CN105093136A - All-fiber weak magnetic field measuring device - Google Patents

All-fiber weak magnetic field measuring device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105093136A
CN105093136A CN201510607562.7A CN201510607562A CN105093136A CN 105093136 A CN105093136 A CN 105093136A CN 201510607562 A CN201510607562 A CN 201510607562A CN 105093136 A CN105093136 A CN 105093136A
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fiber
module
port
magnetic
light
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代志勇
田雕
谢淼
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University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
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University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
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Abstract

The invention provides an all-fiber weak magnetic field measuring device. According to the measuring device, an all-fiber FBG F-P cavity is formed in a magnetic sensitive module. When a surrounding magnetic field changes, cavity length of the all-fiber FBG F-P cavity is enabled to change by the scaling effect of magnetostrictive components and the spectral characteristics of interference signals reflected by the all-fiber FBG F-P cavity are enabled to change, and magnetic field intensity can be accurately calculated via spectral characteristic data analysis of the interference signals. With application of the mode, magnetic field intensity of a weak magnetic field can be accurately measured.

Description

A kind of all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of optical fiber sensing, particularly relate to a kind of all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device.
Background technology
The field relating to magnetic-field measurement is a lot, comprise industry, agricultural, national defence, biology, medical science and aerospace etc., and wherein, it is important for realizing weak magnetic fields measurement.Weak magnetic fields measurement method has a lot, as fluxgate method, magneto-optic pump send out, Superconducting Quantum device interferometric method etc., but adopt the surveying instrument of these methods to be substantially all made up of electron device, this just cause the electromagnetism interference of surveying instrument and heat-resisting ability poor, thus cannot work under rugged environment, significantly limit range of application.Specifically, first, electronic circuit resistance to elevated temperatures is poor, and when using under temperature 150 DEG C of environment, the working time of surveying instrument all needs strictly to limit, and cannot measure for a long time, can not meet high temperature and measure requirement for a long time; Secondly, under the environment that electromagnetic interference (EMI) situation is serious, measuring-signal is easily interfered, and makes measuring error large, causes the reliability of gathered information and accuracy all cannot be protected.
Compared to electron device, Fibre Optical Sensor has the significantly technical advantage such as high sensitivity, high precision, great dynamic range, electromagnetism interference and high temperature high voltage resistant, and in magnetic-field measurement, particularly weak magnetic fields measurement aspect receives extensive concern.Have based on the Mach-Zehnder interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors of magnetostrictive effect, Michelson interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors, Fabry-Perot interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors and based on dual fiber Bragg grating (FBG, FiberBraggGrating) fibre optic magnetic field sensor etc. for the Fibre Optical Sensor measuring magnetic field at present.
Based on the Mach-Zehnder interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors of magnetostrictive effect and the principle of Michelson interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors basically identical, be all by Optical Fiber Winding on magnetostriction materials, magnetostriction materials form subtle change under the effect of external magnetic field, this change causes the parameter (length, refractive index) being wrapped in optical fiber on it and changes, make, interfering the optical path difference of transmission light in arm to change, namely to realize the modulation of field signal to lightwave signal phase information.Although the fibre optic magnetic field sensor structure of this structure is simple, but carry out exchanging or the measurement of D.C. magnetic field time need external dc or AC magnetic field bias coil, not only system architecture is complicated, and signal receiving is complicated, and make measurement result very unstable by the polarization state random variation that environment (as temperature, vibrations, fibre-optical bending etc.) causes.
Fabry-Perot interference optical fibre magnetic field sensors make use of the FP interferometer of low precision, single-mode fiber and metallic glass silk are placed in hollow tubular and constitute EFFP weak magnetic sensor, fiber end face and metallic glass silk end face constitute F-P cavity, and the light transmitted by optical fiber is in fiber end face reflecting part and the interference of light entering optical fiber after metallic glass silk end face reflection again.This structure is because of the diversity of output light-wave direct in optical fiber, make the chamber length of F-P to accomplish micron dimension, cause its measurement sensistivity and precision lower, simultaneously this structure is not all optical fibre structure, poor stability, processing technology are difficult, are not suitable for producing in enormous quantities.
Be made up of framework, isosceles tripod semi-girder, 2 sections of current line pipeline circles, thin carrying flow direct conducting wire, dual fiber Bragg gratings based on dual fiber Bragg grating fibre optic magnetic field sensor.Dual fiber Bragg grating centrally line symmetrically rigidity be pasted onto the both sides, front and back of semi-girder, carrying flow direct conducting wire along the center line of semi-girder by the free end being pasted onto semi-girder of rigidity.When electromagnetic force on a cantilever beam time, the deformation of semi-girder can be caused, this deformation effect is in dual fiber Bragg grating, the bragg wavelength of dual fiber Bragg grating is drifted about, the wave length shift of application differential technique to dual fiber Bragg grating is measured, and just can reflect magnetic field conditions by drift value.This fibre optic magnetic field sensor good stability, but there is the shortcomings such as Temperature cross-over susceptibility, sensitivity are low, complex structure.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters that the present invention mainly solves is to provide a kind of all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device, accurately can measure the magnetic field intensity of Weak magentic-field.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical scheme that the present invention adopts is: provide a kind of all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device, comprise light source module, optical fiber circulator, magnetic susceptibility module, spectra collection module and processing module, described optical fiber circulator comprises the first port be connected with described light source module, with the second port of described magnetic susceptibility model calling and the 3rd port with described spectra collection model calling, processing module described in described spectra collection model calling, described magnetic susceptibility module comprises optical fiber and magnetostriction element, described optical fiber is fixed on described magnetostriction element, described optical fiber is inscribed and has two chirped fiber gratings of the predetermined fiber lengths in interval to form all-fiber FBGF-P chamber, the reflection wavelength of described two chirped fiber gratings, reflectivity and reflection spectrum bandwidth are all consistent, described light source module is used for the light signal to described first port stable output spectrum and power, described second port is used for described light signal to inject described magnetic susceptibility module, to make described all-fiber FBGF-P chamber to the interference signal of light signal described in described second port reflects, described 3rd port is used for exporting described interference signal to described spectra collection module, described spectra collection module is for gathering the spectral characteristic data of described interference signal, and described processing module is used for according to described spectral characteristic DATA REASONING magnetic field intensity.
Preferably, described magnetostriction element is magnetostriction sheet or magnetostrictive rod, described optical fiber is positioned over described magnetostriction sheet surface or is inserted in described magnetostrictive rod, and the two ends in described all-fiber FBGF-P chamber are closely pasted by bonding agent and described magnetostriction sheet or described magnetostrictive rod.
Preferably, described all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device also comprises Polarization Control module, described light source module is by the first port described in described Polarization Control model calling, and described Polarization Control module is for controlling the polarization state of described light signal and eliminating the signal dropout of described light signal.
Preferably, the reflection spectrum bandwidth of described chirped fiber grating is at more than 8nm.
Preferably, described second port is by optical patchcord and described magnetic susceptibility model calling, and described 3rd port is by optical patchcord and described spectra collection model calling.
Preferably, described light source module adopts the semiconductor light sources of wide spectral.
Be different from the situation of prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The magnetic susceptibility module 1, with all-fiber FBGF-P chamber is all optical fibre structure, compared with the Space Coupling structure of traditional fiber F-P cavity, reduce the loss of light in F-P cavity, simultaneously using fiber grating as reflection end face, its reflectivity can be controlled well, interference pattern is good, signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) is high, and measuring accuracy is high;
2, fiber grating is designed to chirped fiber grating, its reflection spectrum bandwidth can reach several more than nm, the chamber length of the F-P cavity formed can reach centimetres, can form and form the long weak reflection F-P cavity magnetic susceptibility structure in long chamber, thus can greatly improve magnetic-field measurement sensitivity, ensure to realize high precision magnetic-field measurement;
3, compared with traditional phase of light wave detection method, adopt Spectral Property Analysis can eliminate polarization signal decline, temperature drift and vibrational perturbation error etc., improve sensitivity and the stability of detection of magnetic field;
4, in the magnetic susceptibility module with all-fiber FBGF-P chamber, magnetic-field measurement is carried out in conjunction with Spectral Property Analysis, can on the basis of not change structure, the measurement that both can realize D.C. magnetic field also can realize the measurement of AC magnetic field, and structure is simple;
5, all-fiber FBGF-P chamber is all optical fibre structure, has high temperature high voltage resistant, and electromagnetism interference, response time are fast, and the feature such as processing technology is simple, and not only sensor stability is good, and is applicable to producing in enormous quantities.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of embodiment of the present invention all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device.
Fig. 2 is the light path schematic diagram in all-fiber FBGF-P chamber of magnetic-field-sensitive module in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the structural representation in Fig. 1 in a kind of application scenarios of magnetic-field-sensitive module.
Fig. 4 is the structural representation in Fig. 1 in the another kind of application scenarios of magnetic-field-sensitive module.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, be clearly and completely described the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention, obviously, described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the present invention, instead of whole embodiments.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtained under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
See Fig. 1, it is the structural representation of embodiment of the present invention all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device.The all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device of the present embodiment comprises light source module 1, optical fiber circulator 2, magnetic susceptibility module 3, spectra collection module 4 and processing module 5.
The 3rd port D3 that optical fiber circulator 2 comprises the first port D1 be connected with light source module 1, the second port D2 be connected with magnetic susceptibility module 3 and is connected with spectra collection module 4.Light source module 1 can adopt the semiconductor light sources of wide spectral, and because the stability of light source module 1 output optical signal is very large on measuring accuracy impact, for ensureing measuring accuracy, the light signal of light source module 1 stable output spectrum and power, to ensure stability.The spectral width of semiconductor light sources and watt level can regulate according to actual needs.
Spectra collection module 4 connection handling module 5.In the present embodiment, processing module 5 can be embedded type CPU, and embedded type CPU, to data process&analysis, realizes the accurate measurement in magnetic field.Alternatively, data-interface can also be provided for embedded type CPU.
Magnetic susceptibility module 3 comprises optical fiber 31 and magnetostriction element 32, optical fiber 31 is fixed on magnetostriction element 32, optical fiber 31 is inscribed and has two chirped fiber gratings of the predetermined fiber lengths in interval to form all-fiber FBGF-P chamber, the reflection wavelength of two chirped fiber gratings, reflectivity and reflection spectrum bandwidth are all consistent.In the present embodiment, the reflection spectrum bandwidth of chirped fiber grating is at more than 8nm.
Light source module 1 is for the light signal to the first port D1 stable output spectrum and power, second port D2 is used for light signal to inject magnetic susceptibility module 3, to make all-fiber FBGF-P chamber to the interference signal of the second port D2 reflected light signal, 3rd port D3 is used for exporting interference signal to spectra collection module 4, spectra collection module 4 is for gathering the spectral characteristic data of interference signal, and processing module 5 is for according to spectral characteristic DATA REASONING magnetic field intensity.
In the present embodiment, all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device also comprises Polarization Control module 6, and light source module 1 connects the first port D1 by Polarization Control module 6, and Polarization Control module 6 is for controlling the polarization state of light signal and eliminating the signal dropout of light signal.
Alternatively, the second port D2 is connected with magnetic susceptibility module 3 by optical patchcord, and the 3rd port D3 is connected with spectra collection module 4 by optical patchcord.
Magnetic susceptibility module 3 is as all optical fibre structure, after in all-fiber FBGF-P chamber that light signal enters magnetic susceptibility module 3, if surrounding magnetic field there occurs change, under magnetic fields, to flex effect be there is in magnetostriction element 31, thus make the long change in the chamber in all-fiber FBGF-P chamber, and then cause the spectral characteristic of the interference signal of all-fiber FBGF-P cavity reflection to change, just accurately can measure magnetic field intensity to after the spectral characteristic data analysis of interference signal.
Specifically, referring to Fig. 2, is the light path schematic diagram in all-fiber FBGF-P chamber of magnetic-field-sensitive module in Fig. 1.According to the spectral characteristic theoretical model in FBGF-P chamber, the light channel structure of magnetic-field-sensitive module 3 as shown in Figure 2, if the reflection coefficient of fiber grating FBG1 and transmission coefficient are respectively r g1, t g1, length is L 1, reflection coefficient and the transmission coefficient of fiber grating FBG2 are respectively r g2, t g2, length is L 2, the chamber in FBGF-P chamber is long is h.
Suppose that two fiber grating FBG1 and FBG2 are just the same, and make reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient be respectively r g1=r g2=| r g| exp (i φ r), t g1=t g2=| t g| exp (i φ t), wherein φ r, φ tbe respectively reflection phase shift coefficient and the transmission phase coefficient of two fiber grating FBG1 and FBG2.
When two fiber grating FBG1 and FBG2 are designed to weak reflective gratings, the reflection coefficient in weak reflectivity FBGF-P chamber can be obtained further:
r F-P(λ)≈r g(λ)[1+exp(iφ F-P)](1)
Wherein, for the phase coefficient in FBGF-P chamber, wherein L f-P≈ L g+ h, L g=(L 1+ L 2)/2, r gfor optical grating reflection coefficient, λ is optical wavelength.
The reflection spectrum bandwidth of single fibre grating (be defined as reflectance spectrum ± 1 grade zero point spacing) Δ λ gfor:
Δλ g = λ 2 nL g - - - ( 2 )
Wherein, n represents the effective refractive index of optical fiber.Resonance line bandwidth Delta lambda in optical fiber FBGF-P chamber mfor:
Δλ m = λ 2 2 nL F - P - - - ( 3 )
So optical grating reflection bandwidth interior resonance spectral line number m is:
m = Δλ g Δλ m ≈ 2 L F - P L g - - - ( 4 )
From above formula, select longer L f-Ptime can form many resonance lines in optical grating reflection bandwidth, and the live width of resonance line is much smaller than the reflection bandwidth of grating.When external environment changes, the movement of the resonance line of fiber Bragg grating F-P is moved much bigger than single optical grating reflection spectral shift, and the change that namely fiber Bragg grating F-P strains to external world will be more responsive.The value being obtained m by Spectral Property Analysis just can know L f-Pvalue, and then obtain magnetic field intensity to be measured.
In the present embodiment, magnetostriction element 31 is magnetostriction sheet or magnetostrictive rod.As shown in Figure 3, be structural representation in Fig. 1 in a kind of application scenarios of magnetic-field-sensitive module.In this application scenarios, magnetostriction element 31 is magnetostriction sheet.Optical fiber 30 is inscribed and has two chirped fiber gratings 301 of the predetermined fiber lengths in interval to form all-fiber FBGF-P chamber Z, optical fiber 30 is positioned over magnetostriction sheet surface, and the two ends of all-fiber FBGF-P chamber Z are closely pasted by bonding agent 302 and magnetostriction sheet.
As shown in Figure 4, be structural representation in Fig. 1 in the another kind of application scenarios of magnetic-field-sensitive module.In this application scenarios, magnetostriction element 31 is magnetostrictive rod.Optical fiber 30 is inscribed and has two chirped fiber gratings 301 of the predetermined fiber lengths in interval to form all-fiber FBGF-P chamber Z, optical fiber 30 is inserted in magnetostrictive rod, and the two ends of all-fiber FBGF-P chamber Z are closely pasted by bonding agent 302 and magnetostrictive rod.
By the way, the all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device of the embodiment of the present invention forms all-fiber FBGF-P chamber in magnetic susceptibility module, when surrounding magnetic field changes, the telescopic action of magnetostriction element can make the chamber in all-fiber FBGF-P chamber length change, and cause the spectral characteristic of the interference signal of all-fiber FBGF-P cavity reflection to change, can magnetic field intensity be accurately calculated by the spectral characteristic data of interference signal, particularly accurately measure the magnetic field intensity of Weak magentic-field.
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention; not thereby the scope of the claims of the present invention is limited; every utilize instructions of the present invention and accompanying drawing content to do equivalent structure or equivalent flow process conversion; or be directly or indirectly used in other relevant technical fields, be all in like manner included in scope of patent protection of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. an all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device, it is characterized in that, comprise light source module, optical fiber circulator, magnetic susceptibility module, spectra collection module and processing module, described optical fiber circulator comprises the first port be connected with described light source module, with the second port of described magnetic susceptibility model calling and the 3rd port with described spectra collection model calling, processing module described in described spectra collection model calling, described magnetic susceptibility module comprises optical fiber and magnetostriction element, described optical fiber is fixed on described magnetostriction element, described optical fiber is inscribed and has two chirped fiber gratings of the predetermined fiber lengths in interval to form all-fiber FBGF-P chamber, the reflection wavelength of described two chirped fiber gratings, reflectivity and reflection spectrum bandwidth are all consistent,
Described light source module is used for the light signal to described first port stable output spectrum and power, described second port is used for described light signal to inject described magnetic susceptibility module, to make described all-fiber FBGF-P chamber to the interference signal of light signal described in described second port reflects, described 3rd port is used for exporting described interference signal to described spectra collection module, described spectra collection module is for gathering the spectral characteristic data of described interference signal, and described processing module is used for according to described spectral characteristic DATA REASONING magnetic field intensity.
2. all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described magnetostriction element is magnetostriction sheet or magnetostrictive rod, described optical fiber is positioned over described magnetostriction sheet surface or is inserted in described magnetostrictive rod, and the two ends in described all-fiber FBGF-P chamber are closely pasted by bonding agent and described magnetostriction sheet or described magnetostrictive rod.
3. all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, described all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device also comprises Polarization Control module, described light source module is by the first port described in described Polarization Control model calling, and described Polarization Control module is for controlling the polarization state of described light signal and eliminating the signal dropout of described light signal.
4. all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, the reflection spectrum bandwidth of described chirped fiber grating is at more than 8nm.
5. all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described second port is by optical patchcord and described magnetic susceptibility model calling, and described 3rd port is by optical patchcord and described spectra collection model calling.
6. all-fiber weak magnetic fields measurement device according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described light source module adopts the semiconductor light sources of wide spectral.
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CN106802398A (en) * 2016-11-02 2017-06-06 北京信息科技大学 A kind of detecting apparatus for rotor position based on fiber grating
CN108226819A (en) * 2016-12-13 2018-06-29 中国移动通信集团上海有限公司 A kind of ground magnetic field monitoring system and method based on fiber grating
CN107121220A (en) * 2017-05-25 2017-09-01 杭州电子科技大学 Optics Fabry-Perot-type cavity air pressure sensing system
CN107632060A (en) * 2017-09-19 2018-01-26 电子科技大学 A kind of defect inspection device based on fibre optic magnetic field sensing
CN108051762A (en) * 2017-12-27 2018-05-18 北京信息科技大学 A kind of magnetic field strength transducer and its performance test methods based on FP
CN108957366A (en) * 2018-06-19 2018-12-07 杭州电子科技大学 D.C. magnetic field sensor-based system based on the tunable characteristic of microbubble chamber mechanical mode
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Inventor after: Dai Zhiyong

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Application publication date: 20151125