CN105486586B - Surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and test method - Google Patents

Surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and test method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105486586B
CN105486586B CN201610035076.7A CN201610035076A CN105486586B CN 105486586 B CN105486586 B CN 105486586B CN 201610035076 A CN201610035076 A CN 201610035076A CN 105486586 B CN105486586 B CN 105486586B
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loading device
bottom plate
load
unidirectional
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CN105486586A (en
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李为腾
李廷春
王刚
杨宁
玄超
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Shandong University of Science and Technology
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Shandong University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and test method, belong to Geotechnical Engineering experiment field, its structure includes bearing test object and the bottom plate of pilot system, the unidirectional loading device being provided with bottom plate on the inside of subjects, unidirectional loading device one end is hinged on bottom plate, the unidirectional loading device other end is hinged with load transfer device, and unidirectional loading device applies the power from periphery to center by load transfer device to subjects.The present invention can be achieved to surrouding rock deformation and the accurate simulation of pressure, the mechanical test of the supporting construction for carrying out variant shape and size;The counterforce structure of periphery is not needed, is easy to manufacture, reduces cost, saves space;Can guarantee test load remain radial load, and beneficial to the life-span of loading device.

Description

Surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and test method
Technical field
Test field the present invention relates to Geotechnical Engineering, specifically a kind of surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and Test method.
Background technology
With the development of China's economic society, underground mine, tunnel, subway, water power chamber etc. build it is more and more, more Engineering be in badly matter condition, the support issues faced therewith are also more and more prominent.In this context, increasing branch Shield form is used in scene, such as I-steel bow member, U-shaped steel bow member, concrete filled steel tube bow member, grid steel frame, concrete arch body Supporting etc..The mechanical property of above-mentioned supporting construction has for final stable and engineering the safety of live country rock to be significantly affected. The important research means of supporting construction mechanical property are grasped when carrying out mechanical test, supporting construction mechanical characteristic can be specified, taken off Show its failure mechanism, optimize its design parameter, it is significant to engineering safety.
However, still it can really and accurately simulate tunnel, tunnel surrounding without a kind of scientific and reasonable pilot system at present Deformation and pressure.Existing pilot system typically uses conventional hydraulic oil cylinder, because of the structural original of subjects in loading procedure Cause, part load cylinder can passively bounce back in the case where keeping pressure value, and this is not substantially inconsistent with on-site actual situations, because existing The deformation of field country rock is unidirectional, irreversible.In addition, load cylinder is typically placed in outside bow member by current similar pilot system The peripheral counterforce structure, it is necessary to bulky is enclosed, occupies many experiments room space, and construction cost is high, takes a lot of work laborious, is not inconsistent Close the principle of " high accuracy, high efficiency, low cost ";When being pressurizeed by the oil cylinder of periphery to bow member simultaneously, because bow member produces shape Become, differ between oil cylinder axis and bow member axis and surely keep original plumbness, the accuracy of experiment can not only be caused Certain influence, certain infringement can be also caused to hydraulic jack, shortens its service life.
The content of the invention
In view of the above-mentioned problems, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system and experiment Method, the pilot system and test method are capable of the deformational behavior of accurate simulation country rock, and reduce space-consuming, reduce manufacture Cost, test accuracy is improved, extend the service life of pilot system.
The present invention, which solves the technical scheme that its technical problem is taken, to be included:Surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system, Bottom plate including bearing test object and pilot system, the unidirectional loading dress being provided with bottom plate on the inside of subjects Put, unidirectional loading device one end is hinged on bottom plate, and the unidirectional loading device other end is hinged with load transfer device, unidirectional loading device By load transfer device subjects are applied with the power from periphery to center.
The deformation beyond plane occurs during in order to prevent that subjects from loading, further technical scheme is:On bottom plate Limiting block beam is additionally provided with, limiting block beam is uniformly distributed along subjects;Limiting block beam by arranging and what is be parallel to each other performs up and down Beam and lower block beam are formed, and upper beam and lower block beam between upper beam and lower block beam by together with keeping off beam-to-column joint, existing and accommodating The gap of subjects.Upper beam and lower block beam are fixed on bottom plate at certain altitude by gear beam column, and upper beam and lower block beam is equal Formed and contacted with the edge of subjects.
Further technical scheme is:The bearing that promising subjects provide counter-force, the branch are fixedly installed on bottom plate Seat it is L-shaped, bearing be located at the both ends of subjects and with the ends contact of subjects.
Further technical scheme is:The described unidirectional one end of loading device away from subjects is hinged on counter-force post, Counter-force post is the cylindrical-shaped structure being fixedly connected on bottom plate, and the axis of counter-force post is vertical with bottom plate.
To avoid unidirectional loading device from glancing off under gravity, make unidirectional loading device be maintained at set it is flat In-plane moving, further technical scheme are:It is described that support meanss, support meanss bag are unidirectionally provided between loading device and bottom plate Include support bar and roller, the top of support bar is fixedly connected with unidirectional loading device, the bottom of support bar installation roller, roller with Contacts baseplate.Support meanss can set two, be separately positioned on middle part and unidirectional loading device and the biography of unidirectional loading device One end that power apparatus is connected.
Further technical scheme is:Described load transfer device is uniformly distributed along subjects, and load transfer device is framework shape Structure, load transfer device is nested with to be provided with the outside of the cross section of subjects, the side that load transfer device is in contact with subjects Power transmission disperser, load transfer device are articulated and connected with power transmission disperser.Power can uniformly be acted on itself and examination by power transmission disperser Test on the contact surface of object, accurate simulation force-bearing of surrounding rock mass situation.
Described unidirectional loading device can use the device that non-return oil cylinder or one-way cylinder etc. can only be loaded unidirectionally, unidirectionally Be be hinged between loading device and counter-force post and load transfer device, be also between load transfer device and power transmission disperser it is be hinged, can Ensure that unidirectional loading device only by axial force, lateral load is not born because of the deformation of subjects, on the one hand to apply in itself The load added is radial load, on the other hand protects unidirectional loading device to be not damaged by.
Further technical scheme is:The surface that the power transmission disperser is in contact with subjects is provided with rubber blanket Plate.Rubber mat plate can be reduced effectively in loading procedure to stress concentration degree caused by subjects, more real simulation scene The real conditions of shoulder bed effects.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem also includes:A kind of test method, comprises the following steps:
Step (1):Lower block beam is arranged on gear beam column, forms operating platform;
Step (2):By subjects in described operating platform over-assemble, and subjects are placed in specified location;
Step (3):The tail end of unidirectional loading device is hinged on the counter-force post of bottom plate, adjusts the length of unidirectional loading device Degree is so that the shape and size of the operating radius adequacy test object of pilot system;
Step (4):The head end of unidirectional loading device is articulated and connected with load transfer device, by load transfer device and power transmission disperser It is articulated and connected;
Step (5):Upper beam is arranged on beam post, subjects are limited planar, it is produced flat Move and deform in face;
Step (6):The placement sensor in pilot system, and connect the sensor to corresponding monitoring system;
Described sensor main will include force snesor, displacement transducer, strain transducer etc., and force snesor is arranged in list The one end being connected to loading device with load transfer device, displacement transducer one end are connected on the bottom plate of testing stand, and the other end connects It is connected in subjects, strain transducer uses foil gauge, and foil gauge is attached in subjects as needed, force snesor and position Displacement sensor should be connected with data collecting system, and foil gauge should be connected by wire with deformeter, data collecting system and Deformeter forms monitoring system.
Step (7):Monitoring system is opened, is preloaded;
Step (8):Load and the displacement of unidirectional loading device are controlled, is loaded to subjects, on-test;
Step (9):Real-time monitored, the deformation for gathering subjects, stress, strained situation during experiment;
Step (10):When subjects rupture, unstability, large deformation phenomenon occur and can not continue carrying, stop loading, close Close monitoring system, off-test;
Step (11):Interpretation of result:Monitoring result and the experiments such as the load that is collected according to monitoring system, displacement, strain The deformation failure situation of object, obtains the mechanical characteristics such as bearing capacity, the integral rigidity of subjects and Mechanism of Deformation And Failure.
Further technical scheme is:In the step (7), the concrete operation method of preloading is:Pass through Loading Control System makes unidirectional loading device contraction in length, makes the outside of power transmission disperser and subjects closely connected, and applies to be not more than and estimate The load of failing load 3%;In the step (8), the concrete operation method of loading is:Can be by the way of dullness be pressurizeed, lotus Load is less than 0.9QmaxWhen, loading speed 0.02Qmax/ min, per 0.1QmaxPressurize 1min;Load is more than 0.9QmaxWhen, loading speed 0.005Qmax/ min, per 0.05QmaxPressurize 1min, wherein, QmaxTo estimate ultimate load.
Further technical scheme is:In the step (8), the surrouding rock deformation simulated as needed and the actual feelings of pressure Condition, by Loading Control System by whole unidirectional loading device synchronization action or asynchronous action.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
1st, can be achieved to surrouding rock deformation and the accurate simulation of pressure.Existing pilot system typically uses conventional hydraulic oil cylinder, Because the structural reason of subjects, part load cylinder can passively bounce back in the case where keeping pressure value in loading procedure; This is not substantially inconsistent with on-site actual situations, because the deformation of live country rock is unidirectional, irreversible.This pilot system and experiment side Method uses unidirectional loading device, during experiment, unidirectional loading device may only shrink or stop and can not be overhanging, even The pulling force that unidirectional loading device is subject to is more than the negative pressure of its internal hydraulic pressure oil, also will not be overhanging;The above-mentioned spy of unidirectional loading device Property realizes the more accurate simulation to deformation characteristics of rocks;
2nd, unidirectional loading device is installed in the inner side of subjects, it is not necessary to peripheral counterforce structure, is easy to manufacture, drops Low cost, save space;
3rd, loading is realized by the contraction of unidirectional loading device, each junction is be hinged, it is ensured that finder charge is all the time Radial load is remained, test accuracy can be improved;Compared with loading device carries out loading outside subjects to it, this Invention can prevent between loading device axis and subjects axis differing after subjects deformation surely keeping original vertical State, and loading device is caused damage, shorten its service life;
4th, available for development U-shaped steel bow member, I-steel bow member, concrete filled steel tube bow member, grid steel frame and concrete arch body It is applied widely Deng the mechanical test of support form;
5th, the position of counter-force post and the length of unidirectional loading device are adjusted, the bow member mechanics of different shape and size can be achieved Experiment, to adapt to the different shape bow member under mine working, tunnel, Hydro tunnels, subway difference operating mode, such as circular, stalk half The anti-bottom arch of dome-shaped, semicircle, the shape of a hoof.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is Fig. 1 A-A views;
Fig. 3 is Fig. 1 B-B views.
In figure:1- subjects, 2- counter-force posts, 3- non-return oil cylinders, 4- tails hinge, 5- ends hinge, 6- component hinge, 7- power transmissions disperse Device, 8- load transfer devices, 9- limiting block beams, 10- gear beam columns, 11- bearings, 12- midfoot supports, the support of 13- ends, 14- bottom plates, 15- rubber mat plates.
Embodiment
With reference to Figure of description and specific embodiment, the invention will be further described:
As shown in figure 1, surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system, including the bottom of bearing test object 1 and pilot system Plate 14, subjects 1 are the bow member of " u "-shaped, and pilot system is mainly by counter-force post 2, non-return oil cylinder 3, actuating system, auxiliary part Deng composition.Wherein:
Described counter-force post 2 is typically process by steel, and counter-force post 2 is cylindrical-shaped structure, is fixed on bottom plate 14, instead The axis of power post 2 is vertical with bottom plate 14, and its position is corresponding with tail 4 design attitudes of hinge of non-return oil cylinder 3, for fixing non-return oil cylinder 3 tail hinge 4, counter-force is provided for the pilot system.By changing the position of counter-force post 2, and the length of non-return oil cylinder 3 is adjusted, can With the operating radius of effective Adjustment Tests system, the subjects 1 of adaptation different shape and size.
Described non-return oil cylinder 3 is by shrinking the loading effect realized to subjects 1;During experiment, non-return oil Cylinder 3 may only shrink or stop and can not be overhanging, the pulling force that even non-return oil cylinder 3 is subject to is more than the negative of its internal hydraulic pressure oil Pressure, also will not be overhanging;So as to realize the more accurate simulation to surrouding rock deformation.
Described actuating system is made up of tail hinge 4, end hinge 5, component hinge 6, load transfer device 8 and power transmission disperser 7.
As shown in Fig. 2 described tail hinge 4 is arranged on the rear end of non-return oil cylinder 3, for connecting non-return oil cylinder 3 and counter-force post 2;Described end hinge 5 is arranged on the front end of non-return oil cylinder 3, for connecting load transfer device 8;Described load transfer device 8 further through point Power hinge 6 is connected with power transmission disperser 7, and power transmission disperser 7 is acted in described subjects 1.The hinged structure of actuating system can Ensure that non-return oil cylinder 3 itself only by axial force, does not bear lateral load because of the deformation of subjects 1, on the one hand to apply Load be radial load, on the other hand protect non-return oil cylinder 3 to be not damaged by.
Described load transfer device 8 is uniformly distributed along subjects 1, and load transfer device 8 is frame-shaped structure, 8 sets of load transfer device Put and be provided with power transmission disperser 7, institute in the outside of the cross section of subjects 1, the side that load transfer device 8 is in contact with subjects The surface for stating power transmission disperser 7 is provided with rubber mat plate 15, can effectively reduce in loading procedure to stress caused by subjects 1 The real conditions of intensity, more real simulation scene shoulder bed effects.
Described auxiliary part is made up of limiting block beam 9, bearing 11, midfoot support 12 and end support 13.
As shown in figure 3, upper and lower beam is fixed on bottom plate 14 certain height by described limiting block beam 9 by beam post 10 Out-of-plane deformation occurs at degree, during for preventing described subjects 1 from loading.Limiting block beam 9 uniformly divides along subjects 1 Cloth;Limiting block beam 9 is made up of upper beam and the lower block beam arranged and be parallel to each other up and down, is existed between upper beam and lower block beam and is held Receive the gaps of subjects 1, upper beam and lower block beam is formed with the edge of subjects 1 and contacted.
Described bearing 11 is fixed on bottom plate 14, for providing counter-force to subjects 1.Bearing 11 is L-shaped, bearing 11 positioned at subjects 1 both ends and with the ends contact of subjects 1.
Described midfoot support 12 and end support 13 are separately positioned on the middle part and front end of non-return oil cylinder 3, for supporting Non-return oil cylinder 3, hydraulic jack 3 is set to be maintained at the horizontal in-plane moving set.Midfoot support 12 and end support 13 are by branch Strut and roller are formed, and the top of support bar is fixedly connected with non-return oil cylinder 3, the bottom installation roller of support bar, roller and bottom Plate 14 contacts.
The test method of the present embodiment, comprises the following steps:
Step (1):Lower block beam is arranged on gear beam column 10, forms operating platform;
Step (2):By subjects 1 in described operating platform over-assemble, and subjects 1 are placed in specific bit Put;
Step (3):Each non-return oil cylinder 3 is fixed on the counter-force post 2 specified by tail hinge 4, and adjusts non-return oil cylinder 3 Length, the operating radius of Adjustment Tests system, the shape and size of adequacy test object 1;
Step (4):Using the connection non-return oil cylinder 3 of end hinge 5 and connection load transfer device 8,6 are cut with scissors by load transfer device 8 by component It is connected with power transmission disperser 7;
Step (5):Upper beam is arranged on beam post 10, subjects 1 are limited planar, it is produced Move and deform in plane;
Step (6):The placement sensor in pilot system, and connect the sensor to corresponding monitoring system;
Described sensor main will include force snesor, displacement transducer, strain transducer etc., and force snesor is arranged in list The one end being connected to loading device with load transfer device, displacement transducer one end are connected on the bottom plate of testing stand, and the other end connects It is connected in subjects, strain transducer uses foil gauge, and foil gauge is attached in subjects as needed, force snesor and position Displacement sensor should be connected with data collecting system, and foil gauge should be connected by wire with deformeter, data collecting system and Deformeter forms monitoring system.
Step (7):Monitoring system is opened, is preloaded:The contraction in length of non-return oil cylinder 3 is made by Loading Control System, Make power transmission disperser 7 and the outside of subjects 1 closely connected, and apply no more than the load for estimating failing load 3%;
Step (8):Load and the displacement of non-return oil cylinder 3 are controlled by Loading Control System, is loaded to subjects 1, is tried Test beginning:The surrouding rock deformation that can be simulated as needed and the actual conditions of pressure, whole oil cylinders are set by Loading Control System It is set to synchronization action, or asynchronous action;Experiment can be by the way of dullness be pressurizeed, and load is less than 0.9QmaxWhen (QmaxTo estimate Ultimate load), loading speed 0.02Qmax/ min, per 0.1QmaxPressurize 1min;Load is more than 0.9QmaxWhen, loading speed 0.005Qmax/ min, per 0.05QmaxPressurize 1min;
Step (9):Real-time monitored, the deformation for gathering subjects, stress, strained situation during experiment;
Step (10):When subjects 1 phenomena such as rupture, unstability, large deformation occur and can not continue carrying, stop adding Carry, close monitoring system, off-test;
Step (11):Interpretation of result:Monitoring result and the experiments such as the load that is collected according to monitoring system, displacement, strain The deformation failure situation of object, obtains the mechanical characteristics such as bearing capacity, the integral rigidity of subjects and Mechanism of Deformation And Failure.
The subjects 1 of the present invention can be U-shaped steel bow member, other section bow members can be also directed to, such as concrete filled steel tube, U Shaped steel, I-steel, grid steel frame etc., it can be circular, oval and straight legs semicircle etc. to need its global shape according to experiment, Can accurate simulation tunnel, tunnel, subway, the deformational behavior of water power surrounding rock of chamber, so as to effectively to support forms such as supporting bow members Development mechanical test is carried out, studies its mechanical characteristic, optimizes mechanics parameter.
The unidirectional loading device that the present invention uses is not limited to the non-return oil cylinder described in embodiment, can also use one-way cylinder Or other unidirectional loading devices such as unidirectional electric cylinders.
The foregoing is merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not the whole embodiments of the present invention, not limiting The system present invention, within the spirit and principles of the invention, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc., should be included in Within protection scope of the present invention.
In addition to technical characteristic described in specification, remaining technical characteristic is technology known to those skilled in the art, in order to prominent Go out the innovative characteristicses of the present invention, above-mentioned technical characteristic will not be repeated here.

Claims (7)

1. surrouding rock deformation and pressure simulation pilot system, it is characterized in that, including bearing test object and the bottom plate of pilot system, The unidirectional loading device being provided with bottom plate on the inside of subjects, unidirectional loading device one end are hinged on bottom plate, unidirectionally The loading device other end is hinged with load transfer device, and unidirectional loading device is applied from periphery in by load transfer device to subjects The power of the heart;
The described unidirectional one end of loading device away from subjects is hinged on counter-force post, and counter-force post is to be fixedly connected on bottom plate Cylindrical-shaped structure, the axis of counter-force post is vertical with bottom plate;
Described that support meanss are unidirectionally provided between loading device and bottom plate, support meanss include support bar and roller, support bar Top is fixedly connected with unidirectional loading device, the bottom installation roller of support bar, roller and contacts baseplate;
Described load transfer device is uniformly distributed along subjects, and load transfer device is frame-shaped structure, and load transfer device, which is nested with, to be tested The outside of the cross section of object, the side that load transfer device is in contact with subjects are provided with power transmission disperser, and load transfer device is with passing Power disperser is articulated and connected.
2. surrouding rock deformation according to claim 1 and pressure simulation pilot system, it is characterized in that, limit is additionally provided with bottom plate Position gear beam, limiting block beam are uniformly distributed along subjects;Limiting block beam is by the upper beam and lower block arranging and be parallel to each other up and down Beam is formed, and upper beam and lower block beam between upper beam and lower block beam by together with keeping off beam-to-column joint, existing and accommodating subjects Gap.
3. surrouding rock deformation according to claim 1 and pressure simulation pilot system, it is characterized in that, it is fixedly installed on bottom plate Promising subjects provide the bearing of counter-force, and the bearing is L-shaped.
4. surrouding rock deformation according to claim 1 and pressure simulation pilot system, it is characterized in that, the power transmission disperser with The surface that subjects are in contact is provided with rubber mat plate.
5. the test method tested using the surrouding rock deformation described in claim 2 and pressure simulation pilot system, its feature It is to comprise the following steps:
Step(1):Lower block beam is arranged on gear beam column, forms operating platform;
Step(2):By subjects in described operating platform over-assemble;
Step(3):The tail end of unidirectional loading device is hinged on bottom plate, adjusts the length of unidirectional loading device so that experiment The shape and size of the operating radius adequacy test object of system;
Step(4):The head end of unidirectional loading device is articulated and connected with load transfer device;
Step(5):Upper beam is arranged on beam post, subjects are limited planar, it is produced in plane Mobile and deformation;
Step(6):The placement sensor in pilot system, and connect the sensor to corresponding monitoring system;
Step(7):Monitoring system is opened, is preloaded;
Step(8):Load and the displacement of unidirectional loading device are controlled, is loaded to subjects, on-test;
Step(9):Real-time monitored, the deformation for gathering subjects, stress, strained situation during experiment;
Step(10):When subjects rupture, unstability, large deformation phenomenon occur and can not continue carrying, stop loading, close prison Examining system, off-test.
6. test method according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, the step(7)In, apply in preloading procedure Load, which is not more than, estimates the 3% of failing load;The step(8)In, when load is less than 0.9Qmax, loading speed 0.02Qmax/ Min, per 0.1Qmax pressurizes 1min;When load is more than 0.9Qmax, loading speed 0.005Qmax/min, per 0.05Qmax pressurizes 1 Min, wherein, Qmax is to estimate ultimate load.
7. test method according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, the step(8)In, whole unidirectional loading devices is same Step acts or asynchronous action.
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CN105931558B (en) * 2016-07-13 2019-04-26 山东科技大学 Roadway excavation unloading model experimental rig and test method
CN107144472B (en) * 2017-06-08 2023-07-04 山东科技大学 Multi-shape multi-scale surrounding rock pressure simulation test system and test method
CN108169027B (en) * 2017-12-18 2019-03-22 中国水利水电科学研究院 A kind of tunnel high pressure water-filling prototype loading test device and test method
CN108871952B (en) * 2018-06-11 2020-06-30 三峡大学 Lateral limiting device for simulating deformation condition of lining inside surrounding rock and using method thereof
CN109000950B (en) * 2018-07-16 2020-06-09 三峡大学 Response device and method for simulating stress deformation and support after tunnel rock-soil body excavation
CN111610101B (en) * 2020-04-28 2023-10-24 中铁工程服务有限公司 Steel arch compression experiment table

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CN102507348B (en) * 2011-10-19 2013-08-07 宁波交通工程建设集团有限公司 Test method for bearing capacity of secondary lining concrete structure of tunnel
CN102866070B (en) * 2012-08-16 2014-07-30 浙江交建路桥工程有限公司 Loading method for bearing strength test for secondary lining concrete structure of tunnel
CN103883333B (en) * 2014-03-07 2016-03-02 山东大学 Combine the large-scale mechanical test system of adjustable constraint coagulation bow member
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