wall is inboard for measure the water content of soil layer.
5. The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system of claim 3, wherein:
the soil column barrel is made of transparent toughened glass.
6. The rainfall simulation earth pillar infiltration test system of claim 1, wherein:
wherein the water feed flow meter is provided between the first solenoid valve and the second solenoid valve,
the drain flow meter is disposed between the third solenoid valve and the second drain tank.
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