CN106426144A - Artificial muscle, application of artificial muscle, robot - Google Patents

Artificial muscle, application of artificial muscle, robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106426144A
CN106426144A CN201611023605.8A CN201611023605A CN106426144A CN 106426144 A CN106426144 A CN 106426144A CN 201611023605 A CN201611023605 A CN 201611023605A CN 106426144 A CN106426144 A CN 106426144A
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China
Prior art keywords
artificial
muscle
spiral
wire
piezoelectric ceramics
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CN201611023605.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106426144B (en
Inventor
刘伟
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刘伟
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Priority to CN201611023605.8A priority Critical patent/CN106426144B/en
Priority to CN201510399691.1A priority patent/CN104999475B/en
Publication of CN106426144A publication Critical patent/CN106426144A/en
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Publication of CN106426144B publication Critical patent/CN106426144B/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/0009Constructional details, e.g. manipulator supports, bases
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/10Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements
    • B25J9/1075Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements with muscles or tendons
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/08Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by modular constructions

Abstract

Artificial muscle is composed of layered electrodes, piezoelectric ceramics, a conductive cylinder, a spring and multiple spring buckles. The spring buckles are arranged in a spiral manner to form a spiral track. The spring is arranged in the spiral track in a wound manner. The surface of the conductive cylinder is covered with the piezoelectric ceramics. The surfaces of the piezoelectric ceramics are covered with the layered electrodes. The conductive cylinder is connected with a first wire. The layered electrodes are connected with a second wire. The layered electrodes have the extension capacity. The piezoelectric ceramics expand after the first wire and the second wire are electrified, the spiral diameter of the spiral track is increased, and the spring is made to contract upwards in the axial direction of the spiral track. The artificial muscle is characterized in that a drive body reasonably contains and applies the artificial muscle. A machine using the artificial muscle is characterized in that the machine is provided with the artificial muscle. A robot is characterized in that the robot uses the artificial muscle. The artificial muscle has the beneficial effects of being simple in structure, economical and practical.

Description

A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot

Technical field

The invention belongs to dynamic field, especially design a kind of artificial-muscle.

Background technology

Artificial-muscle is a difficult problem for robot, the artificial-muscle of prior art stretch have that the fast strength of contracting is little, that strength is big is flexible Slowly it is difficult to practical application, the present invention proposes a kind of a kind of practical artificial-muscle to the problems such as percentage ratio deficiency of, stretching, real Existing fine motion superposition, smoothly can dock with prior art, can quickly popularize.

Content of the invention

Present invention aims to the deficiencies in the prior art propose a kind of artificial-muscle, present invention achieves stroke amplifies.

The present invention has following technology contents.

1st, a kind of artificial-muscle it is characterised in that:Mainly it is made up of driving body, thread like body, helical orbit;The greatly enhancing most of thread like body Degree is more than the overall length of helical orbit;A thread like body part is limited to spiral type by helical orbit;Helical orbit limits thread like body Motion makes the motion of the particle on the spiral part of thread like body predominantly slide along the helix of spiral part;Thread like body has soft Property or elasticity;Driving body drives the screw diameter of helical orbit to stretch.

2nd, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described driving body is fluid pressure actuated, electric Actuating, thermal actuation, magnetic actuation, light actuating, Electromagnetically actuated, chemical actuating.

3rd, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described helical orbit at least 2 circle in the axial direction.

4th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described helical orbit diametrically at least 2 circle.

5th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Spiral overall length under driving body driving for the serpentine pipe Change is more than the change of pitch overall length.

6th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described helical orbit is uniform by a reducing Double-layered cylinder is constituted;The distance of two layers of double-layered cylinder is more than two times that thread like body diameter is less than thread like body diameter;Double-layer circular At least one section of junctional complex between two layers of cylinder has the passage that thread like body can slide wherein.

7th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described helical orbit is uniform by a reducing Cylinder and at least one spacing ring are constituted;Spacing ring is located on the cylinder of cylinder one end, the diameter line vertical cylinder axle of spacing ring Line;Thread like body is looped around on cylinder, and thread like body one end is fixedly connected with cylinder, and the thread like body other end passes through spacing ring;Wire Body has at least one circle spiral between thread like body and cylinder fixed connection point and spacing ring.

8th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Described helical orbit is uniform by a reducing Cylinder and at least 2 spacing rings are constituted;Spacing ring is located on the cylinder at cylinder two ends, the diameter line vertical cylinder axle of spacing ring Line;Thread like body is looped around on cylinder, and the two ends of thread like body pass from spacing ring respectively;Thread like body has between two spacing rings At least one circle spiral.

9th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 1 it is characterised in that:Also there is outside it telescoping tube;The two of thread like body End is connected to the two ends of telescoping tube.

10th, a kind of artificial-muscle as described in technology contents 6 it is characterised in that:Also there is dimension shape spring;Tie up shape spring and stretch Pipe is connected.

11st, a kind of artificial-muscle it is characterised in that:Driving body reasonably comprises the artificial-muscle described in application technology content 1-7.

12nd, a kind of machine of use artificial-muscle it is characterised in that:Have described in any one in technology contents 1-7 Artificial-muscle.

Technology contents explanation and its advantage:

The cardinal principle of the present invention:The actuation length to change thread like body for the screw diameter of change thread like body, because spirals is straight The change in footpath can lead to the change of spiral part girth, and the change of each circumference of same helix can be superimposed, and therefore may achieve Make the technique effect that the superposition of trickle expanding-contracting action is amplified, this drastically becomes for overcoming Electromagnetically actuated magnetic force to increase with distance Little, fluid pressure actuated(Air pressure, hydraulic pressure)Space more big-movement is slower, inverse piezoelectric effect activates(One kind of electric actuation)Stroke is little Etc. the defect of prior art have a very big significance;

If spiral number of turns are N;If Zhou Changwei T1 before single turn helix radius change, radius are r1, a diameter of R1, spiral overall length are L1;If Zhou Changwei T2 before single turn helix radius change, radius are r2, a diameter of R2, spiral overall length are L2;

Then there is formula:(1)、ΔL=L2-L1=ΔT*N=(T2-T1)*N=2πΔr *N;

From above formula, the displacement equations mode of spiral reducing is mainly relevant with the number of turns unrelated with quantity, so can be by adjusting Number of full circle N is adjusting magnification ratio;

Assume to be used for the driving body of the present invention using the artificial-muscle of the present invention, and set artificial-muscle(Non- for driving body)'s Number of turns M of helical orbit, set spiral overall length become turn to Δ L', radius change be Δ r';

Then there is Δ L'=2 π Δ r'*M;

It is used at least one artificial-muscle as driving body, because spiral is round, therefore rough identification can be arranged on driving The radius change size Δ r'=Δ of the spiral of artificial-muscle that can lead under the displacement L ideal effect of internal artificial-muscle L/2(Artificial-muscle using a plurality of present invention may have Δ r'=Δ L as the driving body of the artificial-muscle of the present invention, in order to Problem reduction does not do excessive description;)

Then have:ΔL'=2πΔL/2*M;

Above formula substitutes into formula(1)Then have:ΔL'=2πΔL/2*M = π*(2πΔr *N)*M= 2π2*Δr*N*M;

, as driving body, regulation parameter N, M can for the artificial-muscle that the present invention is used as from the foregoing in the artificial-muscle of the present invention To obtain very big displacement equations multiple;

The present invention's is can be with recursive structure in structure as from the foregoing(Recursive structure one word is the present inventor oneself definition, Refer mainly to repeat nonlinear superposition design structure, recursive structure refers at many levels in the present invention(More than or equal to 3 layers)Weight Multiple ' using the reducing of the flexible helical orbit to drive higher level artificial-muscle of the thread like body of low level artificial-muscle ' Design, constitute a displacement equations chain), thus the raising displacement equations multiple of saltatory(Assume third layer helical orbit circle Number is B circle, then have Δ L''=2 π 3* Δ r*N*M*B, regulation parameter N, M, B can obtain very big displacement equations multiple);

Above computing illustrates that the amplification of the present invention is mainly related with the helical orbit number of turns, the iterative design number of plies, Also the understanding of reader will not be impacted even if calculating and a small amount of falsehood occurring.

Vocabulary explanation.

' driving body ' refer to drive helical orbit screw diameter change entity, driving body can be element, device or Functional module, driving body may be with other devices or element common elements or structure, and this is common situations in machinery;Driving body For example:Fill a large amount of piezoelectric ceramics on a columnar shape basal surface, manipulate piezoelectric ceramics radially stretching in matrix;Hollow fill Elastic ball of gas etc..

' thread like body ' refers to thread, such as iron hoop chain, steel cable, spring etc., using should be in conjunction with ' public during thread like body of different nature ', ' prior art ', ' rudimentary knowledge ' adopt different designs, must not run counter to ' design one of knowing general knowledge can normal Recycle mechanism Artificial-muscle ' technical purpose be deliberately set to run, such as:Activated using adopting during flexible linear body The mode of Shi Zeng great helical orbit screw diameter, and the length of the slack of flexible linear body can not be more than contraction length when activating Degree, and such as:, avoid using elastic force very it should be noted that thread like body elastic force and stretching, extension span relation using during elastic thread like body as far as possible Little stretching, extension span but very big elasticity thread like body, and such as:It should be noted that the strength of driving body reducing should overcome the interior of thread like body enough Stress, so as not to occur leading to because thread like body intensity is too big thread like body spiral part cannot reducing situation, etc..

' helical orbit ' refers to thread like body to be limited to the constant spiral entity of number of turns during reducing or is limited by entity Space path;Helical orbit can be element, device, have spiral-shaped cavity or groove, the element of composition helical orbit, Device may be with other devices or element common elements or structure, and this is common situations in mechanical field;Helical orbit is such as:Spiral shell The threaded hole in spiral-shaped, cylinder body that groove is arranged in by coil, the helicla flute of periphery, the slotted element of multiple tool Etc., helical orbit can be multiple spiral, and helical orbit can be bending on the whole, because avoiding making as far as possible during Application Design With flexible too strong material manufacture helical orbit;It should be noted that person trained in a certain field may attempt to design what some were wondered Evading the application, but as long as track of its design contains helical orbit, and thread like body coordinates its track to define spiral shell to track Rotation then should regard its track as helical orbit described herein;Because the change of pitch can affect the spiral shell of spiral overall length therefore the present invention The spiral overall length change producing because of pitch change should be avoided during rotation orbit Design to weaken the spiral shell that screw diameter change produces as far as possible The situation of rotation overall length change;In the case of ignoring thread like body completely, possibility is gone in judgement to vision to the helical orbit of the present invention up It is not spiral type(The such as situation described in technology contents 6-8 is could visually to draw spiral shell after the winding of cooperation thread like body Rotation shape), during the helical orbit design of the present invention, it is considered as spiral coil slip upwards in helical axis of helical orbit or thread like body Problem, and be defined preventing by appropriate design and lead to because of the slip of spiral coil the product designed non-retractable Situation.

' motion that helical orbit limits thread like body makes the motion of the particle on the spiral part of thread like body be mainly along spiral Partial helix slides ' transport with radial direction because the athletic meeting of the particle on the spiral part of thread like body has micro turn Dynamic, so using ' main ' one word to meet human language custom, ' main ' one word should not be considered as by the reader of the application Fuzzy sets.

' a thread like body part is limited to spiral type by helical orbit ' contains thread like body in helical orbit interior volume, thread like body Slidably cladding in rail solid exterior etc. can make thread like body be subject to the annexation that helical orbit constrains.

' driving body drives the screw diameter of helical orbit to stretch ' i.e. driving body drives the change of screw diameter.

' telescoping tube ' refers to the pipe that length can passively change.

' dimension shape spring ' refers to the spring for safeguarding telescoping tube profile, and its elastic force can not be too big.

' greatest length of thread like body ' refers to greatest length when thread like body can normally use, because some thread like bodies are long Short variable, therefore have this restriction.

' spiral overall length ' i.e. spiral part expands into the length of straight line after straight line, namely the summation of each circumference of helical orbit.

' spiral ', the mankind do not have perfection accurately to define on spiral, and people even call spiral shell the camber line of a plurality of radial arrangement Rotation, in order to ensure the clear of definition, the spiral of the present invention is defined in:At least there is the set of points of continuity of a complete not selfing convolution Or the path of line-segment sets, wherein ' complete ' refer to convolution be more than or equal to 360 degree, such as spring, Archimedes spiral, electric magnet Solenoid etc., helical axis can be straight line(When serpentine pipe is straight), curve(During serpentine pipe bending), spiral curve(Serpentine pipe is again It is helix during secondary spiral), the spiral in the present invention includes helix(Axial multi-turn)Path, vortex filament(Radial multi-ring)Road Footpath, taper helical path, variable-pitch propeller path, the road in reducing helical path, multilamellar helical path and other helical wire form Footpath and combinations thereof, the spiral of the present invention there may be corner angle.

Beneficial effects of the present invention:Structure is simple, economical and practical.

Brief description

Fig. 1 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 3 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 6 is one embodiment schematic diagram of the present invention;Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of an embodiment of the present invention.

Specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with embodiment, embodiments of the present invention are illustrated.

Embodiment 1 as shown in figure 1, a kind of artificial-muscle, by layered electrode A1, piezoelectric ceramics A11, conducting circular cylinder A10, bullet Spring A3, multiple snak link A2 are constituted;Snak link A2 helical arrangement constitutes helical orbit;Spring A3 is wound around the helical orbit that A2 is constituted Interior;Piezoelectric ceramics A11 covers on conducting circular cylinder A10 surface;Layered electrode A1 covers piezoelectric ceramics A11 surface;Conducting circular cylinder A10 It is connected with wire A50;Layered electrode A1 is connected with wire A5;Layered electrode A1 has extension ability;Press to after A5, A50 energising Electroceramics expands, and is helical orbit screw diameter(X)Increase, make spring A3 in the axial direction of helical orbit(Y)Shrink.

Embodiment 2 as shown in Fig. 2 a kind of artificial-muscle, from ball B1, limits and constitutes to block B4, steel wire B3;Ball B1 Inside has cavity B10, cavity B10 to have inlet channel B100;There is spiral vestibule as helical orbit B2 in the wall of ball B1;Steel In silk B3 winding screw track B2;Limit that have very strong rigidity to limit the expansion direction of ball B1 to block B4 be helical orbit B2 Radial direction;After the air pressure being increased in B10 by B100;Ball B1 is in helical orbit B2 radially(X)Expand on direction, lead to The screw diameter of helical orbit B2 increases;And then lead to steel wire B3 in the axial direction of helical orbit(Y)Shrink;Can be by during use The two ends of steel wire B3 are connected to the mechanical joint two ends needing to activate.

Embodiment 3 as shown in figure 3, a kind of artificial-muscle, by conductive drum C1, spring C3, multiple piezoelectric ceramics C2, C20, Multiple arcs conductive plate C4, C40, multiple annulus C6 are constituted;Annulus C6 is helically arranged to make up helical orbit;By wire C51 with C50 short circuit, is energized between wire C50, C5, and piezoelectric ceramics C20 elongation makes the screw diameter of spring reduce, and then makes spring Stretching;Matrix is conductive drum C1, and actuation body is conductive drum C1, piezoelectric ceramics C2, arc conductive plate C4, C40;In machinery Between each part function module of field, common elements, structure are common situations.

Embodiment 4, change on the basis of embodiment 3 and piezoelectric ceramics is revised as Pneumatic extension body.

Embodiment 5, change on the basis of embodiment 3 and piezoelectric ceramics is revised as Pneumatic extension body, spring is revised as Steel cable.

Embodiment 6, change on the basis of embodiment 3 and be changed to can passively extend the entity of shortening by matrix, thread like body All it is arranged in matrix.

Embodiment 7, on the basis of embodiment 2 modification will increase helical orbit quantity in ball B1 wall, and make spiral Track is coaxial parallel(The parallel concept of helix is with reference to oriented parallel concept), in each helical orbit, penetrate one or more steel Rope, increases load-carrying ability and redundant ability.

Embodiment 8, one vortex-like pipe with toughness of design, install extrusome, by thread like body between the tube wall of vortex-like pipe It is through in vortex-like pipe.

Embodiment 9, such as Fig. 4 increase a telescoping tube D1 in the outside of embodiment 2, and steel wire is connected to telescoping tube Two ends, improve the air pressure within ball B1 by inlet channel B100, and telescoping tube D1 just shrinks under the drive of steel wire, relatively Embodiment 2 has dust-proof benefit.

Embodiment 10, such as Fig. 5 embodiment 9 flexible inside pipe wall on axially mounted between telescoping tube D1 and helical orbit The spring D2 of one elastic force very little, the two ends of spring D2 are connected with the two ends of telescoping tube D1.

Embodiment 11, such as Fig. 6 increase contraction unit on the basis of embodiment 10.

On the basis of embodiment 12, embodiment 9, modification makes limit be fixedly linked to one end of block B4 and telescoping tube D1.

Embodiment 13, embodiment 2 is changed to hydraulic control.

Embodiment 14, embodiment 2 is changed to Chemical Control control, produces gas using multiple reactants and improve in cavity Pressure makes ball B1 expand, and increases a drain passage.

Embodiment 15, embodiment 3 piezoelectric ceramics is changed to mutual exclusion coil, increases guide post between mutual exclusion coil, make mutual exclusion Between coil, magnetic force is not result in rotary motion, only carries out the motion of distance change after energising.

Embodiment 16, embodiment 3 piezoelectric ceramics is changed to the metal clips of black, makes it using LASER HEATING metal clips Stretch because of heating power.

Embodiment 17, embodiment 3 piezoelectric ceramics is changed to the metal clips of black, the fluid being passed through different temperatures makes Metal clips produces change in size.

Embodiment 18 as shown in fig. 7, a kind of artificial-muscle, by layered electrode E1, piezoelectric ceramic tube E11, layered electrode E10, steel wire E3,2 ring E2 are constituted;2 snak link E2 are located at the two ends of piezoelectric ceramic tube E11;Steel wire E3 is wound around piezoelectric ceramic tube E11, steel wire E3 two ends are from passing from two rings respectively;Layered electrode E1 covers piezoelectric ceramic tube E11 outer surface;Layered electrode E10 covers piezoelectric ceramic tube E11 inner surface;Layered electrode E10 is connected with wire E50;Layered electrode E1 is connected with wire E5;Layer Shape electrode E1 has extension ability;Expand to piezoelectric ceramic tube E11 after wire E5, wire E50 energising, make the spiral of steel wire E3 straight Footpath increases, and makes to shrink in the axial direction of the spiral in steel wire E3 for the steel wire E3.

Embodiment 19, improvement on the basis of embodiment 10, add a certain amount of lubricating oil, for reducing in telescoping tube The frictional resistance of steel wire.

It is the feasible program of the present invention above;Because the artificial-muscle of the present invention is extrusome, extrusome can change spiral track The principle of the road radius of spin has embodied in the above embodiment of content of the invention, therefore does not repeat;The present invention comprises many kinds side Case, but its principle is all to change helical orbit screw diameter to change the actuation length of spiral circumference and then change thread like body, this Skilled person can carry out enforcement to the present invention and set in conjunction with ' common knowledge ', ' prior art ' after understanding this central principle Meter, therefore do not repeat one by one.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of artificial-muscle, is made up of layered electrode, piezoelectric ceramics, conducting circular cylinder, spring, multiple snak link;Snak link spiral shell Rotation is arranged to make up helical orbit;In the helical orbit that spring wrap is constituted;Piezoelectric ceramics covers on conducting circular cylinder surface;Stratiform electricity Pole covers piezoelectric ceramics surface;Conducting circular cylinder is connected with wire one;Layered electrode is connected with wire two;Layered electrode has extension Ability;Expand to piezoelectric ceramics after wire one, wire two energising, be that helical orbit screw diameter increases, make spring in spiral track Shrink in the axial direction in road.
2. a kind of artificial-muscle it is characterised in that:Driving body reasonably comprises the artificial-muscle described in application technology content 1.
3. a kind of machine of use artificial-muscle it is characterised in that:There is the artificial muscle described in any one in technology contents 1 Meat.
4. robot is it is characterised in that use the artificial-muscle described in technology contents 1.
CN201611023605.8A 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot CN106426144B (en)

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CN201611023605.8A CN106426144B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201510399691.1A CN104999475B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application

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CN106426144B CN106426144B (en) 2019-01-18

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CN201611023474.3A CN106426139B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201510399691.1A CN104999475B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application
CN201611023473.9A CN106426138B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023567.6A CN106426142B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023568.0A CN106695772B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023566.1A CN106426141B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023594.3A CN106426143B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023475.8A CN106426140B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and the machine using artificial-muscle
CN201611023595.8A CN106625578B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023605.8A CN106426144B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot

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CN201611023473.9A CN106426138B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023567.6A CN106426142B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023568.0A CN106695772B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023566.1A CN106426141B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023594.3A CN106426143B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot
CN201611023475.8A CN106426140B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and the machine using artificial-muscle
CN201611023595.8A CN106625578B (en) 2015-08-28 2015-08-28 A kind of artificial-muscle and its application, robot

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