CN104999118B - High-efficiency special drilling head for drilling holes in carbon fiber composite material - Google Patents

High-efficiency special drilling head for drilling holes in carbon fiber composite material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104999118B
CN104999118B CN201510408743.7A CN201510408743A CN104999118B CN 104999118 B CN104999118 B CN 104999118B CN 201510408743 A CN201510408743 A CN 201510408743A CN 104999118 B CN104999118 B CN 104999118B
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micro
tooth
cutting edge
cutting
drilling
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CN104999118A (en
Inventor
王福吉
何春伶
贾振元
付饶
钱宝伟
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Dalian University of Technology
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Dalian University of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B51/00Tools for drilling machines
    • B23B51/08Drills combined with tool parts or tools for performing additional working
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B2226/00Materials of tools or workpieces not comprising a metal
    • B23B2226/27Composites
    • B23B2226/275Carbon fibre reinforced carbon composites
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B2251/00Details of tools for drilling machines
    • B23B2251/04Angles, e.g. cutting angles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B2251/00Details of tools for drilling machines
    • B23B2251/40Flutes, i.e. chip conveying grooves
    • B23B2251/408Spiral grooves

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of drilling and cutting tools in mechanical processing, and relates to a high-efficiency special drilling head for drilling holes in a carbon fiber composite material. A cutter is the multiple-cutting-edge cutter with double vertex angles and a micro tooth structure and particularly suitable for the one-time high-quality high-efficiency processing of the high-performance carbon fiber reinforced composite material. The drilling head consists of a main cutting region, an assistant cutting region and a cutter handle, wherein a micro tooth cutting region is arranged at a connecting position of the main cutting region and the assistant cutting region; the main cutting region consists of a first main cutting edge and a second main cutting edge; in the assistant cutting region, a left-hand thread is formed in an assistant cutting edge; the micro tooth cutting region consists of a plurality of micro teeth. According to the high-efficiency special drilling head disclosed by the invention, the double vertex angles and the micro tooth structure are utilized, so that a function of integrated processing of drilling-expanding-reaming is realized, the axial force of the drilling and the cutting is reduced, layered defects are overcome, the holes with high size accuracy are obtained, the service life of the drilling head is prolonged, the situation that the cutter is frequently replaced is avoided, and the processing efficiency is improved.

Description

A kind of efficient target drill for carbon fibre composite drilling
Technical field
The invention belongs to drilling tool technical field in machining, it is related to a kind of for carbon fibre composite drilling Efficient target drill, the cutter is the multiple-cutting-edge tool with Double Tops angle and micro- toothing, is particularly suitable for high-performance carbon fibre increasing The disposable high-quality of strong composite, high efficiency processing.
Background technology
Carbon fibre composite has high specific strength, high specific stiffness, resisting fatigue, corrosion-resistant and excellent designability etc. excellent Good combination property, in being widely used in aerospace structure design.Drilling is in carbon fibre composite part manufacture process One of most heavy machining of workload, such as a frame Boeing-747 aircraft have more than 300 ten thousand connecting holes.Yet with material Interlaminar strength it is low, easily produce the defects such as layering, tear in exit during drilling, and matrix phase heat conductivity is bad, carbon fiber Hardness is high so that tool wear is fast, is difficult to process the hole without layering, impulse- free robustness defect using common fluted drill.It is directed to both at home and abroad The research of carbon fibre composite tool for cutting machining shows that cutter material high speed steel is not suitable for adding for carbon fibre composite Work, polycrystal diamond cutter can improve the life-span of drilling cutters, but its is expensive, and be only used for the mistake of steady drilling Journey.Hard alloy has preferable intensity and toughness, can meet the process requirements of carbon fibre composite, but hard alloy Common fluted drill is still difficult to meet the drilling demand of high-quality and high-efficiency.
The geometry of cutter is the reuse factor for affecting composite drilling quality and cutter life, both at home and abroad for carbon The fiber composite material design drill bit of various geometries, these drill bits have respective pluses and minuses.As Xi'an airplane industry has Limit company discloses one kind《New drill with conical transition zone》, number of patent application 200320125153.6 is and common Fluted drill is compared, and the conical transition zone of blade is increased between the drilling rod and head of drill bit so that drill bit is on thin wall parts The principle and process of drilling changes a lot, and the hole exits side that normal drill bit drilling Jing is often produced is eliminated to a certain extent Rigidity is relatively low at fate layer, plucking, but this drill bit apex point, easily produces vibration, and the roughness and precision for causing hole is difficult to protect Card.The and for example patent of Suzhou Ahno Cutting Tool Technology Co., Ltd.《Low chisel edge drill bit》, number of patent application 201310104178.6, the head of this drill bit is provided with two chip areas, its intersection difference shape with the knife back in the axial direction Into two main cutting edges, be mainly characterized by three it is top, middle is top lower than both sides, and such design can take into account cutter Intensity and centering ability, two outer top fibers that can effectively scrape disconnected hole periphery, less burr, but in processing high strength fiber During the composite of the low interlaminar strength of peacekeeping, the damage of tear is easily produced, and the point of a knife cutting speed on both sides is most fast, it is easy to Abrasion, once tool wear, drilling quality starts to be decreased obviously.Sandvik Intellectual Property discloses one kind 《For the fluted drill of advanced material》, number of patent application 201180020931.2 is related to for such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic The fluted drill of the drilling of material and glass fibre reinforced composion, proposition is provided with variable helical and has the initial spiral angle for limiting With terminal spiral angle, to be combined with main relief angle and secondary relief angle so that fluted drill is adapted so that thrust minimum, Especially when for drilling to fibrous composite, and especially when for Manual drilling.The invention is also carried View is conducive to the processing of composite using big secondary chisel edge angle.This kind of drill bit compares fluted drill can be subtracted to a certain extent Few lamination defect, but veining defect can quickly occur with the abrasion of cutter, and the service life of drill bit is shorter.
The content of the invention
The invention solves the problems that technical barrier be to overcome carbon fibre composite that layering and burr are easily produced in drilling The problem of defect, a kind of drilling knife for being directed to carbon fibre composite, especially tackling high-performance carbon fibre composite of invention Tool.The cutter is a kind of Double Tops corner structure drill bit with the micro- sword of dentation, by the Double Tops corner structure of main cutting edge, main cutting edge With micro- toothing of front cutting edge connecting portion, the function of brill-expansion-hinge integration processing is realized, obtain high dimensional accuracy Hole, is capable of achieving disposably without layering, impulse- free robustness drilling, and can improve the service life of drill bit, reduces use cost.
The technical solution used in the present invention is a kind of efficient target drill for carbon fibre composite drilling, its feature It is that drill bit is made up of main cutting area A, secondary cutting region B and handle of a knife C, has by some with secondary cutting region B junctions in main cutting area A Micro- tooth cutting region D of individual micro- tooth X compositions;
Described main cutting area A has two parts cutting edge, respectively the first main cutting edge 1 and the second main cutting edge 2;Its In, the first apex angle α being made up of two the first main cutting edges 1 is 90 ° -120 °, second be made up of four the second main cutting edges 2 Apex angle ss is 10 ° -30 °;Half of the radial direction Breadth Maximum e of two the first main cutting edges 1 less than bit diameter R;Due to the first top The angle of angle α and the second apex angle ss is different, constitutes the Double Tops corner structure of main cutting area A;Second main cutting edge 2 is with front cutting edge 3 Formed by same helicla flute;
In described secondary cutting region, front cutting edge 3 is left hand thread, and helical angle ω is 5 ° -10 °, and front cutting edge anterior angle γ is 10 ° -30 °;The tool diameter of the position of front cutting edge 3 is bit diameter R;
In the described micro- tooth cutting region D being made up of several micro- tooth X, micro- tooth X quantity 1-3 on the second main cutting edge 2, Micro- tooth X quantity 2-4 on front cutting edge 3;Micro- tooth X quantity on front cutting edge 3 is than the micro- tooth X quantity on the second main cutting edge 2 It is many;
Each micro- tooth X tops tooth tangent line is 75 ° -90 ° with the angle theta scope of front cutting edge 2;Each micro- tooth X lower teeth is cut Line is 100 ° -130 ° with the included angle scope of front cutting edge 2;Micro- tooth height b is 0.3-0.8mm, and micro- tooth depth d is micro- tooth height 1.5 times -2 times;Micro- tooth X on every cutting edge is micro- tooth height 2-4 times apart from c along the array of tool axis.
The invention has the advantages that efficiently target drill by using Double Tops angle and micro- toothing, realize brill-expansion- The function of hinge integration processing, obtains the hole of high dimensional accuracy, reduces operation, reduces drilling axial force, reduces lamination defect. The non-cut staple of cutting exit bending is recoiled in the micro- toothing on blade, is cut off by follow-up cutting edge, reduces hair Thorn.Micro- toothing of array arrangement, can multiple cutting burr repeatedly, improve the service life of drill bit.Frequent tool changing is avoided, Use cost is reduced, working (machining) efficiency is improve.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the front view of efficient target drill;The left side view of the efficient target drills of Fig. 2;The efficient target drills of Fig. 3 Micro- toothing figure;Wherein:The main cutting edges of 1- first, the main cutting edges of 2- second, 3- front cutting edges, α-the first drift angles, β-the Two drift angles, γ-front cutting edge anterior angle, ω-helical angle, a- chisel edges, the micro- tooth heights of b-, c- array distances, the micro- tooth depths of d- The angle of the angle of degree, θ-micro- tooth top tooth tangent line and front cutting edge 2, φ-micro- tooth lower teeth tangent line and front cutting edge 2, e- The radial direction Breadth Maximum of two the first main cutting edges, A- main cuttings area, B- pairs cutting region, C- handle of a knifes, the micro- tooth cutting regions of D-, The micro- teeth of X-, R- bit diameters.
Fig. 4 is the hole wall surface roughness value comparison diagram of drill bit of the present invention and commercially available drilling tool, wherein, 1- drilling tool #1,2- Drilling tool #2, abscissa represents the hole count of processing, and vertical coordinate represents processing Hole Wall Roughness Ra, unit mm.
Specific embodiment
Describe being embodied as the present invention in detail with technical scheme below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Efficient target drill as shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 shows is divided into main cutting area A, secondary cutting region B and the parts of handle of a knife C tri-, There is the micro- tooth cutting region D being made up of several micro- tooth X with secondary cutting region B junctions in main cutting area A.Drill bit is in drilling process In can be divided into 5 stages, the first stage is extruding, is that chisel edge a contacts and extrude workpiece, due to the extrusion effect of chisel edge, axially Thrust increases rapidly;Second stage is extruding and drilling, and now the first main cutting edge 1 enters material, starts to remove material, thrust To increase more by a small margin;Phase III is drilling, and now chisel edge reaches workpiece bottom, bores after workpiece in chisel edge, axial force Suddenly reduce.Fourth stage is drilling and ream, and now thickness of slab material is all processed by the second main cutting edge 2, axial thrust ripple It is dynamic little.5th stage was deburring and fraising, and now the second main cutting edge 2 initially moves off workpiece, and micro- toothing starts to remove Burr, front cutting edge 3 is reamed, and axial force further reduces.
Front cutting edge 3 is conducive to chip discharge using left hand thread and less helical angle using less helical angle, and Can realize that fraising is acted on, reduce Hole Wall Roughness;During drilling, shank end is overlooked, and drill bit turns clockwise, cutter to Cutting is realized in right direction, and the design of left revolving blade increases the real work anterior angle of cutting edge to the right, and larger anterior angle is conducive to carbon fine Dimension strengthens the cutting of composite.
In the present embodiment, it is 8mm to take bit diameter R, and maximum radial width e of the first main cutting edge 1 is the 1/ of bit diameter R 3, helical angle ω is 5 °, and front cutting edge anterior angle γ of front cutting edge 3 is 10 °.Main cutting area has two sections of cutting edges to be cut by the first master Cut the main cutting edge 2 of sword 1 and second to constitute, first apex angle α and four the second main cutting edges 2 of two compositions of the first main cutting edge 1 The angle of the second apex angle ss for constituting is different, constitutes Double Tops corner structure.The angle for taking the first apex angle α is 90 °, and the second apex angle ss is 10°。
As shown in the left side view of the efficient target drills of Fig. 2, by being ground the first main cutting edge, chisel edge a is formed, chisel edge is long Degree will be controlled, shorter than during general drilling metal material, and less chisel edge more advantageously reduces layering, but chisel edge is too small easily Cause the reduction of cutter life.In the present embodiment, the size of chisel edge a is 0.22mm.Micro- tooth X quantity 1 on second main cutting edge 2 It is individual, micro- tooth X quantity 4 on front cutting edge 3;Micro- tooth cutting region D has 5 teeth, as shown in Figure 3.Micro- tooth height b=0.8mm is taken, Micro- tooth depth d=1.2mm, array is apart from c=1.6mm.
Experiment porch adopts three axle high-precision numerical control machines.Drill bit material is hard alloy, uncoated.Dry-type processing, nothing Cooling.Machine spindle speed is 3000r/min, and axial feed is 150mm/min.Test piece be unidirectional pre-immersion material according to [(- 45/0/45/90)2/02]SThe 4mm of direction laying thick T800 level epoxy resin base carbon fiber composite materials, this material is in boat It is widely used during sky is industrial, its intensity is high, but inter-layer bonding force is weak, layering is easily produced in processing, belongs to typical hardly possible and add Work material, with good representative and challenge, also embodies the practicality of the present invention.
The drill bit of the present invention is referred to as drilling tool #1, and commercially available drilling tool is referred to as drilling tool #2.Using identical technological parameter and dress Folder mode carries out drilling, after drilling terminates, using super depth-of-field microscope the hole quality of exit face is measured, and is surveyed using coarse measurement instrument The roughness of metering-orifice wall.The performance of the drill bit of the present invention compares knot with the commercially available drilling tool for being commercially available for carbon fibre composite Fruit sees accompanying drawing 4, and test result is described as follows:
(1) exit hole quality
Drilling tool #2 burr very littles when first hole is processed, and have small layering, with the increase of hole count, burr is very Fast to become big, layering also begins to aggravation.Drilling tool #1 is not layered and burr when processing the 1st hole, and quality very well, processes the 5th hole Shi Zhiliang is still fine.
(2) Hole Wall Roughness
Front 5 hole roughness metrics, the roughness value Ra of drilling tool #1 is averagely 0.8, and the meansigma methodss of drilling tool #2 are left 2.0 It is right.Therefore, the drilling roughness quality of drilling tool #1 of the present invention is preferable.
(3) cutter life
Drilling tool #2 burrs when the 2nd hole is processed have begun to increase, more serious during the 4th hole, the life-span of this drill bit It is shorter.And drilling tool #1 quality after 5 holes are processed is still fine, proceed drilling experiment, finally found that drilling tool #1 at least can 20 holes of processing, without layering, impulse- free robustness, with good cutter life.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of efficient target drill for carbon fibre composite drilling, drill bit is by main cutting area (A), secondary cutting region (B) With handle of a knife (C) composition, it is characterized in that, in main cutting area, (A) and secondary cutting region (B) junction several micro- teeth (X) by being made up of Micro- tooth cutting region (D);
There are two parts cutting edge, respectively the first main cutting edge (1) and the second main cutting edge (2) in described main cutting area (A);Its In, the first drift angle (α) being made up of two the first main cutting edges (1) is 90 ° -120 °, is made up of four the second main cutting edges (2) The second drift angle (β) be 10 ° -30 °;Radial direction Breadth Maximum (e) of two the first main cutting edges (1) is less than the one of bit diameter R Half;Because the first drift angle (α) is different with the angle of the second drift angle (β), the Double Tops corner structure of main cutting area (A) is constituted;
In described secondary cutting region, front cutting edge (3) is left hand thread, and helical angle (ω) is 5 ° -10 °, and front cutting edge anterior angle (γ) it is 10 ° -30 °;The tool diameter of front cutting edge (3) position is bit diameter R, and the second main cutting edge (2) is cut with pair Cut sword (3) to be formed by same helicla flute;
In the described micro- tooth cutting region (D) being made up of several micro- teeth (X), the quantity of micro- tooth (X) on the second main cutting edge For 1-3, the quantity of micro- tooth (X) is 2-4 on front cutting edge.
2. according to a kind of efficient target drill for carbon fibre composite drilling described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, bore The top tooth tangent line of each the micro- tooth (X) on head is 75 ° -90 ° with front cutting edge angle (θ) scope;Each micro- tooth lower teeth is cut Line and front cutting edge angleScope is 100 ° -130 °;Between 0.3-0.8mm, micro- tooth depth (d) is micro- tooth height (b) 1.5 times -2 times of micro- tooth height;Micro- tooth (X) on every cutting edge is micro- tooth height along array distance (c) of tool axis 2-4 times.
CN201510408743.7A 2015-07-13 2015-07-13 High-efficiency special drilling head for drilling holes in carbon fiber composite material Active CN104999118B (en)

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