Wire feed type electron beam increases material and manufactures equipment and operation method thereof
The present invention relates to electron beam process equipment technical field, be specifically related to a kind of wire feed type electron beam and increase material
Manufacture equipment and operation method thereof.
Wire feed type electron beam increases material manufacture equipment work-piece manufacture needs vacuum environment.But, due to electron beam
Increase material and manufacture the work characteristics of equipment self, in its vacuum environment, be inevitably present high temperature, high light, X
The interference factors such as the pollution of ray, metal dust, electromagnetic field.Therefore, existing wire feed type electron beam increases material system
Manufacturing apparatus there is also following two shortcoming and needs to be captured:
1. can produce contraction in various degree due to workpiece under different materials and different sizes, and send
The reasons such as silk process wire belt shake, therefore wire feed type electron beam increasing material manufacture equipment manufactured at workpiece
Cheng Zhong, workpiece size is difficult to accurately control.Although using negative feedback control technology that this can be overcome difficult in principle
Topic, but have a problem in that under this type of vacuum environment, conventional on-line monitoring such as photoelectric sensor, sonar
Sensor, radio sensor are the most inapplicable, and the most degenerative signal detection technique cannot solve.Furthermore
In manufacture process metal bath, impurity splashes and causes workpiece manufacture layer surface defect also to need to monitor in time and repair
2. the wire tray of wire feed type electron beam increasing material manufacture equipment is put in a vacuum chamber, when manufacturing large-scale workpiece,
Need more to renew wire tray, vacuum chamber now must be made to exit.For avoiding workpiece to aoxidize, need to make workpiece cold
But lower temperature is arrived reinflated.And workpiece cooling is very slow in vacuum, large-scale workpiece cools down needs
Several to dozens of hour.Evacuation the most again is needed, when therefore replacing wire tray expends a large amount of after changing wire tray
Between, the efficiency manufacturing workpiece will be the lowest.Additionally change workpiece continued growth from cold conditions base material after wire tray,
The change of workpiece each several part physically or chemically performance, the i.e. concordance of workpiece performance can be caused poor.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is that existing wire feed type electron beam increasing material manufacture equipment cannot realize
The problem of on-line monitoring, it is provided that a kind of wire feed type electron beam increases material and manufactures equipment and operation method thereof.
For solving the problems referred to above, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
Wire feed type electron beam increase material manufacture equipment, including central control unit, power-supply system, wire feed system,
Coolant circulation system, pumped vacuum systems, vacuum chamber, telecontrol equipment, electron gun, trough and work
Platform；Central control unit, power-supply system, the outdoor section of wire feed system, coolant circulation system, take out
Vacuum system is arranged on outside vacuum chamber, the indoor section of wire feed system, telecontrol equipment, electron gun, walks
Wire casing and workbench are arranged on the inside of vacuum chamber.Being a difference in that, electron gun has been installed the most further partially
Sweeping device and secondary electron receive device, inclined sweeping device and secondary electron receive device by supply unit with
Central control unit connects；After the manufacture layer of electron beam process finished piece(s) one canned paragraph sent when electron gun,
The exciting current of inclined sweeping device is controlled so that the electron beam of electron gun is later quickly swept by central control unit
Retouching the manufacture layer of this canned paragraph, secondary electron receives the secondary electron letter that device will receive in flyback process
Number it is sent to central control unit, by scanning element secondary each on this canned paragraph of central control unit synchronous recording
Electronic signal；After the end of scan, the secondary electron signal data of record are analyzed by central control unit
Process, it is judged that whether the edge manufacturing layer of this canned paragraph reaches desired value, and judges this canned paragraph
Manufacture whether layer exists cavity blemish, in order to repair in time.
In such scheme, wire feed system is by support, wire tray, wire belt, butt welding machine, dynamic sealing device
Form with wire-feed motor；Support, wire tray, wire belt, butt welding machine are arranged on the outside of vacuum chamber, wire feed
Machine is arranged on the inside of vacuum chamber；The wire tray being wound with wire belt is rack-mount, wire belt warp
It is connected to wire-feed motor by the dynamic sealing device being arranged on vacuum chamber；Butt welding machine is located at wire tray and movable sealing dress
Between putting；Wire-feed motor is controlled wire belt to be delivered to the lower section of electron gun and manufactures layer by central control unit
Top, and melted by electron beam, molten metal liquid falls and is manufacturing on layer；When a dish wire belt
When changing another dish wire belt after being finished, by butt welding machine by the end of upper dish wire belt and lower wall metal
The top of silk ribbon welds together, to realize continuing wire feed.
Above-mentioned wire feed type electron beam increases material and manufactures the operation method of equipment, comprises the steps:
Step 1, set-up procedure；Including wearing silk, fixing substrate, evacuation and generation technological parameter；
Step 2, manufacture workpiece；After the vacuum condition of vacuum chamber reaches, the power supply starting electron gun generates
Electron beam, forms molten bath on workpiece, and telecontrol equipment drives electron gun and wire-feed motor motion and/or workbench
Drive workpiece rotates, and wire belt melts under electron beam effect simultaneously, piles up according to predetermined machining path；
After often manufacturing the manufacture layer of finished piece(s) one canned paragraph, electron beam the most quickly scanning, scanning area is the most electric
The invariant position of sub-rifle, is controlled scanning by central control unit by controlling the exciting current of inclined sweeping device
The scanning track in region, secondary electron receives device and the secondary electron signal received in flyback process is passed
Deliver to central control unit, by the secondary electricity of each scanning element on this canned paragraph of central control unit synchronous recording
Subsignal；After the end of scan, central control unit is analyzed place to the secondary electron signal data of record
Reason, it is judged that whether the edge manufacturing layer in scanning area reaches desired value, and judges system in scanning area
Make whether layer exists cavity blemish, in order to repair in time；After completing a manufacture manufacturing layer,
Electron gun rises a level altitude manufacturing thickness, carries out upper one manufacture manufacturing layer, respectively manufactures interlayer
Form metallurgical binding, pile up layer by layer；
Step 3, workpiece cool down；When producing required workpiece, close power supply and the stopping of electron gun
Wire feed system works, stop motion device and working table movement, vacuum pump unit and coolant circulation unit
Keep on the go state；The workpiece manufactured cools down under vacuum conditions；Cooling terminates, and stops vacuum pump machine
Group and coolant circulation unit work, and finally take out workpiece.
As improvement, still further comprise and change a step between step 2 and step 3, i.e. central authorities control
Unit detects when wire belt is used up soon, just sends and changes silk prompting, simultaneously closes off electron beam, stop sending
Silk machine wire feed, and stop motion device and working table movement, central control unit record thrusts dot information；
Now the end of upper dish wire belt is welded together by butt welding machine with the top of lower wall wire belt, changes silk
After end, central control unit is from thrusting a job repeating step 2.
Above-mentioned steps 1 particularly as follows:
Step 1-1, wear silk；Allow wire belt sequentially pass through butt welding machine, dynamic sealing device, trough and
Wire-feed motor is gone directly below electron gun；
Step 1-2, fixing substrate；One piece of metal basal board is fixed on workbench will be on this metal basal board
Step 1-3, evacuation；Close door for vacuum chamber, start coolant circulation unit, start true successively
Empty pump assembly and the molecular pump of electron gun, until internal vacuum chamber vacuum and electron gun internal vacuum are all
Reach job requirement；
Step 1-4, generation technological parameter；Central control unit is according to the three-dimensional CAD of workpiece to be manufactured
Model is carried out hierarchy slicing process by data processing software, forms machining locus；Set electron beam parameter and
After wire feed rate, data processing software automatically generates nc program.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has a characteristic that
1, solve workpiece manufacture process on-line monitoring problem, improve the accuracy of manufacture, reduce or eliminate manufacture
2, solve continuous wire feed problem, improve and manufacture efficiency.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that electron beam of the present invention increases material manufacture equipment composition schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is that in Fig. 1, electron beam increases material manufacture equipment E-beam area scanning schematic diagram.
Labelling in figure: 1, central control unit；21, supply unit；22, external cable；23, enter the room
Cable；24, vacuum electric cable joint；31, support；32, wire tray；33, wire belt；34, butt welding
Machine；35, dynamic sealing device；36, wire-feed motor；41, coolant circulation unit；42, coolant pipe；
43, coolant access apparatus；51, vacuum pump unit；52, vacuum pipe；53, vacuum flange；6、
Vacuum chamber；7, telecontrol equipment；8, electron gun；81, scanning means；82, secondary electron receives device；
83, electron beam；9, trough；10, workbench；11, workpiece；12, layer is manufactured；13, scanning area
Detailed description of the invention
A kind of wire feed type electron beam increases material and manufactures equipment, as it is shown in figure 1, mainly by central control unit 1,
Power-supply system, wire feed system, coolant circulation system, pumped vacuum systems, vacuum chamber 6, telecontrol equipment 7,
Electron gun 8, trough 9 and workbench 10 form.Central control unit 1, power-supply system, wire feed system
It is outside that the outdoor section of system, coolant circulation system, pumped vacuum systems are arranged on vacuum chamber 6, wire feed system
Indoor section, telecontrol equipment 7, electron gun 8, trough 9 and the workbench 10 of system are arranged on vacuum chamber
The inside of 6.
Central control unit 1: be responsible for control and the monitoring of whole equipment, including setting of electron beam 83 parameter
Data process etc. fixed, that workpiece 11 three-dimensional CAD model carries out hierarchy slicing.Central control unit 1 leads to
Cross and carry out Real Data Exchangs with supply unit 21 and complete function above.
Power-supply system: by supply unit 21, external cable 22, enter the room cable 23 and vacuum electric cable joint
24 compositions.Supply unit 21 includes the control electricity controlling power supply, coolant circulation system of wire feed system
Source, pumped vacuum systems control power supply, telecontrol equipment 7 drive power supply, the power supply of electron gun 8 and
The driving power supply of workbench 10.Supply unit 21 is by external cable 22 and the electricity consumption portion outside vacuum chamber 6
Part connects, as respective control power supply is delivered to the wire feed system outside vacuum chamber 6, coolant circulation respectively
In the consuming parts that system is corresponding with pumped vacuum systems.Supply unit 21 is passed through vacuum by cable 23 of entering the room
Cable connector 24 is connected with the consuming parts within vacuum chamber 6, as provided wire feed system wire-feed motor 36
Control the driving electricity driving power supply, the power supply of electron gun 8 and workbench 10 of power supply, telecontrol equipment 7
Source.The structure of vacuum electric cable joint 24 has vacuum and seals and X-ray-preventing leakage function.
Wire feed system: by support 31, wire tray 32, wire belt 33, butt welding machine 34, dynamic sealing device
35 and wire-feed motor 36 form.Wire-feed motor 36 is controlled wire belt 33 to deliver to by central control unit 1
The lower section of electron gun 8 and the top manufacturing layer 12 of workpiece 11, and melted by electron beam 83, fusing
Molten metal fall on the manufacture layer 12 of workpiece 11.Wire tray 32 is placed on the outside of vacuum chamber 6, a dish gold
Belong to after silk ribbon is finished and update wire tray 32, butt welding machine 34 wire belt 33 is welded together continuation wire feed.
It is internal that wire belt 33 introduces vacuum chamber 6 through dynamic sealing device 35, and the structure of dynamic sealing device 35 possesses
Vacuum dynamic seal and X-ray-preventing leakage function, its movable sealing has two kinds of versions, a kind of for circle
The wire belt in (including ellipse) cross section, the another kind of metal for rectangle (including square) cross section
Silk ribbon.Wire tray 32 is placed on outside the vacuum chamber under atmospheric condition, uses movable sealing mode to introduce in vacuum chamber
Portion, wire tray 32 Renewal process is not required to exit vacuum chamber, asks so that the present invention solves continuous wire feed
Topic, improves and manufactures efficiency.
Coolant circulation system: come in and gone out by coolant circulation unit 41, coolant pipe 42 and coolant and fill
Put 43 compositions.The structure of coolant access apparatus 43 has vacuum and seals and X-ray-preventing leakage function.
Telecontrol equipment 7, electron gun 8, workbench 10, wire-feed motor in coolant circulation system cooling vacuum room 6
36 grades need the parts of cooling.
Pumped vacuum systems: be made up of vacuum pump unit 51, vacuum pipe 52 and vacuum flange 53, vacuum
The structure of flange 53 makes vacuum pipe 52 connect with vacuum chamber 6 and possess X-ray-preventing leakage function.
Pumped vacuum systems effect be maintain vacuum chamber 6 internal gas pressure be 1 × 10-3Pa～1 × 10-1PaWork
Vacuum chamber 6: processed by 30～35mm thick Plate Weldings, the wall of vacuum chamber 6, Men Jibi,
The window opened on door and Kong Douxu are resistant to 1 atmospheric pressure, be provided simultaneously with vacuum sealing and X-ray-preventing is let out
Telecontrol equipment 7: electron gun 8 and the three-axis moving of wire-feed motor 36, and the one of electron gun 8 are provided
Electron gun 8: produce electron beam 83 and receive secondary electron signal.Electron gun 8 has been installed and has partially been swept dress
Put 81 and secondary electron receive device 82, often manufactured one and fixed segment and manufacture after layer 12, electron beam 83
The most quickly scanning is as shown in Figure 2.The invariant position of scanning area 13 opposing electronic rifle 8, is controlled by central authorities
Unit 1 processed controls the scanning track of scanning area 13 by controlling the exciting current of inclined sweeping device 82,
And received device 82 by secondary electron and synchronize to receive each point secondary electron signal being sent on scanning track
Central control unit 1.After the end of scan, the central control unit 1 secondary electron signal number to receiving
According to being analyzed process, it is judged that whether the edge manufacturing layer 12 in scanning area 13 reaches desired value, with
And manufacture whether layer 12 exists cavity blemish in judging scanning area 13, in order to repair in time.From
And make the present invention solve workpiece 11 manufacture process on-line monitoring problem, reduce or eliminate manufacturing defect.
Trough 9: the cable in fixing vacuum chamber 6 and coolant pipe, provides wire belt tape transport simultaneously
Passage, and thermal insulation protection is provided.Trough 9 has part to be fixed on vacuum chamber 6 inwall, has part
Being fixed on telecontrol equipment 7 goes directly electron gun 8 and follow electron gun 8 is synchronized with the movement.
Workbench 10: fixing workpiece 11, and can perform to rotate and one-dimensional banking motion.
The work process of wire feed type electron beam of the present invention increasing material manufacture equipment:
The first step: set-up procedure, including wearing silk, fixing substrate, evacuation and generation technological parameter.
1. wear silk: wire tray 32 is hung on support 31, pull out wire belt 33, allow wire belt 33
Sequentially pass through butt welding machine 34, dynamic sealing device 35, trough 9 and wire-feed motor 36 to go directly electron gun 8 times
2. fixing substrate: be fixed on workbench 10 by one piece of metal basal board, workpiece 11 will be at this metal
Grown on substrates is out.The composition of metal basal board is consistent or close with the composition of workpiece 11.
3. evacuation: close vacuum chamber 6, start cooling system, successively start vacuum pump unit 51 and
The molecular pump of electron gun, until vacuum chamber 6 internal vacuum and electron gun 8 internal vacuum all reach work
It is required.
4. technological parameter is generated: central control unit 1 is according to the three-dimensional CAD model of workpiece 11 to be manufactured
Carried out hierarchy slicing process by data processing software, form machining locus；Set electron beam parameter and wire feed
After speed, data processing software automatically generates nc program.
Second step: manufacture workpiece.
After the vacuum condition of vacuum chamber 6 reaches, the power supply starting electron gun 8 produces electron beam 83, in work
Forming molten bath on part 11, telecontrol equipment 7 drives electron gun 8 and wire-feed motor 36 to move and/or workbench
10 drive workpiece 11 to rotate, and wire belt 33 melts under electron beam 83 acts on simultaneously, according to predetermined
Machining path is piled up.
Often having manufactured one to fix segment and manufacture after layer 12, electron beam 83 the most quickly scanning is as shown in Figure 2.
The invariant position of scanning area 13 opposing electronic rifle 8, by central control unit 1 by controlling inclined sweeping device
The exciting current of 82 controls each point on the scanning track of scanning area 13, and synchronous recording scanning track
Secondary electron signal.After the end of scan, the secondary electron signal data of record are entered by central control unit 1
Row analyzing and processing, it is judged that whether the edge manufacturing layer 12 in scanning area 13 reaches desired value, and sentences
Manufacture whether layer 12 exists cavity blemish in disconnected scanning area 13, in order to repair in time.
After completing a manufacture manufacturing layer, electron gun 8 rises a level altitude manufacturing thickness,
Carrying out upper one manufacture manufacturing layer, each interlayer that manufactures forms metallurgical binding, piles up layer by layer.
3rd step: change silk.
Central control unit 1 detects that the wire belt 33 in wire tray 32 has been used up just to send soon and changes silk and carry
Show, simultaneously close off electron beam 83, stop wire-feed motor 36 wire feed, stop motion device 7 and workbench 10
Motion, central control unit 1 have recorded and thrusts dot information.Now wire tray 32 more renews, butt welding machine
Wire belt 33 is welded together by 34, and pad carries out deburring process so that solder joint smooths.Change silk
After end, central control unit 1 is from thrusting a repetition second step job.If setting up steel wire storage in wire feed system
Device a, then process of changing just is not required to interrupt the manufacture work of workpiece 11.
4th step: workpiece cools down.
Workpiece 11 manufacture process constantly repeats second step and the 3rd step until producing required workpiece 11,
It is then shut off the power supply of electron gun 8 and stops wire feed system work, stop motion device 7 and workbench 10
Motion, vacuum pump unit 51 and coolant circulation unit 41 keep on the go state.The workpiece 11 manufactured
Cooling down under vacuum conditions, cool time is set by technological requirement.Cooling terminates, and stops vacuum pump unit
51 and coolant circulation unit 41 work, finally take out workpiece 11.
Electron beam the most of the present invention increases material and manufactures equipment employing built-in electronic rifle structure, is conducive to improving vacuum
The utilization rate of room.But the electron beam using external electron gun structure increases material manufactures equipment, if using secondary
Electronic signal monitors manufacture process technology and uses external dynamic seal wire feed technology to broadly fall into the present invention