CN106882961B - Easy-to-clean domestic porcelain and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Easy-to-clean domestic porcelain and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN106882961B
CN106882961B CN201710024482.8A CN201710024482A CN106882961B CN 106882961 B CN106882961 B CN 106882961B CN 201710024482 A CN201710024482 A CN 201710024482A CN 106882961 B CN106882961 B CN 106882961B
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blank
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weight
glaze
temperature
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CN106882961A (en
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林道藩
周楚煌
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Guangdong Songfa Ceramics Co.,Ltd.
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Chaozhou Yasen Ceramic Industry Co ltd
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    • C04B35/20Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on silicates other than clay rich in magnesium oxide, e.g. forsterite
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    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C8/00Enamels; Glazes; Fusion seal compositions being frit compositions having non-frit additions
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    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C8/00Enamels; Glazes; Fusion seal compositions being frit compositions having non-frit additions
    • C03C8/14Glass frit mixtures having non-frit additions, e.g. opacifiers, colorants, mill-additions
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    • C04B41/00After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics; Treatment of natural stone
    • C04B41/45Coating or impregnating, e.g. injection in masonry, partial coating of green or fired ceramics, organic coating compositions for adhering together two concrete elements
    • C04B41/50Coating or impregnating, e.g. injection in masonry, partial coating of green or fired ceramics, organic coating compositions for adhering together two concrete elements with inorganic materials
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    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/34Non-metal oxides, non-metal mixed oxides, or salts thereof that form the non-metal oxides upon heating, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3427Silicates other than clay, e.g. water glass
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Abstract

The invention discloses an easy-to-clean daily porcelain, which consists of a porcelain body and a glaze layer arranged on the surface of the porcelain body, wherein the blank for manufacturing the porcelain body is prepared by taking 45-47 parts by weight of calcined talc, 28-30 parts by weight of talc, 6-8 parts by weight of feldspar, 10-12 parts by weight of kaolin and 5-7 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials according to the parts by weight, the glaze for forming the glaze layer is prepared by taking 88-90 parts by weight of frit, 2-5 parts by weight of kaolin, 6-8 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1-2 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials according to the parts by weight, and the preparation method comprises the following steps: 1) preparing a blank; 2) preparing glaze; 3) forming and trimming the whole body; 4) biscuit firing glaze spraying; 5) the finished product is sintered, and the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain has better transmittance, high strength, difficult cracking and obvious easy-to-clean effect; the preparation method improves the density and the strength of the product and improves the yield of the product.

Description

Easy-to-clean domestic porcelain and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of ceramics, in particular to an easy-to-clean daily porcelain and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Domestic china is china for contacting food, such as plates, bowls, cups, dishes, pots, and the like. Daily chinaware is used repeatedly, including cleaned. In the cleaning process after the use of the conventional daily porcelain, residual food with strong adhesion is often adhered to the conventional daily porcelain and is difficult to clean, and besides a cleaning agent, a coarse special cloth is added for wiping so as to achieve the desired cleaning effect; the method of wiping for many times easily leads the glaze surface on the surface of the porcelain to be worn, leads the porcelain to be more easily adhered with food and is more difficult to clean.
The main reason that the conventional daily porcelain is easy to adhere to food and difficult to clean is that the glaze layer is poor in compactness and hardness. The glaze layer is made of materials (namely glaze) with inappropriate thickness proportion, particularly the addition of deficient superfine materials (such as submicron materials), so that the glaze layer with high density and low apparent porosity is difficult to prepare, and the glaze layer which appears to be smooth on the surface does not have easy cleaning effect when being cleaned after use.
In the daily ceramic production industry, engineers and technicians can not really prepare a glaze layer with an easy-to-clean effect by improving a raw material formula and a preparation process through a conventional method. How to improve the density of the glaze layer of the domestic porcelain and reduce the apparent porosity of the glaze layer so that the product really has an easy-cleaning effect is a technical problem in the current industry.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provides the preparation method of the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain, wherein the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain has the advantages of better light transmittance, high strength, difficult cracking, compact and smooth glaze layer, small apparent porosity and obvious easy-to-clean effect; the preparation method improves the density and the strength of the product, greatly improves the surface hardness of the glaze layer, enhances the easy-cleaning effect, can effectively prevent the product from cracking and improves the yield of the product.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the easy-to-clean daily porcelain consists of a porcelain body and a glaze layer arranged on the surface of the porcelain body, wherein the blank for manufacturing the porcelain body is prepared by taking 45-47 parts by weight of calcined talc, 28-30 parts by weight of talc, 6-8 parts by weight of feldspar, 10-12 parts by weight of kaolin and 5-7 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials according to the parts by weight, and the glaze for forming the glaze layer is prepared by taking 88-90 parts by weight of frit, 2-5 parts by weight of kaolin, 6-8 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1-2 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials according to the parts by weight.
The calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at the temperature of 1200-1260 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 6-8 hours.
The frit is prepared by taking 15-25 parts by weight of quartz, 30-40 parts by weight of feldspar, 2-4 parts by weight of talc, 12-18 parts by weight of borax, 1-4 parts by weight of zinc oxide, 1-4 parts by weight of barium carbonate, 1-4 parts by weight of lithium carbonate, 2-8 parts by weight of aluminum hydroxide and 2-8 parts by weight of strontium carbonate as raw materials, mixing, smelting at 1350-1400 ℃, and cooling in clear water.
The finely ground kaolin is prepared by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding, and the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 150nm-280 nm.
The preparation method of the easy-to-clean daily porcelain comprises the following steps:
1) preparing a blank: taking raw materials required for manufacturing a green body according to parts by weight, mixing and grinding the raw materials in sequence, sieving, removing iron and ageing to prepare mud cakes, and then pugging the mud cakes to obtain the green body for later use;
2) preparing glaze: taking raw materials required for manufacturing a glaze layer according to parts by weight, sequentially mixing, grinding, sieving and deironing the raw materials, and adding clear water for blending to obtain a glaze for later use;
3) shaping and finishing: processing and molding the blank obtained in the step 1), naturally drying the molded product in a normal temperature and normal pressure environment to obtain a molded blank body, polishing the surface of the molded blank body to make the surface of the molded blank body smooth, and continuously naturally drying the molded blank body in the normal temperature and normal pressure environment to obtain a trimmed blank body;
4) biscuit firing glaze spraying: carrying out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body obtained in the step 3) to obtain a biscuiting blank body, heating the biscuiting blank body, enabling the biscuiting blank body to rotate at a constant speed, spraying the glaze material prepared in the step 2) on the surface of the biscuiting blank body to form a glaze layer, and then placing the biscuit layer in a normal-temperature normal-pressure environment for natural drying to obtain a glaze spraying blank body;
5) firing a finished product: and 4) firing the sprayed glaze blank obtained in the step 4) at a high temperature, naturally cooling after firing, then carrying out quenching treatment, and then carrying out natural cooling for the second time to obtain a finished product of the domestic porcelain easy to clean.
Mixing the raw materials obtained in the step 1), adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials through a 220-mesh sieve, removing iron through an iron remover, storing the iron-removed raw materials in a mud storage tank for ageing for 36-48 hours, press-filtering the aged raw materials into mud cakes through a press filter, and pugging the mud cakes through a pugging machine to prepare blanks with mass water content of 22-24% for later use.
Mixing the raw materials in the step 2), adding clear water for wet ball milling, screening the ball-milled raw materials through a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron through an iron remover, and adding clear water to prepare glaze with the concentration of 60 +/-2 Baume degrees for later use.
And 3) processing and forming the blank by adopting grouting forming, pressure grouting forming, rolling forming, isostatic pressing forming and other processing and forming modes, storing the obtained formed blank on the wood board for naturally drying for 10-12 hours, polishing the surface of the formed blank by adopting clear water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth, and storing the polished blank on the wood board for naturally drying for 6-10 hours.
And 4) adopting a ceramic kiln, placing the fettling blank obtained in the step 3) in an oxidizing atmosphere for biscuit firing at 1270-1280 ℃ for 10-12 hours, naturally cooling the obtained biscuit firing blank, heating the biscuit firing blank to make the surface temperature of the biscuit firing blank reach 80-90 ℃, placing the biscuit firing blank on a turntable, rotating the biscuit firing blank at a constant speed of 45-65 r/min, spraying glaze on the rotating biscuit firing blank by using a spray gun to make the surface of the biscuit uniformly sprayed with a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.0-1.5mm, and storing the biscuit on a wood board for naturally drying for 8-12 hours.
The step 5) adopts a ceramic kiln, the glaze spraying blank obtained in the step 4) is placed in an oxidizing atmosphere for sintering, the sintering temperature is 1160-1170 ℃, the sintering time is 12-14 hours, when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, the constant temperature is kept for 10-15 minutes, then, the ceramic kiln stops heating, when the temperature of the ceramic kiln naturally drops to 1140-1150 ℃, opening the kiln door to make the kiln door open a crack of 20-30cm, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the crack to rapidly reduce the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out quenching treatment on the glaze spraying blank in the ceramic kiln, when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 660-680 ℃, and closing the kiln door, naturally cooling the temperature of the ceramic kiln to be below 100 ℃ to obtain a finished product of the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain, and finally, completely opening the kiln door and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the calcined talc is adopted in the blank making raw materials of the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain, so that the blank of the product can be effectively ensured to keep better transmittance; the blank making raw materials are added with the talc, the feldspar and the kaolin, so that the strength of the product blank is improved after the product blank is fired, and the product blank is well combined with the glaze layer which is easy to clean; the bentonite is added into the blank making raw material, so that the product blank is not easy to crack in the forming process; the raw material for making the glaze of the easy-to-clean daily porcelain adopts the frit, so that the transparency of the glaze layer after the product is fired can be improved; the elutriated kaolin is added into the glaze making raw material, so that the glaze shrinkage phenomenon in the product firing process can be reduced; finely ground kaolin is added into the glaze making raw material, and the finely ground kaolin reaches submicron level, so that the surface compactness of a glaze layer after the product is fired is improved, the apparent porosity is reduced, and the cleanability and the hardness of the glaze are improved; the bentonite is added into the glaze making raw material, so that the adsorption force and the leveling property of the glaze in the glazing of the product are enhanced, and the glazing operability is improved; the prepared easy-cleaning daily porcelain has good transmittance, compact and smooth glaze layer and small apparent porosity, the Vickers microhardness of the glaze is higher than 6.0Gpa, the easy-cleaning effect is obvious, the easy-cleaning effect cannot be reduced after numerous uses and cleaning, and the lead and cadmium dissolution amount of the product meets relevant standards at home and abroad through detection;
2. the preparation method enables the product to be decomposed and discharged impurities as much as possible in the biscuit firing stage, ensures that the glaze layer cannot be broken through by volatile matters discharged from the body of the product in the subsequent firing, and reduces the generation of micro air holes of the glaze layer; the adsorption capacity of the surface of the product to the glaze slip is enhanced, and the adsorption capacity to the glaze slip is reduced because the matrix of the product is basically vitrified by high-temperature biscuiting; the firing temperature of the product is lower than the biscuit firing temperature of the product, so that the product matrix basically does not produce large chemical reaction in the firing process of the product, and the glaze layer can be well combined with the surface of the matrix after being melted; in the preparation process, the product is subjected to quenching treatment, so that the product is rapidly shrunk by cooling, the density and the strength of the product are improved, the surface hardness of a glaze layer is greatly improved, and the easy-cleaning effect is enhanced; the frit and the finely ground kaolin are added into the glaze formula, so that the product can be subjected to quenching and has an easy-to-clean effect; and the product can be prevented from cracking, so that the yield of the product is effectively improved.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples:
specific example 1:
firstly, respectively taking 45 parts by weight of calcined talc, 28 parts by weight of talc, 8 parts by weight of feldspar, 12 parts by weight of kaolin and 7 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a blank body, mixing the raw materials, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 220-mesh sieve, performing iron removal treatment by an iron removal machine, storing the iron-removed raw materials in a mud storage tank for aging treatment for 36 hours, then performing pressure filtration on the aged raw materials by a pressure filter to obtain mud cakes, and pugging the mud cakes by a pugging machine to prepare the blank body with the mass water content of 22% for later use; wherein the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at 1200 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 6 hours.
Secondly, respectively taking 88 parts by weight of fusion cake, 5 parts by weight of kaolin, 6 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1 part by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a glaze layer, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron by an iron remover, then adding clear water, and preparing into a glaze with the concentration of 58 baume degrees for later use; wherein, the frit is prepared by taking 15 weight parts of quartz, 40 weight parts of feldspar, 3.5 weight parts of talc, 15.5 weight parts of borax, 3.7 weight parts of zinc oxide, 2.3 weight parts of barium carbonate, 4 weight parts of lithium carbonate, 8 weight parts of aluminum hydroxide and 8 weight parts of strontium carbonate according to the weight parts respectively as raw materials, mixing, smelting at 1350 ℃, and cooling in clear water; the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding, and the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 150 nm.
Then, taking the obtained blank, processing and forming the blank by adopting a slip casting mode, storing the formed blank on a wood board, naturally drying the wood board for 10 hours in a normal-temperature normal-pressure environment to obtain a formed blank, then polishing the surface of the formed blank by adopting clear water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth to flatten the surface of the blank, storing the blank on the wood board, and continuously naturally drying the blank for 6 hours in the normal-temperature normal-pressure environment to obtain a trimmed blank;
then, a ceramic kiln is adopted to carry out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere, the biscuiting temperature is 1270 ℃, the biscuiting time is 10 hours, a biscuiting blank body is obtained, then the biscuiting blank body is naturally cooled, then the biscuiting blank body is heated, the surface temperature of the biscuiting blank body reaches 80 ℃, the biscuiting blank body is placed on a rotary table, the biscuiting blank body rotates at a constant speed of 45 revolutions per minute, the prepared glaze is sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body by a spray gun, a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.0mm is uniformly sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body, and then the biscuiting blank body is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 8 hours in a normal-temperature and normal-pressure;
and finally, placing the obtained glaze spraying blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere for high-temperature sintering by adopting a ceramic kiln, wherein the sintering temperature is 1160 ℃, the sintering time is 12 hours, naturally cooling after sintering, keeping the temperature for 10 minutes when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, then stopping heating the ceramic kiln, naturally cooling the temperature in the ceramic kiln to 1140 ℃, opening a kiln door to form a 20cm crack on the kiln door, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the crack to sharply lower the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out quenching treatment on the glaze spraying blank body in the ceramic kiln, closing the kiln door when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 660 ℃, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln for the second time to reduce the temperature to be below 100 ℃, thus obtaining a finished product of the easy-to-clean daily porcelain, and finally completely opening the kiln door, and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
Specific example 2:
firstly, respectively taking 47 parts by weight of calcined talc, 30 parts by weight of talc, 7 parts by weight of feldspar, 10 parts by weight of kaolin and 6 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a blank body, mixing the raw materials, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 220-mesh sieve, performing iron removal treatment by an iron removal machine, storing the iron-removed raw materials in a mud storage tank for aging treatment for 48 hours, then performing pressure filtration on the aged raw materials by a pressure filter to obtain mud cakes, and pugging the mud cakes by a pugging machine to prepare the blank body with the mass water content of 24% for later use; wherein the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at 1260 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 8 hours.
Secondly, respectively taking 88.5 parts by weight of fusion cake, 2.5 parts by weight of kaolin, 8 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1 part by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a glaze layer, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron by an iron remover, and then adding clear water to prepare a glaze material with the concentration of 62 baume degrees for later use; wherein, the frit is prepared by taking 17 weight parts of quartz, 39 weight parts of feldspar, 4 weight parts of talcum, 17 weight parts of borax, 4 weight parts of zinc oxide, 2 weight parts of barium carbonate, 3 weight parts of lithium carbonate, 7.5 weight parts of aluminum hydroxide and 6.5 weight parts of strontium carbonate as raw materials respectively according to the weight parts, mixing, smelting at 1400 ℃, and cooling in clear water; the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding the kaolin, wherein the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 280 nm.
Then, the obtained blank is taken, the blank is processed and molded by adopting a pressure grouting molding mode, the molded blank is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 12 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a molded blank, then, clean water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth are adopted to polish the surface of the molded blank to enable the surface of the blank to be smooth, and then the blank is stored on the wood board and is continuously naturally dried for 10 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a repaired blank;
then, a ceramic kiln is adopted to carry out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere, the biscuiting temperature is 1280 ℃, the biscuiting time is 12 hours, a biscuiting blank body is obtained, then the biscuiting blank body is naturally cooled, then the biscuiting blank body is heated, the surface temperature of the biscuiting blank body reaches 90 ℃, the biscuiting blank body is placed on a rotary table, the biscuiting blank body rotates at a constant speed of 65 revolutions per minute, the prepared glaze is sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body by a spray gun, a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.5mm is uniformly sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body, and the biscuiting blank body is stored on a wood board and naturally dried for 12 hours in a normal-temperature and normal-pressure environment;
and finally, placing the obtained glaze spraying blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere for high-temperature sintering by adopting a ceramic kiln, wherein the sintering temperature is 1170 ℃, the sintering time is 14 hours, naturally cooling after sintering is finished, keeping the temperature for 15 minutes when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, then stopping heating the ceramic kiln, naturally cooling the temperature in the ceramic kiln to 1150 ℃, opening a kiln door, forming a 30cm gap in the kiln door, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the gap, sharply cooling the temperature in the ceramic kiln, rapidly cooling the glaze spraying blank body in the ceramic kiln, closing the kiln door when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 680 ℃, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln for the second time, reducing the temperature to be below 100 ℃, preparing a finished product of the easy-to-clean daily porcelain, and finally completely opening the kiln door, and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
Specific example 3:
firstly, respectively taking 47 parts by weight of calcined talc, 30 parts by weight of talc, 6 parts by weight of feldspar, 12 parts by weight of kaolin and 5 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a blank body according to the parts by weight, mixing the raw materials, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the raw materials subjected to ball milling by a 220-mesh sieve, performing iron removal treatment by an iron removal machine, storing the raw materials subjected to iron removal into a mud storage tank for ageing treatment, wherein the ageing time is 39 hours, then performing pressure filtration on the aged raw materials by a pressure filter to obtain mud cakes, and pugging the mud cakes by a pugging machine to prepare the blank body with the mass water content of 22.7% for later use; wherein the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at the temperature of 1245 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 6.8 hours.
Secondly, taking 88.2 parts by weight of fusion cake, 3.4 parts by weight of kaolin, 6.8 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1.6 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a glaze layer, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials with a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron by using an iron remover, and then adding clear water to prepare a glaze material with the concentration of 61 baume degrees for later use; wherein, the frit is prepared by taking 22 parts by weight of quartz, 40 parts by weight of feldspar, 4 parts by weight of talc, 15 parts by weight of borax, 2 parts by weight of zinc oxide, 2 parts by weight of barium carbonate, 2 parts by weight of lithium carbonate, 5 parts by weight of aluminum hydroxide and 8 parts by weight of strontium carbonate according to the parts by weight of the raw materials, mixing, smelting at 1360 ℃, and cooling in clear water; the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding the kaolin, wherein the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 180 nm.
Then, the obtained blank is taken, the blank is processed and formed in a rolling forming mode, the formed blank is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 10.6 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a formed blank, then, clean water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth are used for carrying out surface grinding on the formed blank to enable the surface of the blank to be smooth, the blank is stored on the wood board and is continuously naturally dried for 8 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a ground blank;
then, a ceramic kiln is adopted to carry out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere, the biscuiting temperature is 1276 ℃, the biscuiting time is 10.2 hours, a biscuiting blank body is obtained, then the biscuiting blank body is naturally cooled, then the biscuiting blank body is heated, the surface temperature of the biscuiting blank body reaches 83 ℃, the biscuiting blank body is placed on a rotary table, the biscuiting blank body rotates at a constant speed of 50 revolutions per minute, the prepared glaze is sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body by a spray gun, a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.1mm is uniformly sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body, and then the biscuiting blank body is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 8.8 hours in a normal temperature and pressure environment, so;
and finally, placing the obtained glaze spraying blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere for high-temperature sintering by adopting a ceramic kiln, wherein the sintering temperature is 1162 ℃, the sintering time is 12.5 hours, naturally cooling after sintering, keeping the temperature for 11 minutes when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, then stopping heating the ceramic kiln, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln to 1147 ℃, opening a kiln door to form a 23cm crack, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the crack to sharply lower the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out rapid cooling treatment on the glaze spraying blank body in the ceramic kiln, closing the kiln door when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 672 ℃, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln for the second time to reduce the temperature to be below 100 ℃, thus obtaining a finished product of the easily cleaned porcelain, finally completely opening the kiln door, and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
Specific example 4:
firstly, respectively taking 46.1 parts by weight of calcined talc, 29 parts by weight of talc, 7.3 parts by weight of feldspar, 10.7 parts by weight of kaolin and 6.9 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a blank body according to the parts by weight, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the raw materials subjected to ball milling by a 220-mesh sieve, removing iron by an iron remover, storing the raw materials subjected to iron removal into a mud storage tank for ageing treatment for 42 hours, then, press-filtering the aged raw materials into mud cakes by a press filter, and then, pugging the mud cakes by a pugging machine to prepare a blank with the mass water content of 23.9% for later use; wherein the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at 1256 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 7.4 hours.
Secondly, respectively taking 90 parts by weight of fusion cake, 2.3 parts by weight of kaolin, 6.7 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1 part by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a glaze layer, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron by an iron remover, and then adding clear water to prepare a glaze material with the concentration of 59 baume degrees for later use; wherein, the frit is prepared by taking 24 weight parts of quartz, 40 weight parts of feldspar, 2 weight parts of talc, 14.2 weight parts of borax, 2.8 weight parts of zinc oxide, 3 weight parts of barium carbonate, 1 weight part of lithium carbonate, 6 weight parts of aluminum hydroxide and 7 weight parts of strontium carbonate according to the weight parts respectively as raw materials, mixing, smelting at 1389 ℃, and cooling in clear water; the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding, and the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 245 nm.
And then, taking the obtained blank, processing and forming the blank in an isostatic pressing mode, storing the formed blank on a wood board, naturally drying the wood board for 11.4 hours in a normal-temperature normal-pressure environment to obtain a formed blank, polishing the surface of the formed blank by using clean water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth to flatten the surface of the blank, storing the blank on the wood board, and continuously naturally drying the blank for 7 hours in the normal-temperature normal-pressure environment to obtain a trimmed blank.
Then, a ceramic kiln is adopted to carry out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere, the biscuiting temperature is 1277 ℃, the biscuiting time is 11.5 hours, a biscuiting blank body is obtained, then the biscuiting blank body is naturally cooled, then the biscuiting blank body is heated, the surface temperature of the biscuiting blank body reaches 87 ℃, the biscuiting blank body is placed on a rotary table, the biscuiting blank body rotates at a constant speed of 63 revolutions per minute, the prepared glaze is sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body by a spray gun, a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.4mm is uniformly sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body, and then the biscuiting blank body is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 10 hours in a normal-temperature and normal-pressure;
and finally, placing the obtained glaze spraying blank in an oxidizing atmosphere for high-temperature sintering by adopting a ceramic kiln, wherein the sintering temperature is 1168 ℃, the sintering time is 13.4 hours, naturally cooling after sintering is finished, keeping the temperature for 13 minutes when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, then stopping heating the ceramic kiln, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln to 1148 ℃, opening a kiln door to form a 27cm gap in the kiln door, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the gap to sharply reduce the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out rapid cooling treatment on the glaze spraying blank in the ceramic kiln, closing the kiln door when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 676 ℃, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln for the second time to reduce the temperature to below 100 ℃, thus obtaining a finished product of the easily cleaned porcelain, finally completely opening the kiln door, and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
Specific example 5:
firstly, respectively taking 45 parts by weight of calcined talc, 29 parts by weight of talc, 7 parts by weight of feldspar, 12 parts by weight of kaolin and 7 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a blank body, mixing the raw materials, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 220-mesh sieve, performing iron removal treatment by an iron removal machine, storing the iron-removed raw materials in a mud storage tank for aging treatment for 46 hours, then performing pressure filtration on the aged raw materials by a pressure filter to obtain mud cakes, and pugging the mud cakes by a pugging machine to prepare the blank body with mass water content of 23.9% for later use; wherein the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at 1255 ℃, and the calcining time of the calcined talc is 6.8 hours.
Secondly, respectively taking 90 parts by weight of fusion cake, 3 parts by weight of kaolin, 6 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1 part by weight of bentonite as raw materials for preparing a glaze layer, mixing, adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials by a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron by an iron remover, then adding clear water, and preparing into a glaze with the concentration of 60 baume degrees for later use; wherein, the frit is prepared by taking 25 parts by weight of quartz, 31 parts by weight of feldspar, 4 parts by weight of talc, 12 parts by weight of borax, 4 parts by weight of zinc oxide, 4 parts by weight of barium carbonate, 4 parts by weight of lithium carbonate, 8 parts by weight of aluminum hydroxide and 8 parts by weight of strontium carbonate according to the parts by weight of the raw materials, mixing, smelting at 1390 ℃, and cooling in clear water; the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and finely grinding, wherein the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 220 nm.
Then, the obtained blank is taken, the blank is processed and molded by adopting a pressure grouting molding mode, the molded blank is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 10.9 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a molded blank, then the molded blank is subjected to surface grinding by adopting clear water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth to enable the surface of the blank to be smooth, and then the blank is stored on the wood board and is continuously naturally dried for 9 hours under the normal temperature and pressure environment to obtain a ground blank;
then, a ceramic kiln is adopted to carry out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body in an oxidizing atmosphere, the biscuiting temperature is 1276 ℃, the biscuiting time is 11.2 hours, a biscuiting blank body is obtained, then the biscuiting blank body is naturally cooled, then the biscuiting blank body is heated, the surface temperature of the biscuiting blank body reaches 86.5 ℃, the biscuiting blank body is placed on a rotary table, the biscuiting blank body rotates at a constant speed of 64 revolutions per minute, the prepared glaze is sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body by a spray gun, a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.4mm is uniformly sprayed on the surface of the biscuiting blank body, and then the biscuiting blank body is stored on a wood board and is naturally dried for 11 hours in a normal temperature and pressure environment, so;
and finally, placing the obtained glaze spraying blank in an oxidizing atmosphere for high-temperature sintering by adopting a ceramic kiln, wherein the sintering temperature is 1166 ℃, the sintering time is 12.6 hours, naturally cooling after sintering is finished, keeping the temperature for 14 minutes when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, then stopping heating the ceramic kiln, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln to 1146 ℃, opening a kiln door to form a 28cm crack on the kiln door, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the crack to sharply reduce the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out rapid cooling treatment on the glaze spraying blank in the ceramic kiln, closing the kiln door when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 666 ℃, naturally cooling the ceramic kiln for the second time to reduce the temperature to be below 100 ℃, thus obtaining a finished product of the easily cleaned porcelain, finally completely opening the kiln door, and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
The invention discloses an easy-to-bind domestic porcelain and a manufacturing method thereof, wherein a 200-mesh sieve is selected when a blank is prepared, so that impurities or coarse particles are prevented from entering the blank, and the due fineness of a material is ensured; the calcined talc is adopted as the raw material, impurities are removed by calcination, the MgO content in the biscuit is not lower than 22.0% after the product is calcined, and the good transmittance of the product body is ensured; the talc, the feldspar and the kaolin are added into the raw materials, so that the strength of the product after being fired is improved, the expansion coefficient of a product blank is similar to that of the easy-to-clean glaze layer, and the blank is well combined with the easy-to-clean glaze layer; the bentonite is added into the raw materials, so that the product is not easy to crack in the forming process.
When the glaze is prepared, a 250-mesh sieve is selected, aiming at preventing impurities or coarse particles from entering glaze, so that a spray gun is blocked, the sieve is larger than 250 meshes, and glaze slip is difficult to sieve, so that the working procedure is influenced; the prepared glaze (or named as glaze slip) is controlled to be 60 +/-2 baume degrees in blending concentration so as to be suitable for glaze spraying construction and glaze layer thickness control; the frit is adopted in the raw materials, and is formed by combining and smelting a plurality of raw materials, so that the transparency of a glaze layer after the product is fired is high, and the firing temperature of the product can be reduced; the elutriated Yunnan kaolin is added into the raw materials, so that the glaze shrinkage phenomenon in the product firing process can be reduced; finely ground kaolin is added into the raw materials, and the fine grinding reaches submicron level (namely the fineness is 150nm-280 nm), so that the surface compactness of a glaze layer after the product is fired is improved, the apparent porosity is reduced, and the cleanability and the hardness of the glaze are improved; the bentonite is added into the raw materials, so that the adsorption force and the leveling property of the glaze material in the glazing of the product are enhanced, and the glazing operability is improved.
In the whole process, the wood board is used for placing the product blank for natural drying, so that the volatilization of water in the product blank is facilitated, the surface of the wood board is smooth, the product deformation is prevented, and the wood board is economical and easy to obtain.
When the glaze is sprayed, if the rotating speed is lower than 45 revolutions per minute, the glaze layer is not uniform; if the rotating speed is higher than 65 revolutions per minute, the centrifugation is too large, which is not beneficial to the biscuit to absorb the glaze slip; the reaction is carried out in the ceramic kiln by adopting an oxidizing atmosphere so as to ensure that all materials react fully in the firing process of the product.
The temperature of the product during biscuit firing is 1270-1280 ℃ which is higher than the temperature of 1160-1170 ℃ during firing of the product, so that the product is decomposed as much as possible and impurities are discharged during biscuit firing, the glaze layer is prevented from being broken by volatile matters discharged from a formed blank body during subsequent firing, and micro pores of the glaze layer are reduced; the biscuit firing blank is heated and then is glazed, which is beneficial to enhancing the adsorption capacity of the surface of the biscuit blank to glaze (or glaze slip), and the adsorption capacity to the glaze (or glaze slip) is reduced because the biscuit blank is basically vitrified by high-temperature biscuit firing; the firing temperature of the glaze spraying blank body is lower than the biscuit firing temperature of the biscuit blank body, so that the glaze spraying blank body does not generate large chemical reaction basically in the firing process of a finished product, and the glaze layer can be well combined with the surface of the biscuit firing body after being melted; in the finished product firing process, the kiln door is opened at the temperature of 1140-1150 ℃, and cold air enters the kiln to cool the product and shrink rapidly, so that the density and strength of the product can be effectively improved, the surface hardness of the glaze layer is improved, and the easy-cleaning effect of the product is further enhanced. The article can undergo rapid cooling and produce an easy-to-clean effect, which is associated with the addition of frits and kaolin finely ground to submicron levels (i.e., 150nm to 280nm fineness) in glaze formulations; the furnace door is closed when the temperature of the furnace is reduced to 660-680 ℃, so that the cracking of the product is prevented, the porcelain is easy to crack in the shrinkage of temperature reduction and shock cooling at the stage of 600-300 ℃, and the porcelain is not cracked when cooled at the high temperature stage, which is the characteristic of the porcelain.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention, so that the equivalent changes or modifications of the components, processes, features and principles of the present invention by those skilled in the art can be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. An easy-to-clean daily porcelain is characterized in that: the easy-to-clean daily porcelain consists of a porcelain body and a glaze layer arranged on the surface of the porcelain body, wherein the blank for manufacturing the porcelain body is prepared by taking 45-47 parts by weight of calcined talc, 28-30 parts by weight of talc, 6-8 parts by weight of feldspar, 10-12 parts by weight of kaolin and 5-7 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials respectively, the glaze for forming the glaze layer is prepared by taking 88-90 parts by weight of frit, 2-5 parts by weight of kaolin, 6-8 parts by weight of finely ground kaolin and 1-2 parts by weight of bentonite as raw materials respectively according to the parts by weight, the calcined talc is prepared by calcining talc at the temperature of 1200-1260 ℃, the calcination time of the calcined talc is 6-8 hours, the frit is 15-25 parts by weight of quartz, 30-40 parts by weight of feldspar, 30-40 parts by weight of talc and the weight of bentonite respectively taken according to the parts by weight, 2-4 parts of talcum, 12-18 parts of borax, 1-4 parts of zinc oxide, 1-4 parts of barium carbonate, 1-4 parts of lithium carbonate, 2-8 parts of aluminum hydroxide and 2-8 parts of strontium carbonate are mixed as raw materials, then the raw materials are smelted in the environment of 1350 plus materials and 1400 ℃, and then the raw materials are cooled in clear water to obtain the finely ground kaolin, wherein the finely ground kaolin is obtained by washing kaolin with water, removing impurities and then finely grinding the kaolin, and the fineness of the finely ground kaolin is 150nm-280 nm.
2. A preparation method of easy-to-clean daily porcelain is characterized by comprising the following steps: the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 1, which is prepared by the following steps:
1) preparing a blank: taking raw materials required for manufacturing a green body according to parts by weight, mixing and grinding the raw materials in sequence, sieving, removing iron and ageing to prepare mud cakes, and then pugging the mud cakes to obtain the green body for later use;
2) preparing glaze: taking raw materials required for manufacturing a glaze layer according to parts by weight, sequentially mixing, grinding, sieving and deironing the raw materials, and adding clear water for blending to obtain a glaze for later use;
3) shaping and finishing: processing and molding the blank obtained in the step 1), naturally drying the molded product in a normal temperature and normal pressure environment to obtain a molded blank body, polishing the surface of the molded blank body to make the surface of the molded blank body smooth, and continuously naturally drying the molded blank body in the normal temperature and normal pressure environment to obtain a trimmed blank body;
4) biscuit firing glaze spraying: carrying out high-temperature biscuiting on the fettling blank body obtained in the step 3) to obtain a biscuiting blank body, heating the biscuiting blank body, enabling the biscuiting blank body to rotate at a constant speed, spraying the glaze material prepared in the step 2) on the surface of the biscuiting blank body to form a glaze layer, and then placing the biscuit layer in a normal-temperature normal-pressure environment for natural drying to obtain a glaze spraying blank body;
5) firing a finished product: and 4) firing the sprayed glaze blank obtained in the step 4) at a high temperature, naturally cooling after firing, then carrying out quenching treatment, and then carrying out natural cooling for the second time to obtain a finished product of the domestic porcelain easy to clean.
3. The method for preparing easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 2, wherein: mixing the raw materials obtained in the step 1), adding clear water for wet ball milling, sieving the ball-milled raw materials through a 220-mesh sieve, removing iron through an iron remover, storing the iron-removed raw materials in a mud storage tank for ageing for 36-48 hours, press-filtering the aged raw materials into mud cakes through a press filter, and pugging the mud cakes through a pugging machine to prepare blanks with mass water content of 22-24% for later use.
4. The method for preparing easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 2, wherein: mixing the raw materials in the step 2), adding clear water for wet ball milling, screening the ball-milled raw materials through a 250-mesh sieve, removing iron through an iron remover, and adding clear water to prepare glaze with the concentration of 60 +/-2 Baume degrees for later use.
5. The method for preparing easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 2, wherein: and 3) processing and forming the blank by adopting grouting forming, pressure grouting forming, rolling forming, isostatic pressing forming and other processing and forming modes, storing the obtained formed blank on the wood board for naturally drying for 10-12 hours, polishing the surface of the formed blank by adopting clear water, abrasive paper and cotton cloth, and storing the polished blank on the wood board for naturally drying for 6-10 hours.
6. The method for preparing easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 2, wherein: and 4) adopting a ceramic kiln, placing the fettling blank obtained in the step 3) in an oxidizing atmosphere for biscuit firing at 1270-1280 ℃ for 10-12 hours, naturally cooling the obtained biscuit firing blank, heating the biscuit firing blank to make the surface temperature of the biscuit firing blank reach 80-90 ℃, placing the biscuit firing blank on a turntable, rotating the biscuit firing blank at a constant speed of 45-65 r/min, spraying glaze on the rotating biscuit firing blank by using a spray gun to make the surface of the biscuit uniformly sprayed with a glaze layer with the thickness of 1.0-1.5mm, and storing the biscuit on a wood board for naturally drying for 8-12 hours.
7. The method for preparing easy-to-clean domestic porcelain according to claim 2, wherein: the step 5) adopts a ceramic kiln, the glaze spraying blank obtained in the step 4) is placed in an oxidizing atmosphere for sintering, the sintering temperature is 1160-1170 ℃, the sintering time is 12-14 hours, when the temperature in the kiln reaches the sintering temperature, the constant temperature is kept for 10-15 minutes, then, the ceramic kiln stops heating, when the temperature of the ceramic kiln naturally drops to 1140-1150 ℃, opening the kiln door to make the kiln door open a crack of 20-30cm, allowing air outside the ceramic kiln to enter the ceramic kiln through the crack to rapidly reduce the temperature in the ceramic kiln, carrying out quenching treatment on the glaze spraying blank in the ceramic kiln, when the temperature in the kiln is reduced to 660-680 ℃, and closing the kiln door, naturally cooling the temperature of the ceramic kiln to be below 100 ℃ to obtain a finished product of the easy-to-clean domestic porcelain, and finally, completely opening the kiln door and taking out the finished product in the ceramic kiln.
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