CN106323748A - Non-contact video measuring system for strain measurement and mechanical property characterization of carbon fiber multifilament - Google Patents

Non-contact video measuring system for strain measurement and mechanical property characterization of carbon fiber multifilament Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106323748A
CN106323748A CN201610757771.4A CN201610757771A CN106323748A CN 106323748 A CN106323748 A CN 106323748A CN 201610757771 A CN201610757771 A CN 201610757771A CN 106323748 A CN106323748 A CN 106323748A
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carbon fiber
testpieces
fiber multifilament
load
strain
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潘兵
王月皎
顾轶卓
张佐光
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • G01N3/06Special adaptations of indicating or recording means
    • G01N3/068Special adaptations of indicating or recording means with optical indicating or recording means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0017Tensile
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/0641Indicating or recording means; Sensing means using optical, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared or similar detectors
    • G01N2203/0647Image analysis

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  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Analytical Chemistry (AREA)
  • Biochemistry (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • General Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Immunology (AREA)
  • Pathology (AREA)
  • Investigating Strength Of Materials By Application Of Mechanical Stress (AREA)
  • Length Measuring Devices By Optical Means (AREA)

Abstract

The invention relates to a non-contact video measuring system for tensile strain measurement of carbon fiber multifilament. The system comprises a digital camera (12), a double telecentric imaging system (4), a monochromatic source (10), a band pass filter (9) corresponding to the monochromatic source in wavelength, a mechanical supporting and adjusting platform (5) and a computer (8). The video measuring system can perform non-contact, real-time and high-precision measurement on tensile strain of the carbon fiber multifilament; due to the non-contact measurement characteristic, damage of a tool edge of an extensometer to a test article and the test article lateral load caused by the weight of the extensometer during traditional contact strain measurement are needless to be considered, and multiple mechanical parameters of the test article can be measured through one test.

Description

A kind of noncontact video characterized for carbon fiber multifilament strain measurement and mechanical property Measurement system
Technical field
The present invention relates to high performance fibre material technical field of measurement and test, especially one based on Digital Image Correlation Method also The noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain.
Background technology
Carbon fiber is the Typical Representative of high-performance fiber reinforcing material, has important and wide in national defence and national economy field General application.Carbon fiber multifilament is by many carbon mono-filaments the tow of conjunction, be carbon fiber product principal mode it One, it impregnate and solidify with resin obtain sample, test its tensile property, be the most important of evaluation carbon fiber rank and quality One of index.At present in the test experiments to carbon fiber tensile property of multi-filament, strain measurement instrument predominantly contact is extended Meter.In order to prevent between the extensometer edge of a knife and carbon fiber multifilament, Relative sliding occurring in drawing process, it usually needs apply one The edge of a knife is pressed on testpieces surface by fixed pressure.Being different from the testpieces of metal class, carbon fiber multifilament testpieces volume is little (logical Often diameter is at about 1mm), lightweight and belong to fragile material, the sharp edge of a knife is easy to cause testpieces certain damage, And then the breakdown point of change multifilament testpieces, reduce testpieces intensity;It addition, the weight of the edge of a knife self can cause testpieces surface The reasons such as deformation make strain measurement precision reduce.
The test of carbon fiber tensile property of multi-filament generally need to obtain tensile modulus of elasticity, hot strength and elongation at break etc. Parameter.The sharp edge of a knife of extensometer is especially pronounced on both measurement impact rear, therefore the measurement of the two mechanical parameter generally needs To carry out at the testpieces being fitted without extensometer, say, that a complete carbon fiber tensile property of multi-filament test is logical Often need two groups individually to test to determine, one group of testing elastic modulus, one group of test intensity.On the other hand, carbon fiber multifilament examination During sample tension failure, belonging to instantaneous disintegration form, if measuring percentage elongation with extensometer extensometer will produce damage, causing cannot Percentage elongation when directly experiment with measuring part destroys, conventional apparent percentage elongation replaces elongation at break, and the accuracy of result is by relatively Big impact.
Owing to traditional contact measurement method also exists disadvantage mentioned above, developing non-contacting measuring method becomes necessarily to become Gesture.In numerous non-contact measurement methods, optical measurement method has obtained extensively with sensitivity advantages of higher owing to it is easily achieved Application.
The most common optical measurement mechanics method has moiréinterferometry, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Digital Image Correlation Method Deng.The displacement measurement sensitivity of moiréinterferometry based on coherent light waves principle of interference and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry is the highest (can Reach wavelength magnitude), and there is the advantage that intuitive measurement results is visual, but the optical path of both approaches is complicated and is not suitable for The strain measurement of carbon fiber multifilament testpieces.The realization of moiréinterferometry needs to paste diffraction grating in surface of test piece, and electronics dissipates Speckle interferes rule to require, and surface of test piece is optically roughness face, it is clear that be not all suitable for volume little, and surface is that the carbon of smooth resin is fine Dimension multifilament sample.By contrast, the Digital Image Correlation Method of white light or monochromation illumination is used then to be more suitable for carbon fiber multiple The strain measurement of silk.This is primarily due to Digital Image Correlation Method based on Digital Image Processing and numerical computations and has following Two peculiar advantages: (1) only needs a digital camera, and light path, experimental facilities and experimentation are simple;(2) white light or list are used Colorama lighting, only need to be at surface of test piece spraying speckle to increase random greyscale distribution.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problems referred to above that existing carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain measurement technology exists, the present invention proposes one Based on the real-time high-precision noncontact video measuring system that digital picture is relevant, it is to avoid the machinery extensometer edge of a knife in traditional method Or the impact that chuck is on carbon fiber multifilament testpieces mechanical property, simple to operate, it is easy to accomplish and precision is high.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of high accuracy video measuring system includes double remote Heart imaging system, mechanical support regulation platform, the monochromater narrow bandpass filter plate corresponding with monochromater wavelength, numeral phase Machine, A-frame, computer;Doubly telecentric imaging system is for gathering the picture rich in detail on carbon fiber multifilament testpieces surface;Machinery Support regulation platform to be used for supporting doubly telecentric imaging system, be capable of in space three by regulation mechanical support regulation platform Direction, the regulation of three angle six-freedom degrees altogether, thus the optical axis regulating doubly telecentric imaging system is to be measured with testpieces surface Region is vertical, and obtains the image of fine definition and contrast;Monochromater is for producing the monochromatic light exposure test of high intensity Part surface, is reflected into camera through testpieces surface;The narrow bandpass filter plate corresponding with monochromater is used for filtering out other ripples Long light, only retains the light corresponding with monochromater wave band, thus reduces the ambient impact on collecting image; Digital camera is used for gathering image, and by the Image Real-time Transmission that collects to computer;A-frame is used for supporting doubly telecentric Imaging system, can also carry out coarse adjustment to the height of doubly telecentric imaging system simultaneously;Computer is used for locating reason collected by camera and arrives View data and mechanics machine transmission load data, real-time for the testpieces obtained load-strain curve is shown in real time On the display of computer.
Further, described monochromater is annular light source.
Further, described doubly telecentric imaging system includes digital camera, doubly telecentric camera lens, and monochromater, with optical source wavelength Corresponding narrow bandpass filter plate.
Further, described strain calculation method is based on relevant (the Digital Image of digital picture Correlation, DIC) method.Digital picture is relevant utilizes principle of computer vision, by the test in loading procedure In the video image on part surface, the position of two or more characteristic points is tracked, and calculates the currently practical length of gauge length section in real time After degree (L), the physical length of contrast gauge length and original length (L0) can show that the real-time of testpieces strains ((L-L0)/L0)。
A kind of for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain measurement noncontact video measuring method:
1) at impregnation the carbon fiber multifilament testpieces surface spraying speckle that solidifies, testpieces is fixed to testing machine On stretching clamp, lower clamp now should be kept to overlap with testpieces centrage, it is to avoid oblique pull phenomenon occurs;
2) narrow bandpass filter plate is installed before doubly telecentric camera lens, with monochromatic annular light source, testpieces is carried out active illumination, And adjust camera and make image clear;
3) testpieces is applied initial load (about the 5% of breaking load), when load reaches prestrain design setting value After, start the image of digital image acquisition units Real-time Collection testpieces, and gauge length defined in the reference picture of initial load, Calculate point and calculate image subsection;
4) test scale load continues to increase, and now, the view data that the loading data of testing machine and collected by camera arrive is real-time It is transferred to computer platform, after utilizing Digital Image Correlation Method to calculate the strain of gauge length in real time, by load-deformation curve data Export, record, show, until testpieces destroys;
5) computer is calculated carbon fiber multifilament tensile modulus of elasticity by load-deformation curve initial straight line segment, and according to examination Test part and destroy the load of moment and strain value directly obtains hot strength and elongation at break, and data processed result show with Preserve.
For the grey scale change information enough to surface of test piece offer, it usually needs by spraying black and white paint or additive method Make speckle.
The invention have the benefit that
1, have employed doubly telecentric imaging system, doubly telecentric lens distortion is less, insensitive to acoplanarity displacement, it is possible to increase adopt The picture quality that collection arrives, and then ensure that strain measurement precision.
2, have employed annular light source, it provides different irradiating angle, brightness uniformity, imaging clearly, and is favorably improved The compactedness of structure design and saving system installing space.
3 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, present invention, avoiding extensometer and connect with carbon fiber multifilament testpieces Touch and cause testpieces surface damage and additional deformation, substantially increase strain measurement precision.
4 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, and the present invention utilizes Digital Image Correlation Method to carry out characteristic point Displaced trace, it is to avoid the measurement error that edge of a knife sliding etc. causes, it is possible to more accurately should keeping high efficiency obtaining simultaneously Become result of calculation.
5 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, and the present invention is capable of the measurement strained greatly, directly measures carbon The elongation at break of fiber multifilament, replaces without using apparent percentage elongation.
6 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, i.e. be can determine that every carbon fiber multifilament sample by single experiment Multiple mechanical parameters such as tensile modulus of elasticity, hot strength and elongation at break.
7 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, add measurement system and mechanics machine synchronizing function, profit After processing, by Digital Image Correlation Method, the view data that collected by camera arrives, load-deformation curve data are shown in real time meter On calculation machine screen, output record.
8 compare with traditional contact extensometer measurement, and computer is calculated carbon by load-deformation curve initial straight line segment Fiber multifilament tensile modulus of elasticity, and destroy the load of moment according to testpieces and strain value directly obtains hot strength and fracture Percentage elongation, is not required to manually carry out Data Post.
After carbon fiber multifilament testpieces surface makes speckle, with material mechanical test machine clamp assay machine, video is surveyed Amount system is placed on testing machine dead ahead suitable distance, uses monochromatic annular light source active illumination testpieces, makes digital camera energy Testpieces surface speckle image is carried out blur-free imaging.Two or more calculating is selected on testpieces surface image before loading Point, and suitably zoning, apply tensile load followed by testing machine to testpieces until sample destroys, loading procedure Middle digital camera Real-time Collection testpieces surface image, utilizes Digital Image Correlation Method real-time tracking respectively to calculate and is a little working as forward sight Frequently the position in image, thus the elongation strain of gauge length is carried out measurement during high-precision real, binding tests part load data can be counted Calculate the performance parameters such as the stretch modulus of carbon fiber multifilament, elongation at break.The noncontact video measuring system that the present invention is set up, Use the design Tong Bu with mechanics machine, load-deformation curve initial straight line segment calculate tensile modulus of elasticity, by finally drawing The strain stretching the fracture moment obtains elongation at break.Further, since its non-cpntact measurement characteristic, it is not necessary to consider that conventional contact should Become the testpieces lateral load that in measuring, damage and the extensometer own wt of testpieces are caused by the extensometer edge of a knife, can be by one Multiple mechanical parameters of sample are measured in secondary experiment.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to be illustrated more clearly that the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, below will be to embodiment or existing In having technology to describe, the required accompanying drawing used is briefly described, it should be apparent that, the accompanying drawing in describing below is only this Some embodiments of invention, for those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, it is also possible to Other accompanying drawing is obtained according to these accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is doubly telecentric imaging system structural representation;
In figure: 1, testpieces;2, fixture;3, mechanics machine;4, doubly telecentric imaging system;5, mechanical support regulation is flat Platform;6, noncontact video measuring system;7, A-frame;8, computer;The 9 narrow bandpass filtering corresponding with monochromater wavelength Sheet;10, monochromater;11, doubly telecentric camera lens;12, camera.
Detailed description of the invention
For making the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, technical scheme will be carried out below Detailed description.Obviously, described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the present invention rather than whole embodiments.Base Embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained owning on the premise of not making creative work Other embodiment, broadly falls into the scope that the present invention is protected.
As it is shown in figure 1, the invention provides a kind of noncontact video measuring measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain System, this system includes doubly telecentric imaging system 4, mechanical support regulation platform 5, monochromater 10 and monochromater wavelength pair The narrow bandpass filter plate 9 answered, digital camera 12, A-frame 7, computer 8;Doubly telecentric imaging system 4 is used for gathering carbon fiber The picture rich in detail on multifilament testpieces 1 surface;Mechanical support regulation platform 5 is used for supporting doubly telecentric imaging system 4, by regulation machine Tool supports regulation platform 5 and is capable of three directions and the regulation of three angle six-freedom degrees altogether in space, thus regulation is double The optical axis of telecentric imaging system 4 is vertical with region to be measured, testpieces 1 surface, and obtains the image of fine definition and contrast;Single Color light source 10 is used for producing monochromatic light exposure to testpieces 1 surface, is reflected into camera 12 through testpieces 1 surface;With monochromatic light Narrow bandpass filter plate corresponding to source 9, for filtering out the light of other wavelength, retains the light corresponding with monochromater 10 wave band, Thus reduce the ambient impact on collecting image;Camera 12 is used for gathering image, and is passed in real time by the image collected It is passed to computer 8;A-frame 7 is used for supporting doubly telecentric imaging system 4, simultaneously can also be to the height of doubly telecentric imaging system 4 Degree carries out coarse adjustment;Computer 8 is used for locating view data and the charge number of universal testing machine 3 transmission that reason camera 12 collects According to, the real-time load-strain curve of testpieces 1 obtained is shown in real time on the display of computer 8.
Embodiment one
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain, including: doubly telecentric imaging system System 4, mechanical support regulation platform 5, the monochromater 10 narrow bandpass filter plate 9 corresponding with monochromater wavelength, camera 12, three Angle support 7, computer 8;Doubly telecentric imaging system 4 is for gathering the picture rich in detail on carbon fiber multifilament testpieces 1 surface;Machinery Support regulation platform 5 is used for supporting doubly telecentric imaging system 4, is capable of in space three by regulation mechanical support regulation platform 5 Individual direction and the regulation of three angle six-freedom degrees altogether, thus regulate optical axis and testpieces 1 surface of doubly telecentric imaging system 4 Region to be measured is vertical, and obtains the image of fine definition and contrast;Monochromater 10 is used for producing monochromatic light exposure to test Part 1 surface, is reflected into camera 12 through testpieces 1 surface;The narrow bandpass filter plate 9 corresponding with monochromater is used for filtering out it The light of his wavelength, retains the light corresponding with monochromater 10 wave band, thus reduces ambient and change the figure collected The impact of picture;Camera 12 is used for gathering image, and by the Image Real-time Transmission that collects to computer 8;A-frame 7 is for propping up Support doubly telecentric imaging system 4, can also carry out coarse adjustment to the height of doubly telecentric imaging system 4 simultaneously;Computer 8 is used for locating reason View data that camera 12 collects and the load data of universal testing machine 3 transmission, by the real-time load of testpieces 1 obtained-answer Varied curve shows in real time on the display of computer 8.
Concrete operation method is as follows:
1) at carbon fiber multifilament testpieces 1 surface spraying speckle, testpieces 1 is fixed to the stretching clamp 2 of testing machine 3 On, lower clamp 2 now should be kept to overlap with testpieces 1 centrage, it is to avoid the appearance of oblique pull phenomenon;
2) narrow bandpass filter plate 9 is installed before doubly telecentric camera lens 11, with monochromatic annular light source 10, testpieces 1 is carried out actively Illumination, and adjust camera 12 and make image clear;
3) testpieces 1 is applied initial load (about the 5% of breaking load), when load reaches prestrain design setting value After, start the image of digital image acquisition units Real-time Collection testpieces;
4) testing machine 3 load continues to increase, now, and the view data that the loading data of testing machine 3 and camera 12 collect It is real-time transmitted to computer 8 platform, after utilizing Digital Image Correlation Method to calculate strain in real time, by load-deformation curve data Export, record, show, until testpieces destroys;
5) computer 8 is calculated carbon fiber multifilament tensile modulus of elasticity by load-deformation curve initial straight line segment, and according to examination Test part 1 and destroy the load of moment and strain value directly obtains hot strength and elongation at break, and data processed result is shown And preservation.
The above, the only detailed description of the invention of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any Those familiar with the art, in the technical scope that the invention discloses, can readily occur in change or replace, should contain Cover within protection scope of the present invention.
Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should described be as the criterion with scope of the claims.

Claims (11)

1. the noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain, it is characterised in that: this noncontact Video measuring system includes doubly telecentric imaging system (4), mechanical support regulation platform (5), support (7) and computer (8);Institute State doubly telecentric imaging system (4) and be used for gathering the picture rich in detail on carbon fiber multifilament testpieces (1) surface, and transmit to computer (8);Described mechanical support regulation platform (5) is used for supporting described doubly telecentric imaging system (4), by regulating described mechanical support Regulation platform (5) is capable of three directions and the regulation of three angle six-freedom degrees altogether in space, thus regulates described double The optical axis of telecentric imaging system (4) is vertical with region to be measured, testpieces (1) surface, and obtains the image of testpieces (1);Described Frame (7) is used for supporting described doubly telecentric imaging system (4), is adjusted the height of described doubly telecentric imaging system (4) simultaneously; Described computer (8) is used for locating view data that reason doubly telecentric imaging system (4) collects and universal testing machine (3) transmits Load data, shows on the display of computer (8) in real time by the testpieces (1) obtained load-strain curve in real time.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: described doubly telecentric imaging system (4) includes digital camera (12), doubly telecentric camera lens (11), monochromater , and the narrow bandpass filter plate (9) corresponding with optical source wavelength (10);Described monochromater (10) is used for producing monochromatic light exposure and arrives Testpieces (1) surface, the reflection light on described testpieces (1) surface enters described camera (12);Described corresponding with monochromater Narrow bandpass filter plate (9), for filtering out the light of other wavelength, retains the light corresponding with described monochromater (10) wave band, Thus reduce the ambient change impact on gathering gradation of image;Described digital camera (12) is used for gathering testpieces exterior view Picture, and the digital picture collected is real-time transmitted to described computer (8).
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 2, It is characterized in that: described monochromater (10) is annular light source, it provides different irradiating angle, and is favorably improved structure The compactedness of design and saving system installing space.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: described support (7) is A-frame.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: system of measuring synchronizes to be connected with computer platform with testing machine, will answer the output of force-strain curve data, note Record, display.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: owing to measuring the noncontact characteristic of system, only pass through once to test just can determine that drawing of every carbon fiber multifilament Stretch multiple mechanical parameters such as elastic modelling quantity, hot strength and elongation at break.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: contrast traditional carbon fibres multifilament mechanical property measuring method, described noncontact video measuring system can be direct Measure elongation at break, replace without using apparent percentage elongation.
A kind of noncontact video measuring system measured for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that: computer is calculated carbon fiber multifilament tensile modulus of elasticity by load-deformation curve initial straight line segment, and according to examination Load and the strain value of testing part destruction moment directly obtain hot strength and elongation at break, after being not required to manually carry out data Process.
9. measuring a noncontact video measuring method for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain, it specifically comprises the following steps that
1) at impregnation carbon fiber multifilament testpieces (1) the surface spraying speckle that solidifies, testpieces is fixed to testing machine On stretching clamp (2), lower clamp now should be kept to overlap with testpieces centrage, it is to avoid oblique pull phenomenon occurs;
2) in doubly telecentric camera lens (11) front installation narrow bandpass filter plate (9), with monochromatic annular light source (10), testpieces is led Dynamic illumination, and adjust camera and make image clear;
3) testpieces is applied initial load, after load reaches prestrain design setting value, start digital image acquisition units The image of Real-time Collection testpieces, and at gauge length, calculating point and calculating image subsection defined in the reference picture of initial load;
4) test scale load continues to increase, now, and the view data that the loading data of testing machine and digital camera (12) collect It is real-time transmitted to computer (8) platform, after utilizing Digital Image Correlation Method to calculate the strain of gauge length in real time, by stress-strain Curve data exports, records, shows, until testpieces destroys;
5) computer is calculated carbon fiber multifilament tensile modulus of elasticity by load-deformation curve initial straight line segment, and according to testpieces The load and the strain value that destroy moment directly obtain hot strength and elongation at break, and data processed result are shown and protect Deposit.
The most according to claim 8 for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain measurement noncontact video measuring method, its feature It is: described initial load is the 5% of breaking load.
11. is according to claim 8 for carbon fiber multifilament elongation strain measurement noncontact video measuring method, its feature It is: described digital image acquisition units is digital camera.
CN201610757771.4A 2016-08-29 2016-08-29 Non-contact video measuring system for strain measurement and mechanical property characterization of carbon fiber multifilament Pending CN106323748A (en)

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Application publication date: 20170111