CN106670899B - A kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method - Google Patents

A kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106670899B
CN106670899B CN201610963123.4A CN201610963123A CN106670899B CN 106670899 B CN106670899 B CN 106670899B CN 201610963123 A CN201610963123 A CN 201610963123A CN 106670899 B CN106670899 B CN 106670899B
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mechanical polishing
electrochemical mechanical
gasbag
workpiece
ultrasonic vibration
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CN106670899A (en
Inventor
边燕飞
王振轩
张晓剑
蔡萌
张帅
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CETC 54 Research Institute
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CETC 54 Research Institute
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B1/00Processes of grinding or polishing; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such processes
    • B24B1/04Processes of grinding or polishing; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such processes subjecting the grinding or polishing tools, the abrading or polishing medium or work to vibration, e.g. grinding with ultrasonic frequency
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B41/00Component parts such as frames, beds, carriages, headstocks
    • B24B41/04Headstocks; Working-spindles; Features relating thereto
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25FPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC REMOVAL OF MATERIALS FROM OBJECTS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25F3/00Electrolytic etching or polishing
    • C25F3/16Polishing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25FPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC REMOVAL OF MATERIALS FROM OBJECTS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25F7/00Constructional parts, or assemblies thereof, of cells for electrolytic removal of material from objects; Servicing or operating

Abstract

A kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method, are related to Ultraprecision Machining field.Rubbing head of the invention increases one layer of conductive layer in traditional air bag polishing head material interlayer, i.e. the structure of the rubbing head is followed successively by rubber bag tank matrix, conductive layer and the polishing material bed of material.Polishing method of the invention carries out as steps described below: the hard brittle material workpiece being processed by shot blasting will be needed to be fixed in electrolytic cell;Electrolyte is added between rubbing head and workpiece surface;Under the action of ultrasonic elliptical vibratory and extra electric field, the polished surface and gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing capitiform of hard brittle material are secondary at friction;Friction pair polishes workpiece under the action of electrolyte, ultrasonic vibration and extra electric field.The present invention improves the efficiency of electrolyte using ultrasonic elliptical vibratory, achievees the purpose that improve polishing effect;The surface polishing precision of hard brittle material is improved, processing removal rate has the raising of a magnitude or more compared with conventional chemical-mechanical polishing.

Description

A kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method
Technical field
It is that one is related to the improvement of Conventional electrochemical mechanical polishing technology the invention belongs to Ultraprecision Machining field Kind carries out electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and the polishing method of surface polishing to hard brittle materials such as ceramics and metals.
Background technique
With the progress of microelectronics, photoelectron, sensor technology and material science and technology, hard brittle material oneself become tip section Advanced material the most active is applied in technology.Wherein, the representational semiconductor silicon for being used as chip material, germanium, arsenic Change gallium crystal, and the materials such as silicon nitride, alumina ceramic material and silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride, diamond for being commonly used for substrate Material.Such material is hard and crisp, and processability is very poor.
Silicon carbide because specific stiffness is high, thermal expansion coefficient is small, heating conduction is good, mechanical performance isotropism, dimensionally stable, Very thin or porous structure can be made, the excellent physical and chemical performance such as light weight effect is obvious, it has also become space large scale is light The material of new generation of type reflecting mirror.
Mirror surface roughness direct relation receives the accuracy of signal and the accuracy of instrument.To meet high-precision light The imaging requirements of system, it is desirable that silicon carbide mirror surface ultra-smooth not damaged (surface roughness Ra < 1nm, surface precision Root-mean-square value only several nanometers).But such material hardness is high, brittleness is big, poor to weld defect control, shock resistance, traditional Slightly, carefully gradually processing efficiency is low, the time is long for grinding and polishing (polishing) method, and cosmetic bug is more.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method, the dresses It sets and method is suitable for plane, spherical surface, aspherical, even arbitrary surface polishing.The technology is to change Ultrasonic machining and one kind Into the comprehensive New Processing being integrated of type electrochemical mechanical polishing.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions: a kind of gasbag-type electrochemical machinery Rubbing head, including spherical air bag, support arm, inner support, shaft and gasket, spherical air bag include the rubber bag tank matrix of bottom With the polyurethane polishing film of outer layer, support arm is fixedly connected with inner support, and the opening end cap of spherical air bag is at the bottom of interior bracket End, support arm and inner support support jointly fixes spherical air bag, and the contact portion of spherical air bag and support arm is provided with pad Piece, inner support are fixedly connected with shaft;One layer of conductive layer, the conductive layer are equipped between rubber bag tank matrix and polyurethane polishing film It is pasted on the spherical crown surface of bottom rubber bag tank substrate and is formed by conducting polymer, polyurethane polishing film is adhesive in the outer of conductive layer Surface.
Wherein, abrasive grain is inlaid in the conducting polymer, the abrasive grain is cast iron or steel.
Wherein, various holes or groove are provided on the polyurethane polishing film.
Ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing apparatus, including supersonic generator, ultrasonic vibrator, computer, electrochemistry Analyzer, gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, buff spindle and its clamping device, vacuum adsorption fixture and electrolytic cell, wait throw The workpiece of light processing is fixed in electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture, and rubbing head is installed on buff spindle;Electrochemical analysis The working electrode of instrument is connect with workpiece, and reference electrode is arranged in cell edge, to electrode and gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing The conductive layer connection of head;Supersonic generator generates high-frequency ac electric signal and exports to ultrasonic vibrator;Ultrasonic vibrator is by high frequency Ac signal is simultaneously converted into mechanical energy, is applied on gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head or passes through idler wheel for ultrasonic vibration Ultrasonic vibration is applied on electrolytic cell.
Wherein, the reference electrode is graphite, is placed at the position cell edge 5mm.
Wherein, the high-frequency ac signal frequency that the supersonic generator generates is 24.3kHz, working electrode with it is right Interelectrode applied voltage is less than 4V.
Wherein, the workpiece is aspherical hard brittle material, and the hard brittle material is ceramics or metal.
A kind of electrochemical mechanical polishing method of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary, comprising the following steps:
(1) workpiece by polished processing is fixed in electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture, by gasbag-type electrochemistry machine Tool rubbing head, which is installed on buff spindle, makes air bag form airtight cavity, is filled with low-pressure gas in the cavity;
(2) by gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head approach workpiece surface, and gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head with Electrolyte is added between workpiece surface;
(3) supersonic generator generates high-frequency ac electric signal and exports to ultrasonic vibrator;
(4) ultrasonic vibrator by high-frequency ac electric signal and is converted into mechanical energy, and ultrasonic vibration is applied to gasbag-type electrification It learns on mechanical polishing head or ultrasonic vibration is applied on electrolytic cell by idler wheel;
(5) under the action of extra electric field and ultrasonic vibration, the polished surface and gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing of workpiece It is secondary that the polyurethane polishing film of head forms friction;
(6) friction pair polishes workpiece under the action of electrolyte, ultrasonic vibration and extra electric field, obtains ultraprecise Smooth workpiece surface.
Wherein, the ultrasonic vibration is ultrasonic elliptical vibratory.
Wherein, the extra electric field is by applying between the conductive layer and workpiece of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head What applied voltage was formed.
Ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing method proposed by the present invention, the material removing rate and surface quality of workpiece Depending on applied voltage and ultrasonic vibration.The advantages of technology, is:
(1) it is processed by shot blasting under low-pressure (being less than 1.0psi).Polishing under low-pressure can reduce low-intensity medium Tearing and cross throw, substantially reduce the sensibility of device pattern in polishing process, at the same also can be reduced lap tool abrasion, extend lap tool Service life;
(2) it with the effect of oxidant during applied voltage substituted chemistry mechanical polishing (CMP), is free of or less containing oxidant Electrolyte to environmental-friendly;
(3) major impetus of the electrolysis as material removing rate is applied, voltage drive program appropriate and electrolyte add Add the combination of agent, can correctly control material remove rate, is convenient for end point determination;
(4) ultrasonic vibration is applied on electrochemical mechanical polishing tool or polished land, utilizes electrochemical mechanical polishing The ultrasonic elliptical vibratory that tool or platform generate, improves the efficiency of electrolyte used in electrochemical mechanical polishing, reaches and change The purpose of kind polishing effect;
(5) present invention has that high in machining efficiency, surface quality is good, at low cost, high degree of automation, easily operated excellent Point.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the polishing element and its motion principle schematic diagram of conventional planar electrochemical mechanical polishing;
Fig. 2 is that the polishing element for the electrochemical mechanical polishing device that ultrasonic vibration of the invention assists and its motion principle show It is intended to;
Fig. 3 is gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing header structure schematic diagram of the invention.
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawing.
Shown in Figure 3, gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head of the invention includes spherical air bag 1, support arm 2, pad Piece 3, inner support 4 and shaft 5, on inner support 4, open end and the step surface of inner support 4 closely paste 1 set of spherical air bag It closes;Support arm 2 is threadedly attached on inner support 4;Gasket 3 is set between support arm 2 and spherical air bag 1;In this way, by The support of the compression of gasket 3 and inside and outside bracket realizes positioning and the clamping of spherical air bag 1.Inner support 4 is joined by screw thread It connects in shaft 5, while the inner hole conical surface of the small conical surface of 5 end of shaft and inner support 4 forms and cooperates, not only can guarantee in this way pair Middle performance, moreover it is possible to reliably seal internal gas.
Spherical air bag 1 includes matrix, middle layer and conductive polymer coating.Matrix is the rubber bag tank of spherical crown shape, and inside is filled There is gas;Middle layer is conductive layer, and the conducting polymer of, very thin thickness higher using tensile strength and conduction is pasted onto rubber bag tank Spherical crown surface on, can be inlayed in conductive polymer coating containing the abrasive grains such as cast iron or steel, the addition of abrasive grain is in addition to that can enhance mechanical work Change effect is outer, can also promote the chemical reaction of the hard brittle materials such as SiC;The outermost layer contacted with workpiece is polyurethane polished film, It is firmly pasted on the electrically conductive with glue.Be provided with various holes or groove on the polyurethane polished film simultaneously, facilitate conductive layer with The flowing of electric current between hard brittle material simultaneously can be used for storage electrolyte.
It is shown in Figure 2, the electrochemical mechanical polishing device of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary of the invention include supersonic generator, Ultrasonic vibrator, computer, electrochemical analyser, gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, buff spindle and its clamping device, vacuum are inhaled Attached fixture and electrolytic cell etc..The workpiece of polished processing is fixed in electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture, and rubbing head is installed on On buff spindle;Computer is connect with electrochemical analyser, the former latter input power signal instruction, and the latter receives the former and instructs It works;The working electrode of electrochemical analyser is connect with workpiece, and reference electrode is arranged in cell edge, to electrode and gas The intermediate conductive layer of bellows electrochemical mechanical polishing head connects;Supersonic generator is connect with ultrasonic vibrator, is formed complete super Acoustic vibration system.
Apply ultrasonic elliptical vibratory on electrochemical mechanical polishing device there are two types of method, one kind is by ultrasonic elliptical vibratory It is applied on electrochemical mechanical polishing head, ultrasonic elliptical vibratory is is applied on electrolytic cell by one kind, ultrasonic vibrator and electrolytic cell It is contacted by the idler wheel of rotation.Electrical source of power is converted ultrasonic oval mechanical wave by ultrasonic generator, pushes electrochemical machinery Rubbing head or electrolytic cell complete ultrasonic elliptical vibratory, improve the efficiency of electrolyte used in electrochemical mechanical polishing, reach Improve the purpose of polishing effect.
Embodiment: will need the SiC being processed by shot blasting to be fixed on electrolytic cell, polished surface and the gasbag-type electricity of SiC It is secondary that chemical mechanical polishing head forms friction;Deionized water, 3%NaOH is respectively adopted in electrolyte;Using graphite as reference electrode, Reference electrode is placed in cell edge 5mm or so;SiC and to applied voltage added between electrode control in 4V or less;Polishing master The revolving speed of axis is 200rpm/min;Electrolytic cell is static, and ultrasonic-frequency power supply frequency used in polishing process is 24.3kHz.Friction is secondary It realizes in electrolyte and under the operating condition of applied voltage and ultrasonic elliptical vibratory to the material of SiC removal and precise polished.
Power-up size and mode have apparent influence to polishing efficiency and quality, i.e., can make when applying negative voltage to SiC Its removal rate has apparent increase, and coefficient of friction is slightly increased;Applying backward voltage can be such that the removal rate of SiC is obviously reduced. Under the applied voltage of+4V, aspherical SiC obtains smooth polishing table under the electrochemical mechanical polishing technology of ultrasonic wave added Face (aspherical surface of SiC roughness value is lower than 1nm in the present invention).
A kind of electrochemical mechanical polishing method of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary, comprising the following steps:
(1) the aspherical hard brittle material of polished processing is fixed on electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture, by air bag Formula electrochemical mechanical polishing head, which is installed on buff spindle, makes air bag form airtight cavity, is filled with low-pressure gas in the cavity;
The pressure of intracavity gas can be adjusted in real time.In this way, the air bag itself as polishing tool not only have well it is soft Property, there are also certain intensity, the ability with good resistance to deformation.
(2) gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head is approached into aspherical hard brittle material surface, and in gasbag-type electrochemistry machine Electrolyte is added between tool rubbing head and workpiece surface;
When polishing, rubbing head is acted on by workpiece surface with certain approach distance, the air bag of such spherical crown shape will occur Certain deformation, and fitted closely with the surface of workpiece to be machined, form polishing contact area.
(3) supersonic generator generates high-frequency ac electric signal and exports to ultrasonic vibrator;Ultrasonic vibrator is by high-frequency ac Electric signal is simultaneously converted into mechanical energy, and ultrasonic vibration is applied on gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head or will be surpassed by idler wheel Acoustic vibration is applied on electrolytic cell;
Ultrasonic wave added-electrochemical mechanical polishing system is a typical friction electro-chemical systems, and theory is related to machinery Multiple ambits such as, materialogy, tribology, control, physical chemistry, fluid dynamics and Chemical Kinetics.
(4) under the action of extra electric field and ultrasonic vibration, the polished surface and polyurethane polishing of aspherical hard brittle material It is secondary that film forms friction;
Extra electric field is by the conductive layer (to electrode) and workpiece (work electricity in gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head Pole) between apply applied voltage formed.
(5) friction pair polishes workpiece under the action of electrolyte, ultrasonic vibration and extra electric field, obtains ultraprecise Smooth workpiece surface.
Workpiece surface electrochemical oxidation forms one layer of soft insoluble composite layer or passivation during electrochemical mechanical polishing Layer, soluble layer does not pass through the mechanical removal in the contact friction process of rubbing head elasticity rough peak, the workpiece of naked leakage then for this Surface then repeats to be electrochemically oxidized removal under the action of applying electrical potential again, can efficiently be gone to firmly crisp equal difficult-to-machine materials It removes, and realizes not damaged surface processing, be a kind of new method that not damaged aspherical mirror machining can be achieved.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, including spherical air bag, support arm, inner support, shaft and gasket, spherical crown Shape air bag includes the rubber bag tank matrix of bottom and the polyurethane polishing film of outer layer, and support arm is fixedly connected with inner support, spherical The opening end cap of air bag supports fixed spherical air bag, spherical air bag in the bottom end of interior bracket, support arm and inner support jointly The contact portion of support arm is provided with gasket, inner support is fixedly connected with shaft;It is characterized in that, in rubber bag tank matrix and gathering One layer of conductive layer is equipped between urethane polished film, which is pasted onto the spherical crown table of bottom rubber bag tank substrate by conducting polymer It is formed on face, polyurethane polishing film is adhesive in the outer surface of conductive layer.
2. a kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the conducting polymer Abrasive grain is inlaid in object, the abrasive grain is cast iron or steel.
3. a kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the poly- ammonia Various holes or groove are provided on ester polished film.
4. ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing apparatus, including computer, electrochemical analyser, rubbing head, buff spindle and The workpiece of its clamping device, vacuum adsorption fixture and electrolytic cell, polished processing is fixed on electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture In, rubbing head is installed on buff spindle;The working electrode of electrochemical analyser is connect with workpiece, and reference electrode setting is being electrolysed Pool side edge connect electrode with the conductive layer of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head;It is characterized in that, further including ultrasonic wave Device and ultrasonic vibrator, the rubbing head are gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head as claimed in claim 1 or 2, ultrasonic wave Generator generates high-frequency ac electric signal and exports to ultrasonic vibrator;High-frequency ac electric signal is converted machinery by ultrasonic vibrator Can, ultrasonic vibration is applied on gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head or ultrasonic vibration is applied to by electrolytic cell by idler wheel On.
5. ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing apparatus according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the reference Electrode is graphite, is placed at the position cell edge 5mm.
6. ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing apparatus according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the ultrasound The high-frequency ac signal frequency that wave producer generates is 24.3kHz, and working electrode is less than 4V with to interelectrode applied voltage.
7. according to any ultrasonic vibration assisted electrochemical mechanical polishing apparatus of claim 4 or 6, which is characterized in that institute The workpiece stated is aspherical hard brittle material, and the hard brittle material is ceramics or metal.
8. a kind of electrochemical mechanical polishing method of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary, which comprises the following steps:
(1) workpiece by polished processing is fixed in electrolytic cell by vacuum adsorption fixture, will be as claimed in claim 1 or 2 Gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head be installed on buff spindle make air bag formed airtight cavity, be filled with low pressure gas in the cavity Body;
(2) gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head is approached into workpiece surface, and in gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head and workpiece Electrolyte is added between surface;
(3) supersonic generator generates high-frequency ac electric signal and exports to ultrasonic vibrator;
(4) high-frequency ac electric signal is converted mechanical energy by ultrasonic vibrator, and ultrasonic vibration is applied to gasbag-type electrochemical machinery It is applied on electrolytic cell on rubbing head or by idler wheel by ultrasonic vibration;
(5) under the action of extra electric field and ultrasonic vibration, polished surface and the gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head of workpiece It is secondary that polyurethane polishing film forms friction;
(6) friction pair polishes workpiece under the action of electrolyte, ultrasonic vibration and extra electric field, and it is smooth to obtain ultraprecise Workpiece surface.
9. a kind of electrochemical mechanical polishing method of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary according to claim 8, which is characterized in that described Ultrasonic vibration be ultrasonic elliptical vibratory.
10. a kind of electrochemical mechanical polishing method of ultrasonic vibration auxiliary according to claim 8, which is characterized in that institute The extra electric field stated is formed by applying applied voltage between the conductive layer and workpiece of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head.
CN201610963123.4A 2016-10-28 2016-10-28 A kind of gasbag-type electrochemical mechanical polishing head, burnishing device and polishing method Active CN106670899B (en)

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