CN106196423B - A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction - Google Patents

A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction Download PDF

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CN106196423B
CN106196423B CN201610506347.2A CN201610506347A CN106196423B CN 106196423 B CN106196423 B CN 106196423B CN 201610506347 A CN201610506347 A CN 201610506347A CN 106196423 B CN106196423 B CN 106196423B
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indoor
environmental quality
indoor environmental
moment
model
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CN201610506347.2A
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CN106196423A (en
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赵安军
孙光
于军琪
丁希生
张亚楠
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西安建筑科技大学
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction, pass through thermal environment inside and outside physical experimental method collection room and its relevant control data, the Controlling model of Indoor Environmental Quality control is obtained with the method for identification, the PREDICTIVE CONTROL based on model is carried out to equipment such as air-conditioning, wind turbines on the basis of model foundation, by making characterization environmental quality (thermal environment, air quality) and the object function of energy consumption it is minimum, control is optimized to equipment such as air-conditioning, wind turbines, energy consumption is saved again to achieve the effect that meet Indoor Environmental Quality.The present invention has the characteristics that control accuracy is high, overshoot is small, low energy consumption, can preferably be suitable for the control and optimization of Indoor Environmental Quality.

Description

A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction

Technical field

The invention belongs to Indoor Environmental Quality control field, more particularly to a kind of Indoor Environmental Quality based on model prediction Control optimization method.

Background technology

One good indoor environment can be strong with the body of support personnel while ensureing experimenter's efficient operation Health.It is especially pronounced with the influence of air quality and thermal environment Factors on Human in Indoor Environmental Quality.Due in summer office building Air-conditioning is mostly used to adjust indoor temperature, so door and window is often in closing state, and it is relatively intensive to test indoor occupant, although It can ensure indoor thermal comfort, but cause indoor air quality poor.Create a good working environment of environmental quality Be to sacrifice energy consumption as cost, how under the premise of ensureing Indoor Environmental Quality by reasonably being controlled to air-conditioning, wind turbine etc. System has great meaning to achieve the purpose that save energy consumption.

Indoor Environmental Quality is controlled and is consumed energy in optimization, Model Predictive Control (Model predictive control, MPC it is) a kind of Optimized-control Technique based on model, is the effective means for controlling Indoor Environmental Quality.Model accuracy is mould Key in type PREDICTIVE CONTROL directly affects the performance indicator of Indoor Environmental Quality control and optimization.Pass through the indoor ring of foundation Border quality control and Optimized model can not only respond the actual conditions of building, while can also predict architecture indoor in time The variation of environmental quality parameter, so as to adjust control and prioritization scheme in time.

Invention content

The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of, and the Indoor Environmental Quality based on model prediction controls optimization method, to overcome Traditional air-conditioning is adjusted more extensive can not change adjustment refrigerating capacity according to outdoor temperature so that it is that thermal comfort declines and And the shortcomings that increasing energy expenditure.The method of the present invention can effectively control Indoor Environmental Quality and save energy Source.

To achieve the goals above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:

A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction, includes the following steps:

Step 1:Air-conditioning, wind turbine are controlled according to setting rule variation, temperature in use, carbon dioxide sensor by controller Indoor and outdoor surroundings parameter is acquired, Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is obtained and establishes required data;

Step 2:Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is described using bilinear model;

Step 3:Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is recognized using the method for Model Distinguish, obtains indoor environment product The Controlling model of Quality Control;

Step 4:Controller is designed, by the control method based on model prediction, to the object function of controller It is designed so that it can meet the effect that Indoor Environmental Quality saves energy consumption again, by the traversal to controlling variable, solve The minimum value for going out object function, using make the control variable of object function minimum as current control signal.

Further, in step 1 temperature and carbon dioxide sensor according to setting frequency to indoor and outdoor surroundings parameter into Row acquisition, and by collected data transfer to controller.

Further, pass through the difference of the environmental variance of prediction and setting value and the Europe for the variable for characterizing energy consumption in step 4 Formula distance characterizes the integration objective of environmental quality and energy consumption, is sent as an envoy to characterization environmental quality and energy consumption by the method solution of traversal Object function minimum control variable as current control signal.

Further, controller is configured to continuous operation mode in step 1, and controller gradually increases according to the step-length of setting Add, makes air-conditioning and exhaust fan in interior circularly cooling, heating and air draft for 24 hours, observe indoor environment parameter and air-conditioning and exhaust fan Controlled quentity controlled variable, while recording outdoor temperature, sample data of the sampled data as identification.

Further, Indoor Environmental Quality is described using bilinear model in step 2:

(k+1) moment indoor carbon dioxide concentration is one and k moment indoor carbon dioxides concentration, rotation speed of fan and outdoor The related linear function of gas concentration lwevel, is described with following formula:

CO2in(k+1)=CO2in(k)+α1W(k)[CO2out(k)-CO2in(k)]+C1

Wherein, CO2in(k+1) it is k+1 moment indoor carbon dioxide concentration values;CO2in(k) it is k moment indoor carbon dioxides Concentration;CO2out(k) it is the moment outdoors k gas concentration lwevel;W (k) is the aperture of k moment wind turbines;C1It is indoor occupant at one The rate of carbon dioxide, α are generated in sampling time interval1For constant, determined by System Discrimination;

(k+1) moment indoor temperature is one related with k moment indoor temperature, outdoor temperature and air-conditioning and wind turbine aperture Linear function is described with following formula:

Tin(k+1)=Tin(k)+β1W(k)[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+β2AC(k)+β3[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+C2

Wherein, Tin(k+1) it is k+1 moment indoor temperatures;Tin(k) it is k moment indoor temperatures;Tout(k) it is that the k moment is outdoor Temperature;AC (k) is k moment air-conditioning apertures;W (k) is the aperture of k moment wind turbines;C2It is indoor occupant between a sampling time Every the heat of interior generation;β1, β2, β3For constant, determined by System Discrimination.

Further, the discrimination method that least square is utilized in step 3, recognizes collected experimental data, obtains Go out architectural environment quality control model, the Indoor Environmental Quality estimated value of subsequent timeUsing current state x (k) With estimated parameterIt indicates:

Wherein, xp(k+1) subsequent time is Indoor Environmental Quality estimated value;xp(k) Indoor Environmental Quality current value; To be estimated parameter;fm(u(k),xp(k)) it is the correlation function of current controller and current indoor environmental quality variable.

Further, step 4 specifically includes:

Controller design target:So that object function J (k) is minimum, target is to ensure environmental variance close to setting value xsAnd And so that total energy consumption is minimum, values of the J (k) after N number of sampling period estimates that controller design target is as follows by step 3:

Wherein, xin(k+N) the Indoor Environmental Quality variate-value after the N number of sampling period for being prediction;xsFor indoor environment Quality setting value;U (k) variables in order to control;Q and R is weight matrix;

Following rule is followed when predicting above formula:Within N number of sampling period of prediction, control signal is kept constant, and In N number of sampling period of prediction, external disturbance is kept constant and equal with the value at last moment;

Weight matrix is defined as follows:

Q=adiag [q1 q2]

R=(1-a) diag [r1 r2]

In order to reflect the different grades of difference of environmental variance and establish flat between the value of environmental variance and energy consumption consumption Weighing apparatus, a, qi=q1,q2And rj=r1,r2It is selected by trial and error.

A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality based on model prediction of the present invention controls optimization method, includes the following steps:It is logical first It crosses experiment and obtains related data;Secondly, Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is established by the method for identification;Then, to controller It is designed, determines object function, by carrying out rational optimal control to air-conditioning and wind turbine so that object function is minimum, reaches To the effect that can meet Indoor Environmental Quality and save energy consumption again.

Object function weight matrix, including the weight matrix determination of environmental variance and the power of control variable are determined in step 4 The determination of value matrix;The weight matrix of environmental variance determines:Weights are set by environmental variance maximum set value divided by each ring Border specification of variables value is standardized;The weight matrix for controlling variable determines:The matrix characterizes actuator action consumption Energy consumption, the weights setting for controlling variable meet weights of the weights more than the equipment that low energy consumption of the big equipment of energy consumption.

Compared with the existing technology, the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:The present invention develops on the basis of model prediction, compared with Traditional control mode, the control method have higher control accuracy, have for the control of Indoor Environmental Quality smaller Overshoot, and steady-state behaviour is preferable, and energy consumption has been saved while ensureing Indoor Environmental Quality.

The present invention proposes a kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction, by Physical Experiment side Thermal environment and its relevant control data inside and outside method collection room obtain the control mould of Indoor Environmental Quality control with the method for identification Type carries out the PREDICTIVE CONTROL based on model on the basis of model foundation to equipment such as air-conditioning, wind turbines, by making characterization environment product The object function of matter (thermal environment, air quality) and energy consumption is minimum, control is optimized to equipment such as air-conditioning, wind turbines, to reach The effect that Indoor Environmental Quality saves energy consumption again can be met.The present invention has the spies such as control accuracy is high, overshoot is small, low energy consumption Point can preferably be suitable for the control and optimization of Indoor Environmental Quality.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is Indoor Environmental Quality control principle block diagram;

Fig. 2 is flow chart of the present invention.

Specific implementation mode

Fig. 1 gives the functional block diagram of Indoor Environmental Quality model predictive control system.Wherein, ACT, which is represented, improves interior The actuator of environmental quality, including air-conditioning equipment and exhaust blower.BEMS represents building energy consumption management system, completes indoor environment product The acquisition of matter parameter and control to actuator.K is the sampling instant of energy consumption management system, and x (k) is state variable, and y (k) is Reference vector, d (k) are disturbance, xsVector is set for comfort level.

For room conditioning using KF-72LW/Y-Sx (E) split-floor type air conditioner beauteously, refrigerating capacity is 7 200W, system Cold power is 2 820W;Exhaust fan is using precious prosperous FD400E, stepless speed regulation, power 200W, air quantity maximum per hour 4 000m3.Energy consumption management system uses the management of De Yian building energy consumptions and control platform, passes through indoor temperature, gas concentration lwevel Sensor acquires indoor environment parameter;Outdoor data provides data by the weather station system based on crossbow;Air conditioner and Exhaust fan is all connected on the platform, and indoor temperature and gas concentration lwevel are controlled by infrared remote control.

It please refers to shown in Fig. 2, a kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction of the present invention, including with Lower step:

Step 1, by indoor temperature, gas concentration lwevel sensor, indoor environment parameter is acquired;By being based on The weather station system of crossbow acquires outdoor data;Using controller De Yian building energy consumption management is passed to by signal is controlled And control platform, it is managed by De Yian building energy consumptions and control platform controls air conditioner and exhaust fan, make control system According to 10% step size controlling air-conditioning and exhaust fan, cycle is freezed, is heated and air draft in for 24 hours, observes indoor environment parameter With the controlled quentity controlled variable of air-conditioning and exhaust fan, while outdoor temperature is recorded, sample data of the sampled data as identification.Therapy lasted Time continues two days, is once sampled every 2min, totally 2 882 sampled points.

Step 2,3 recognize collected data using the method for identification, obtain the Controlling model of indoor environment:

Tin(k+1)=Tin(k)+0.0226·W(k)[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+

0.3511·AC(k)+0.0033·[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+0.0685

CO2in(k+1)=CO2in(k)+0.2107·W(k)[CO2out(k)-CO2in(k)]+7.5

Step 4, controller is designed, weight matrix Q is related with setting value, in order to make environmental variance realize standard Change, weights are set by environmental variance maximum set value divided by each environment variable settings value to realize standardization, indoor Temperature weight by divided by 25 DEG C calculate, 25 DEG C of average values for representing outdoor temperature condition:So Q matrixes are set as:R Matrix characterizes the energy consumption of actuator action consumption, and wind turbine energy consumption is consumed energy very little compared to air-conditioning, sets fan energy consumption weight as 1, Air conditioning energy consumption is 8.The setting of R matrixes is as follows:

R=(1-a) diag [r1 r2]

=(1-a) diag [1 8]

Setting a=0.5 characterizations keep the minimization of object function Q and R matrix of equal importance.By the method for traversal, solution makes Obtain object function:J (k)=‖ xin(k+N)-xs2 Q+‖u(k)‖2 RMinimum control variable, as current control signal, to sky Tune, wind turbine are controlled, and Indoor Environmental Quality can be met by, which reaching, requires energy-efficient effect again.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of Indoor Environmental Quality based on model prediction controls optimization method, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
Step 1:Air-conditioning, wind turbine are controlled according to setting rule variation by controller, and temperature in use, carbon dioxide sensor are to room Internal and external environment parameter is acquired, and is obtained Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model and is established required data;
Step 2:Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is described using bilinear model;
Step 3:Indoor Environmental Quality Controlling model is recognized using the method for Model Distinguish, obtains Indoor Environmental Quality control The Controlling model of system;
Step 4:Controller is designed:By the control method based on model prediction, the object function of controller is carried out Design so that it can meet the effect that Indoor Environmental Quality saves energy consumption again, by the traversal to controlling variable, solve mesh The minimum value of scalar functions, using make the control variable of object function minimum as current control signal.
2. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step Temperature and carbon dioxide sensor are acquired indoor and outdoor surroundings parameter according to the frequency of setting in rapid 1, and will be collected Data transfer is to controller.
3. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step Environmental quality is characterized by the Euclidean distance of the difference of the environmental variance of prediction and setting value and the variable for characterizing energy consumption in rapid 4 And the integration objective of energy consumption, the control of the object function minimum of send as an envoy to characterization environmental quality and energy consumption is solved by the method for traversal Variable is as current control signal.
4. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step Controller is configured to continuous operation mode in rapid 1, and controller is stepped up according to the step-length of setting, and air-conditioning and exhaust fan is made to exist The controlled quentity controlled variable of indoor environment parameter and air-conditioning and exhaust fan, while recording room are observed in interior circularly cooling, heating and air draft for 24 hours Outer temperature, sample data of the sampled data as identification.
5. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step Indoor Environmental Quality is described using bilinear model in rapid 2:
(k+1) moment indoor carbon dioxide concentration is one and k moment indoor carbon dioxides concentration, rotation speed of fan and outdoor dioxy Change the related linear function of concentration of carbon, is described with following formula:
CO2in(k+1)=CO2in(k)+α1W(k)[CO2out(k)-CO2in(k)]+C1
Wherein, CO2in(k+1) it is k+1 moment indoor carbon dioxide concentration values;CO2in(k) it is k moment indoor carbon dioxide concentration; CO2out(k) it is the moment outdoors k gas concentration lwevel;W (k) is the aperture of k moment wind turbines;C1When being sampled at one for indoor occupant Between be spaced in generate carbon dioxide rate, α1For constant, determined by System Discrimination;
(k+1) moment indoor temperature is one related with k moment indoor temperature, outdoor temperature and air-conditioning and wind turbine aperture linear Function is described with following formula:
Tin(k+1)=Tin(k)+β1W(k)[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+β2AC(k)+β3[Tout(k)-Tin(k)]+C2
Wherein, Tin(k+1) it is k+1 moment indoor temperatures;Tin(k) it is k moment indoor temperatures;Tout(k) it is k moment outdoor temperatures; AC (k) is k moment air-conditioning apertures;W (k) is the aperture of k moment wind turbines;C2It is produced in a sampling time interval for indoor occupant Raw heat;β1, β2, β3For constant, determined by System Discrimination.
6. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step The discrimination method that least square is utilized in rapid 3, recognizes collected experimental data, obtains architectural environment quality control mould Type, the Indoor Environmental Quality estimated value of subsequent timeUsing current state x (k) and estimated parameterIt indicates:
Wherein, xp(k+1) subsequent time is Indoor Environmental Quality estimated value;xp(k) Indoor Environmental Quality current value;For quilt Estimate parameter;fm(u(k),xp(k)) it is the correlation function of current controller and current indoor environmental quality variable.
7. the Indoor Environmental Quality according to claim 1 based on model prediction controls optimization method, it is characterised in that:Step Rapid 4 specifically include:
Controller design target:So that object function J (k) is minimum, target is to ensure environmental variance close to setting value xsAnd make Total energy consumption is minimum, and values of the J (k) after N number of sampling period estimates that controller design target is as follows by step 3:
Wherein, xin(k+N) the Indoor Environmental Quality variate-value after the N number of sampling period for being prediction;xsFor Indoor Environmental Quality Setting value;U (k) variables in order to control;Q and R is weight matrix;
Following rule is followed when predicting above formula:Within N number of sampling period of prediction, control signal is kept constant, and is being predicted N number of sampling period in, external disturbance is kept constant and equal with the value at last moment;
Weight matrix is defined as follows:
Q=adiag [q1 q2]
R=(1-a) diag [r1 r2]
In order to reflect the different grades of difference of environmental variance and establish the balance between the value of environmental variance and energy consumption consumption, a, qi=q1,q2And rj=r1,r2It is selected by trial and error.
CN201610506347.2A 2016-06-30 2016-06-30 A kind of Indoor Environmental Quality control optimization method based on model prediction CN106196423B (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102812303A (en) * 2009-12-16 2012-12-05 国家科学和工业研究组织 HVAC Control System And Method
JP2014231983A (en) * 2013-05-28 2014-12-11 三菱電機株式会社 Method of optimizing hvac system in building for making occupant's comfortability maximum using nonlinear programming
CN104566868A (en) * 2015-01-27 2015-04-29 徐建成 Central air-conditioning control system and control method thereof
CN104676831A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-03 机械工业仪器仪表综合技术经济研究所 Control method for cavern microenvironment regulation control system
CN105091209A (en) * 2014-05-23 2015-11-25 国网山西省电力公司电力科学研究院 Control system and method based on air conditioning load prediction
CN105717960A (en) * 2014-12-04 2016-06-29 台达电子工业股份有限公司 Environmental comfort level control system and method

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102812303A (en) * 2009-12-16 2012-12-05 国家科学和工业研究组织 HVAC Control System And Method
JP2014231983A (en) * 2013-05-28 2014-12-11 三菱電機株式会社 Method of optimizing hvac system in building for making occupant's comfortability maximum using nonlinear programming
CN105091209A (en) * 2014-05-23 2015-11-25 国网山西省电力公司电力科学研究院 Control system and method based on air conditioning load prediction
CN105717960A (en) * 2014-12-04 2016-06-29 台达电子工业股份有限公司 Environmental comfort level control system and method
CN104676831A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-03 机械工业仪器仪表综合技术经济研究所 Control method for cavern microenvironment regulation control system
CN104566868A (en) * 2015-01-27 2015-04-29 徐建成 Central air-conditioning control system and control method thereof

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