CN104960429B - The power distribution means and energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy - Google Patents

The power distribution means and energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy Download PDF

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CN104960429B
CN104960429B CN201510432059.2A CN201510432059A CN104960429B CN 104960429 B CN104960429 B CN 104960429B CN 201510432059 A CN201510432059 A CN 201510432059A CN 104960429 B CN104960429 B CN 104960429B
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aluminium
super capacitor
energy
power
entire car
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CN104960429A (en
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杜玖玉
欧阳明高
陈景夫
卢兰光
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Tsinghua University
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Tsinghua University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

The power distribution means and energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy, are related to the configuration and energy management method of electric automobile compound energy.Solve existing electric motor car and use aluminium-air cell, there is a problem of that power characteristic is poor.The present invention is by formulating corresponding energy distributing method so that the energy of compound energy is reasonably distributed, the energy of aluminium-air cell is saved, avoid and the repetition of aluminium-air cell is changed, both requirement of the user for running distance of eletric vehicles had been met, the dynamic property demand of city electric bus most of the time had been met again.Distribution of the present invention suitable for city electric bus compound energy.

Description

A kind of power distribution means and energy distribution of city electric bus compound energy Method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the configuration and energy management method of electric automobile compound energy.
Background technology
Current Prospect of EVS Powered with Batteries specific energy is limited, and most electric automobile uses single type electrokinetic cell conduct Power source, meets pure electric continual mileage and driving power demand.Meeting the constraints of impost and driving power demand Under, extending driving range needs the electrokinetic cell using higher energy density, such as aluminium-air cell, zinc-air battery etc., but The power characteristic of such high-energy-density electrokinetic cell is poor, and running conditions of vehicle easily causes the significantly decay in its life-span.
The content of the invention
The present invention is to solve the problems, such as that it is poor that existing electric motor car has power characteristic using aluminium-air cell, it is proposed that The power distribution means and energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy.
A kind of power distribution means of city electric bus compound energy of the present invention, it includes aluminium air electricity Pond, driver and motor, it is characterised in that it also includes vehicle speed sensor, accelerator pedal sensor, brake pedal sensing Device, entire car controller, battery management system, alarm module, DC/DC converters, super capacitor and discharge device;
Vehicle speed sensor is used to detect electric motor car speed that accelerator pedal sensor to be used to detect gas pedal aperture state, Brake pedal sensor is used to detect the aperture state of brake pedal, and the GES input connection speed of entire car controller is passed The signal output part of sensor, the signal of the gas pedal opening amount signal input connection accelerator pedal sensor of entire car controller is defeated Go out end, the brake pedal opening amount signal input of entire car controller connects the signal output part of brake pedal sensor, cell tube Reason system is used to detect the residual electric quantity of aluminium-air cell and the residual electric quantity of super capacitor;
The remaining power signal input of entire car controller connects the remaining power signal output end of battery management system, electricity Pond management system is used to gather the dump energy of aluminium-air cell and the dump energy of super capacitor, and the aluminium air electricity that will be gathered The dump energy in pond and the remaining power signal of super capacitor are sent to entire car controller, and the power supply signal output of super capacitor is defeated Enter the power supply signal input/output terminal of end connection driver, the power supply signal output end connection DC/DC converters of aluminium-air cell Power supply signal input, the power supply signal output end of DC/DC converters connects the power supply signal input of super capacitor, vehicle The cell output control signal output of controller connects the output power signal input part of DC/DC converters, whole The earial drainage control signal output of vehicle controller connects the earial drainage control signal input of discharge device, the electric current letter of discharge device Number output end connects the current signal output end of DC/DC converters, the alarm signal output ends connection alarm mould of entire car controller The alarm control signal input of block, the drive signal output end of driver, power supply signal input difference connecting electric automobile Motor driving signal input, power supply signal output end.
Using the energy distributing method of the above-mentioned power distribution means based on city electric bus compound energy, the method Concretely comprise the following steps:
Step one, the speed that electric automobile is gathered using vehicle speed sensor, electronic vapour is gathered using accelerator pedal sensor The aperture of car gas pedal, the aperture of brake pedal is gathered using brake pedal sensor, while being adopted using battery management system Collect the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell1With the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2
Step 2, the remaining capacity SOC for judging aluminium-air cell1Whether the minimum valve of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is less than Value h;If so, then performing step 3;Otherwise perform step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller send low battery warning trigger signal to alarm module;Return to step one;
Step 4, whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor is collected is judged more than 0, When the opening amount signal of gas pedal is more than 0, the speed according to gas pedal aperture and electric automobile calculates vehicle driving power Pe, step 5 is performed, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, judge electric automobile required for driving power PeWhether the value of the mean power of aluminium-air cell is more than P1;If PeMore than P1, then the unlatching of vehicle control unit controls DC/DC converters, aluminium-air cell power output P1, meanwhile, super electricity Hold simultaneously to driver power output P2=Pe-P1;Return to step one, if PeLess than P1, perform step 6;
Step 6, the remaining capacity SOC for judging super capacitor2The no minimum threshold values g less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if It is then to perform step 7, otherwise, performs step 8;
Step 7, vehicle control unit controls DC/DC converters are opened, aluminium-air cell power output P1, make aluminium air electricity Pond provides driving power for electric motor car, while for super capacitor charges;Return to step one;
Step 8, entire car controller close the power output of aluminium-air cell, super electricity by closing DC/DC converters Appearance is individually for electric motor car and provides driving power, super capacitor power output P2=Pe;Return to step one.
Step 9, whether the brake pedal aperture of brake pedal sensor collection is judged more than 0, if it is not, then performing step Rapid ten;If so, then performing step 11;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor2Whether the maximum threshold values of super capacitor state-of-charge is more than γ;If SOC2More than γ, then return to step one;If SOC2Less than γ, entire car controller is opened by controlling DC/DC converters, aluminium Air cell power output charges for super capacitor, and charging terminates rear return to step one;
Step 11, entire car controller calculate the braking power P of electric motor carb, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2It is The no maximum threshold values γ more than super capacitor state-of-charge;If SOC2More than γ, then earial drainage is carried out by discharge device, return is held Row step;If SOC2Less than γ, entire car controller reclaims the braking energy of electric automobile for super capacitor fills by driver Electricity, charging terminates rear return to step one.
The present invention is optimized by energy management to compound energy, saved the energy of aluminium-air cell, it is to avoid to aluminium The repetition of air cell is changed, while meeting the dynamic property demand of city electric bus most of the time again.By formulating Corresponding energy distributing method so that the energy of compound energy is reasonably distributed, both met user for electric motor car The requirement of continual mileage, increased the continual mileage of electric motor car;Dynamic property demand of the electric motor car when running at high speed is met again, Make the electric motor car can normally travel under different speeds.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the electrical principle block diagram of the power distribution means of the city electric bus compound energy described in invention.
Specific embodiment
Specific embodiment one, with reference to Fig. 1 illustrate present embodiment, a kind of city Electric Transit described in present embodiment The power distribution means of car compound energy, it includes aluminium-air cell, driver 9 and motor 10, and it is also passed including speed Sensor 1, accelerator pedal sensor 2, brake pedal sensor 3, entire car controller 4, battery management system 5, alarm module 6, DC/ DC converters 7, super capacitor 8 and discharge device 11;
Vehicle speed sensor 1 is used to detect electric motor car speed that accelerator pedal sensor 2 to be used to detect gas pedal aperture shape State, brake pedal sensor 3 is used to detect the aperture state of brake pedal, the GES input connection of entire car controller 4 The signal output part of vehicle speed sensor 1, the gas pedal opening amount signal input connection accelerator pedal sensor of entire car controller 4 2 signal output part, the signal of the brake pedal opening amount signal input connection brake pedal sensor 3 of entire car controller 4 is defeated Go out end, battery management system 5 is used to detect the residual electric quantity of aluminium-air cell and the residual electric quantity of super capacitor;
The remaining power signal input of entire car controller 4 connects the remaining power signal output end of battery management system 5, Battery management system 8 is used to gather the dump energy of aluminium-air cell and the dump energy of super capacitor, and the aluminium that will be gathered is empty The dump energy in pneumoelectric pond and the remaining power signal of super capacitor send to entire car controller 4, the power supply of super capacitor 8 letter Number I/O connects the power supply signal input/output terminal of driver 9, the power supply signal output end connection DC/ of aluminium-air cell The power supply signal input of DC converters 7, the power supply signal output end of DC/DC converters 7 connects the power supply signal of super capacitor 8 Input, the output power of the cell output control signal output connection DC/DC converters 7 of entire car controller 4 Signal input part, the earial drainage control signal output of entire car controller 4 connects the earial drainage control signal input of discharge device 11, The current signal output end of the current signal output end connection DC/DC converters 7 of discharge device 11, the alarm of entire car controller 4 Signal output part connects the alarm control signal input of alarm module 6, the drive signal output end of driver 9, power supply signal Driving signal input, the power supply signal output end of the motor 10 of input difference connecting electric automobile.
Specific embodiment two, present embodiment is using a kind of city electric bus described in specific embodiment one The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of compound energy, the method is concretely comprised the following steps:
Step one, the speed that electric automobile is gathered using vehicle speed sensor 1, gather electronic using accelerator pedal sensor 2 The aperture of accelerator pedal of automobile, the aperture of brake pedal is gathered using brake pedal sensor 3, while using battery management system The remaining capacity SOC of 5 collection aluminium-air cells1With the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2
Step 2, the remaining capacity SOC for judging aluminium-air cell1Whether the minimum valve of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is less than Value h;If so, then performing step 3;Otherwise perform step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller 4 send low battery warning trigger signal to alarm module 6;Return to step one;
Step 4, judge whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor 2 is collected is more than 0, when the opening amount signal of gas pedal is more than 0, the speed according to gas pedal aperture and electric automobile calculates vehicle and drives work( Rate Pe, step 5 is performed, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, judge electric automobile required for driving power PeWhether the value of the mean power of aluminium-air cell is more than P1;If PeMore than P1, then the control of entire car controller 4 DC/DC converters 7 open, aluminium-air cell power output P1, meanwhile, it is super Electric capacity is simultaneously to the power output P of driver 92=Pe-P1;Return to step one, if PeLess than P1, perform step 6;
Step 6, the remaining capacity SOC for judging super capacitor2The no minimum threshold values g less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if It is then to perform step 7, otherwise, performs step 8;
Step 7, the control DC/DC of entire car controller 4 converters 7 are opened, aluminium-air cell power output P1, make aluminium air Battery provides driving power for electric motor car, while for super capacitor charges;Return to step one;
Step 8, entire car controller 4 close the power output of aluminium-air cell, super electricity by closing DC/DC converters 7 Appearance is individually for electric motor car and provides driving power, super capacitor power output P2=Pe;Return to step one.
Step 9, whether the brake pedal aperture of the collection of brake pedal sensor 3 is judged more than 0, if it is not, then performing step Rapid ten;If so, then performing step 11;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor2Whether the maximum threshold values of super capacitor state-of-charge is more than γ;If SOC2More than γ, then return to step one;If SOC2Less than γ, the control DC/DC of entire car controller 4 converters 7 are opened, and aluminium is empty Gas cell output charges for super capacitor 8, and charging terminates rear return to step one;
Step 11, entire car controller 4 calculate the braking power P of electric motor carb, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2 Whether the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is more than;If SOC2More than γ, then earial drainage is carried out by discharge device, returned Perform step;If SOC2Less than γ, entire car controller 4 is super electricity by the braking energy that driver 9 reclaims electric automobile Hold 8 to charge, charging terminates rear return to step one.
Specific embodiment two, present embodiment is to a kind of city Electric Transit of utilization described in specific embodiment two The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of car compound energy is further illustrated, the minimum valve of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge Value α is the 20% of battery Full Charge Capacity.
Specific embodiment three, present embodiment is to a kind of city Electric Transit of utilization described in specific embodiment two The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of car compound energy is further illustrated, the minimum valve of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge Value h is the 20% of aluminium-air cell Full Charge Capacity.
Specific embodiment four, present embodiment is to a kind of city Electric Transit of utilization described in specific embodiment two The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of car compound energy is further illustrated, the minimum threshold values of super capacitor state-of-charge G is the 10% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
Specific embodiment five, present embodiment is that a kind of city electric bus described in specific embodiment two are answered The energy distributing method for closing the power distribution means of the energy is further illustrated, and the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is The 90% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
Specific embodiment six, present embodiment is to a kind of city Electric Transit of utilization described in specific embodiment two The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of car compound energy is further illustrated, and the aperture in step 4 when gas pedal is believed During number more than 0, vehicle driving power P is calculated using according to the speed of gas pedal aperture and electric automobileeBy formula:
Tqd=Tqdmaxα
pe=Tqdω
In formula, TqdIt is motor target drive torque, TqdmaxIt is motor maximum driving torque, α is gas pedal aperture,
ω is vehicle speed value for motor actual speed.
Specific embodiment seven, present embodiment is to a kind of city Electric Transit of utilization described in specific embodiment two The energy distributing method of the power distribution means of car compound energy is further illustrated, and in step 11 entire car controller 4 is calculated The braking power P of electric motor carbBy formula:
Tqb=Tqbmaxfbrk(β)
pb=Tqbω
Realize, in formula, TqbIt is motor target braking moment, TqbmaxIt is motor maximum braking torque, β is opened for brake pedal Degree, 0<β1≤ 0.05,0.05<β2≤ 0.3,0.3<β3≤ 1, ω are vehicle speed value for motor actual speed.In present embodiment, β1 =0.5, β1=0.05, β3=1.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of city electric bus compound energy energy distribution dress energy distributing method, it include aluminium-air cell, Driver (9) and motor (10), it also includes vehicle speed sensor (1), accelerator pedal sensor (2), brake pedal sensing Device (3), entire car controller (4), battery management system (5), alarm module (6), DC/DC converters (7), super capacitor (8) and Discharge device (11);
, for detecting electric motor car speed, accelerator pedal sensor (2) is for detecting gas pedal aperture shape for vehicle speed sensor (1) State, brake pedal sensor (3) is for detecting the aperture state of brake pedal, the GES input of entire car controller (4) The signal output part of connection vehicle speed sensor (1), the gas pedal opening amount signal input connection throttle of entire car controller (4) is stepped on The signal output part of plate sensor (2), the brake pedal opening amount signal input connection brake pedal sensing of entire car controller (4) The signal output part of device (3), battery management system (5) is for detecting the residual electric quantity of aluminium-air cell and remaining for super capacitor Remaining charge value;
The remaining power signal output end of remaining power signal input connection battery management system (5) of entire car controller (4), Battery management system (5) is for gathering the dump energy of aluminium-air cell and the dump energy of super capacitor, and the aluminium that will be gathered The dump energy of air cell and the remaining power signal of super capacitor are sent to entire car controller (4), the electricity of super capacitor (8) The power supply signal input/output terminal of source signal I/O connection driver (9), the power supply signal output end of aluminium-air cell The power supply signal input of connection DC/DC converters (7), the power supply signal output end connection super capacitor of DC/DC converters (7) (8) power supply signal input, the cell output control signal output connection DC/DC converters of entire car controller (4) (7) output power signal input part, the earial drainage control signal output of entire car controller (4) connects discharge device (11) Earial drainage control signal input, discharge device (11) current signal output end connection DC/DC converters (7) current signal Output end, the alarm control signal input of alarm signal output ends connection alarm module (6) of entire car controller (4), drives The drive signal output end of device (9), the drive signal of the motor (10) of power supply signal input difference connecting electric automobile Input, power supply signal output end;
Characterized in that, the method is concretely comprised the following steps:
Step one, the speed that electric automobile is gathered using vehicle speed sensor (1), gather electronic using accelerator pedal sensor (2) The aperture of accelerator pedal of automobile, the aperture of brake pedal is gathered using brake pedal sensor (3), while using battery management system System (5) gathers the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell1With the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2
Step 2, the remaining capacity SOC for judging aluminium-air cell1Whether the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is less than; If so, then performing step 3;Otherwise perform step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller (4) send low battery warning trigger signal to alarm module (6);Return to step one;
Step 4, whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor (2) is collected is judged more than 0, When the opening amount signal of gas pedal is more than 0, the speed according to gas pedal aperture and electric automobile calculates vehicle driving power Pe, step 5 is performed, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, judge electric automobile required for driving power PeWhether the value P of the mean power of aluminium-air cell is more than1;If PeMore than P1, then entire car controller (4) control DC/DC converters (7) unlatching, aluminium-air cell power output P1, meanwhile, it is super Electric capacity is simultaneously to driver (9) power output P2=Pe-P1;Return to step one, if PeLess than P1, perform step 6;
Step 6, the remaining capacity SOC for judging super capacitor2The no minimum threshold values g less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if so, then Step 7 is performed, otherwise, step 8 is performed;
Step 7, entire car controller (4) control DC/DC converters (7) to open, aluminium-air cell power output P1, make aluminium air electricity Pond provides driving power for electric motor car, while for super capacitor charges;Return to step one;
Step 8, entire car controller (4) close the power output of aluminium-air cell, super electricity by closing DC/DC converters (7) Appearance is individually for electric motor car and provides driving power, super capacitor power output P2=Pe;Return to step one;
Step 9, whether the brake pedal aperture of brake pedal sensor (3) collection is judged more than 0, if it is not, then performing step Ten;If so, then performing step 11;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor2Whether the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is more than;If SOC2More than γ, then return to step one;If SOC2Less than γ, entire car controller (4) controls DC/DC converters (7) to open, and aluminium is empty Gas cell output charges for super capacitor (8), and charging terminates rear return to step one;
Step 11, entire car controller (4) calculate the braking power P of electric motor carb, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor2It is The no maximum threshold values γ more than super capacitor state-of-charge;If SOC2More than γ, then earial drainage is carried out by discharge device, return is held Row step;If SOC2Less than γ, entire car controller (4) is super by the braking energy that driver (9) reclaims electric automobile Electric capacity (8) charges, and charging terminates rear return to step one.
2. the energy distribution side of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 1 Method, it is characterised in that the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is the 20% of aluminium-air cell Full Charge Capacity.
3. the energy distribution side of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 1 Method, the minimum threshold values g of super capacitor state-of-charge is the 10% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
4. the energy distribution side of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 1 Method, the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is the 90% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
5. the energy distribution side of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 1 Method, in step 4 when the opening amount signal of gas pedal is more than 0, using the speedometer according to gas pedal aperture and electric automobile Calculate vehicle driving power PeBy formula:
Tqd=Tqdmaxα
pe=Tqdω
In formula, TqdIt is motor target drive torque, TqdmaxIt is motor maximum driving torque, α is gas pedal aperture, and ω is motor Actual speed is vehicle speed value.
6. the energy distribution side of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 1 Method, entire car controller (4) calculates the braking power P of electric motor car in step 11bBy formula:
Tqb=Tqbmaxfbrk(β)
f b r k = 0 , &beta; < &beta; 2 &beta; - &beta; 1 &beta; 2 - &beta; 1 , &beta; 1 < &beta; < &beta; 2 1 , &beta; 2 < &beta; < &beta; 3
pb=Tqbω
Realize, in formula, TqbIt is motor target braking moment, TqbmaxIt is motor maximum braking torque, β is brake pedal aperture, 0< β1≤ 0.05,0.05<β2≤ 0.3,0.3<β3≤ 1, ω are vehicle speed value for motor actual speed.
CN201510432059.2A 2015-07-21 2015-07-21 The power distribution means and energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy Active CN104960429B (en)

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CN106515467B (en) * 2016-11-22 2019-05-03 中车株洲电力机车有限公司 The control method of the energy source device of aluminium-air cell and super capacitor for vehicle
CN107089148B (en) * 2017-04-24 2019-06-04 清华大学 The energy distributing method of fuel cell hybrid system with elastic energy storage mechanism
CN107054140B (en) * 2017-04-24 2019-03-22 哈尔滨理工大学 Fuel cell hybrid car energy-storage system and energy distributing method based on elastic energy storage
CN107097685B (en) * 2017-04-24 2019-02-12 清华大学 Electric car composite energy storage system and energy distributing method based on elastic energy storage
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