CN104960429A - Energy distribution device and energy distribution method of compound energy sources of urban electric bus - Google Patents

Energy distribution device and energy distribution method of compound energy sources of urban electric bus Download PDF

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CN104960429A
CN104960429A CN201510432059.2A CN201510432059A CN104960429A CN 104960429 A CN104960429 A CN 104960429A CN 201510432059 A CN201510432059 A CN 201510432059A CN 104960429 A CN104960429 A CN 104960429A
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super capacitor
energy
aluminium
air cell
power
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CN104960429B (en
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杜玖玉
欧阳明高
陈景夫
卢兰光
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Tsinghua University
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Tsinghua University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

The invention provides an energy distribution device and an energy distribution method of compound energy sources of an urban electric bus, relates to the configuration and the energy management method of compound energy sources of electric cars, and solves the problem of poor power characteristics caused by the fact that the existing electric vehicles adopt aluminum air batteries. According to the invention, by formulating the corresponding energy distribution method, energy of the compound energy sources is reasonably allocated, the energy of the aluminum air batteries is saved, and the aluminum air batteries do not need to be replaced repeatedly, so that the requirement of users for the driving range of electric vehicles is met, and the requirement for power of the urban electric bus most of the time is also met. The energy distribution device and the energy distribution method of the compound energy sources of the urban electric bus are suitable for distribution of compound energy sources of urban electric buses.

Description

The power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy and energy distributing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to configuration and the energy management method of electronlmobil compound energy.
Background technology
Current Prospect of EVS Powered with Batteries specific energy is limited, and most electronlmobil adopts single type electrokinetic cell as propulsion source, meets pure electric continual mileage and driving power demand.Under the constraint condition meeting added weight and driving power demand, extending driving range needs the electrokinetic cell adopting more high-energy-density, such as aluminium-air cell, zinc-air battery etc., but the horsepower characteristic of this type of high-energy-density electrokinetic cell is poor, running conditions of vehicle easily causes the significantly decay in its life-span.
Summary of the invention
The present invention adopts aluminium-air cell to there is the problem of horsepower characteristic difference to solve existing battery-driven car, proposes power distribution means and the energy distributing method of a kind of city electric bus compound energy.
The power distribution means of a kind of city of the present invention electric bus compound energy, it comprises aluminium-air cell, actuator and drive motor, it is characterized in that, it also comprises car speed sensor, accelerator pedal sensor, brake pedal sensor, entire car controller, battery management system, alarm module, DC/DC conv, super capacitor and discharge device;
Car speed sensor is for detecting the battery-driven car speed of a motor vehicle, accelerator pedal sensor is for detecting Das Gaspedal aperture state, brake pedal sensor is for detecting the aperture state of brake pedal, the vehicle speed signal input end of entire car controller connects the signal output part of car speed sensor, the Das Gaspedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller connects the signal output part of accelerator pedal sensor, the brake pedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller connects the signal output part of brake pedal sensor, battery management system is for the residual electric quantity of the residual electric quantity and super capacitor that detect aluminium-air cell,
The remaining power signal input end of entire car controller connects the remaining power signal mouth of battery management system, battery management system is for the dump energy of the dump energy and super capacitor that gather aluminium-air cell, and the dump energy of the aluminium-air cell of collection and the remaining power signal of super capacitor are sent to entire car controller, the power supply signal I/O of super capacitor connects the power supply signal input/output terminal of actuator, the power supply signal mouth of aluminium-air cell connects the power supply signal input end of DC/DC conv, the power supply signal mouth of DC/DC conv connects the power supply signal input end of super capacitor, the cell output control signal mouth of entire car controller connects the output power signal input part of DC/DC conv, the earial drainage control signal mouth of entire car controller connects the earial drainage control signal input end of discharge device, the current signal output end of discharge device connects the current signal output end of DC/DC conv, the alarm signal output ends of entire car controller connects the alarm control signal input end of alarm module, the drive singal input power signal output part of the drive motor of the drive singal output end power signal input part connecting electric automobile of actuator.
Utilize the energy distributing method of the above-mentioned power distribution means based on city electric bus compound energy, the concrete steps of the method are:
Step one, employing car speed sensor gather the speed of electronlmobil, accelerator pedal sensor is adopted to gather the aperture of electric automobile pedal, adopt brake pedal sensor to gather the aperture of brake pedal, adopt battery management system to gather the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell simultaneously 1with the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2;
Step 2, judge the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell 1whether be less than the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge; If so, then step 3 is performed; Otherwise execution step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller send low electricity warning energizing signal to alarm module; Return step;
Step 4, judge whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor collects is greater than 0, when the opening amount signal of Das Gaspedal is greater than 0, the speed according to Das Gaspedal aperture and electronlmobil calculates car load driving power P e, perform step 5, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, the driving power P judging required for electronlmobil ewhether be greater than the value P of the average power of aluminium-air cell 1; If P ebe greater than P 1, then vehicle control unit controls DC/DC conv is opened, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, meanwhile, super capacitor is simultaneously to actuator horsepower output P 2=P e-P 1; Return step one, if P ebe less than P 1, perform step 6;
Step 6, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2the no minimum threshold values g being less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if so, then performs step 7, otherwise, perform step 8;
Step 7, vehicle control unit controls DC/DC changer are opened, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, make aluminium-air cell provide driving power for battery-driven car, be super capacitor charging simultaneously; Return step;
Step 8, entire car controller are by closing DC/DC changer, and close the power stage of aluminium-air cell, super capacitor provides driving power for battery-driven car separately, super capacitor horsepower output P 2=P e; Return step.
Step 9, judge whether the brake pedal aperture of brake pedal sensor collection is greater than 0, if not, then perform step 10; If so, then step 11 is performed;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then return step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, entire car controller is opened by control DC/DC changer, and aluminium-air cell horsepower output is super capacitor charging, returns step one after charging terminates;
Step 11, entire car controller calculate the B.P. P of battery-driven car b, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then carry out earial drainage by discharge device, return and perform step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, the braking energy that entire car controller reclaims electronlmobil by actuator is super capacitor charging, returns step one after charging terminates.
The present invention, by energy management optimization to compound energy, has saved the energy of aluminium-air cell, avoid to aluminium-air cell repeat change, meet again the dynamic property demand of city electric bus most of the time simultaneously.By having formulated corresponding energy distributing method, the energy of compound energy reasonably being distributed, both having met the requirement of user for running distance of eletric vehicles, having added the continual mileage of battery-driven car; Meet again the dynamic property demand of battery-driven car when running at high speed, battery-driven car can normally be travelled under the different speed of a motor vehicle.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the electrical principle block diagram of the power distribution means of the city electric bus compound energy described in invention.
Detailed description of the invention
Detailed description of the invention one, composition graphs 1 illustrate present embodiment, the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in present embodiment, it comprises aluminium-air cell, actuator 9 and drive motor 10, and it also comprises car speed sensor 1, accelerator pedal sensor 2, brake pedal sensor 3, entire car controller 4, battery management system 5, alarm module 6, DC/DC conv 7, super capacitor 8 and discharge device 11;
Car speed sensor 1 is for detecting the battery-driven car speed of a motor vehicle, accelerator pedal sensor 2 is for detecting Das Gaspedal aperture state, brake pedal sensor 3 is for detecting the aperture state of brake pedal, the vehicle speed signal input end of entire car controller 4 connects the signal output part of car speed sensor 1, the Das Gaspedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller 4 connects the signal output part of accelerator pedal sensor 2, the brake pedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller 4 connects the signal output part of brake pedal sensor 3, battery management system 5 is for the residual electric quantity of the residual electric quantity and super capacitor that detect aluminium-air cell,
The remaining power signal input end of entire car controller 4 connects the remaining power signal mouth of battery management system 5, battery management system 8 is for the dump energy of the dump energy and super capacitor that gather aluminium-air cell, and the dump energy of the aluminium-air cell of collection and the remaining power signal of super capacitor are sent to entire car controller 4, the power supply signal I/O of super capacitor 8 connects the power supply signal input/output terminal of actuator 9, the power supply signal mouth of aluminium-air cell connects the power supply signal input end of DC/DC conv 7, the power supply signal mouth of DC/DC conv 7 connects the power supply signal input end of super capacitor 8, the cell output control signal mouth of entire car controller 4 connects the output power signal input part of DC/DC conv 7, the earial drainage control signal mouth of entire car controller 4 connects the earial drainage control signal input end of discharge device 11, the current signal output end of discharge device 11 connects the current signal output end of DC/DC conv 7, the alarm signal output ends of entire car controller 4 connects the alarm control signal input end of alarm module 6, the drive singal input power signal output part of the drive motor 10 of the drive singal output end power signal input part connecting electric automobile of actuator 9.
Detailed description of the invention two, present embodiment are the energy distributing methods of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy utilized described in detailed description of the invention one, and the concrete steps of the method are:
Step one, employing car speed sensor 1 gather the speed of electronlmobil, accelerator pedal sensor 2 is adopted to gather the aperture of electric automobile pedal, adopt brake pedal sensor 3 to gather the aperture of brake pedal, adopt battery management system 5 to gather the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell simultaneously 1with the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2;
Step 2, judge the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell 1whether be less than the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge; If so, then step 3 is performed; Otherwise execution step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller 4 send low electricity warning energizing signal to alarm module 6; Return step;
Step 4, judge whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor 2 collects is greater than 0, when the opening amount signal of Das Gaspedal is greater than 0, the speed according to Das Gaspedal aperture and electronlmobil calculates car load driving power P e, perform step 5, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, the driving power P judging required for electronlmobil ewhether be greater than the value P of the average power of aluminium-air cell 1; If P ebe greater than P 1, then entire car controller 4 control DC/DC conv 7 is opened, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, meanwhile, super capacitor is simultaneously to actuator 9 horsepower output P 2=P e-P 1; Return step one, if P ebe less than P 1, perform step 6;
Step 6, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2the no minimum threshold values g being less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if so, then performs step 7, otherwise, perform step 8;
Step 7, entire car controller 4 control DC/DC changer 7 are opened, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, make aluminium-air cell provide driving power for battery-driven car, be super capacitor charging simultaneously; Return step;
Step 8, entire car controller 4 close the power stage of aluminium-air cell by closing DC/DC changer 7, super capacitor provides driving power for battery-driven car separately, super capacitor horsepower output P 2=P e; Return step.
Step 9, judge whether the brake pedal aperture that brake pedal sensor 3 gathers is greater than 0, if not, then perform step 10; If so, then step 11 is performed;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then return step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, entire car controller 4 control DC/DC changer 7 is opened, and aluminium-air cell horsepower output is that super capacitor 8 charges, and returns step one after charging terminates;
Step 11, entire car controller 4 calculate the B.P. P of battery-driven car b, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then carry out earial drainage by discharge device, return and perform step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, the braking energy that entire car controller 4 reclaims electronlmobil by actuator 9 is that super capacitor 8 charges, and returns step one after charging terminates.
Detailed description of the invention two, present embodiment are that the minimum threshold values α of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is 20% of battery Full Charge Capacity to utilizing further illustrating of the energy distributing method of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two.
Detailed description of the invention three, present embodiment are that the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is 20% of aluminium-air cell Full Charge Capacity to utilizing further illustrating of the energy distributing method of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two
Detailed description of the invention four, present embodiment are that the minimum threshold values g of super capacitor state-of-charge is 10% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition to utilizing further illustrating of the energy distributing method of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two.
Detailed description of the invention five, present embodiment are further illustrating of the energy distributing method of power distribution means to a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two, and the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is 90% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
Detailed description of the invention six, present embodiment are to utilizing further illustrating of the energy distributing method of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two, in step 4 when the opening amount signal of Das Gaspedal is greater than 0, adopt and calculate car load driving power P according to the speed of Das Gaspedal aperture and electronlmobil epass through formula:
T qd=T qdmaxα
p e=T qdω
In formula, T qdfor motor target drive torque, T qdmaxfor motor maximum driving torque, α is Das Gaspedal aperture, is motor actual speed and vehicle speed value.
Detailed description of the invention seven, present embodiment are that in step 11, entire car controller 4 calculates the B.P. P of battery-driven car to utilizing further illustrating of the energy distributing method of the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in detailed description of the invention two bpass through formula:
T qb=T qbmaxf brk(β)
p b=T qbω
Realize, in formula, T qbfor motor target braking torque, T qbmaxfor motor maximum braking torque, be brake pedal aperture, 0< β 1≤ 0.05,0.05< β 2≤ 0.3,0.3< β 3≤ 1, P2 is automobile brake demand power, and ω is motor actual speed and vehicle speed value.In present embodiment, β 1=0.5, β 1=0.05, β 3=1.

Claims (7)

1. the power distribution means of a city electric bus compound energy, it comprises aluminium-air cell, actuator (9) and drive motor (10), it is characterized in that, it also comprises car speed sensor (1), accelerator pedal sensor (2), brake pedal sensor (3), entire car controller (4), battery management system (5), alarm module (6), DC/DC conv (7), super capacitor (8) and discharge device (11);
Car speed sensor (1) is for detecting the battery-driven car speed of a motor vehicle, accelerator pedal sensor (2) is for detecting Das Gaspedal aperture state, brake pedal sensor (3) is for detecting the aperture state of brake pedal, the vehicle speed signal input end of entire car controller (4) connects the signal output part of car speed sensor (1), the Das Gaspedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller (4) connects the signal output part of accelerator pedal sensor (2), the brake pedal opening amount signal input end of entire car controller (4) connects the signal output part of brake pedal sensor (3), battery management system (5) is for the residual electric quantity of the residual electric quantity and super capacitor that detect aluminium-air cell,
The remaining power signal input end of entire car controller (4) connects the remaining power signal mouth of battery management system (5), battery management system (8) is for the dump energy of the dump energy and super capacitor that gather aluminium-air cell, and the dump energy of the aluminium-air cell of collection and the remaining power signal of super capacitor are sent to entire car controller (4), the power supply signal I/O of super capacitor (8) connects the power supply signal input/output terminal of actuator (9), the power supply signal mouth of aluminium-air cell connects the power supply signal input end of DC/DC conv (7), the power supply signal mouth of DC/DC conv (7) connects the power supply signal input end of super capacitor (8), the cell output control signal mouth of entire car controller (4) connects the output power signal input part of DC/DC conv (7), the earial drainage control signal mouth of entire car controller (4) connects the earial drainage control signal input end of discharge device (11), the current signal output end of discharge device (11) connects the current signal output end of DC/DC conv (7), the alarm signal output ends of entire car controller (4) connects the alarm control signal input end of alarm module (6), the drive singal input power signal output part of the drive motor (10) of the drive singal output end power signal input part connecting electric automobile of actuator (9).
2. utilize the energy distributing method that the energy distribution of a kind of city electric bus compound energy described in claim 1 fills, it is characterized in that, the concrete steps of the method are:
Step one, employing car speed sensor (1) gather the speed of electronlmobil, accelerator pedal sensor (2) is adopted to gather the aperture of electric automobile pedal, adopt brake pedal sensor (3) to gather the aperture of brake pedal, adopt battery management system (5) to gather the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell simultaneously 1with the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2;
Step 2, judge the remaining capacity SOC of aluminium-air cell 1whether be less than the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge; If so, then step 3 is performed; Otherwise execution step 4;
Step 3, entire car controller (4) send low electricity warning energizing signal to alarm module (6); Return step;
Step 4, judge whether the opening amount signal of the electric automobile pedal that accelerator pedal sensor (2) collects is greater than 0, when the opening amount signal of Das Gaspedal is greater than 0, the speed according to Das Gaspedal aperture and electronlmobil calculates car load driving power P e, perform step 5, otherwise perform step 10;
Step 5, the driving power P judging required for electronlmobil ewhether be greater than the value P of the average power of aluminium-air cell 1; If P ebe greater than P 1, then entire car controller (4) control DC/DC conv (7) opens, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, meanwhile, super capacitor is simultaneously to actuator (9) horsepower output P 2=P e-P 1; Return step one, if P ebe less than P 1, perform step 6;
Step 6, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2the no minimum threshold values g being less than super capacitor state-of-charge, if so, then performs step 7, otherwise, perform step 8;
Step 7, entire car controller (4) control DC/DC changer (7) open, aluminium-air cell horsepower output P 1, make aluminium-air cell provide driving power for battery-driven car, be super capacitor charging simultaneously; Return step;
Step 8, entire car controller (4) close the power stage of aluminium-air cell by closing DC/DC changer (7), super capacitor provides driving power for battery-driven car separately, super capacitor horsepower output P 2=P e; Return step.
Step 9, judge whether the brake pedal aperture that brake pedal sensor (3) gathers is greater than 0, if not, then perform step 10; If so, then step 11 is performed;
The remaining capacity SOC of step 10, whole judgement super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then return step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, entire car controller (4) control DC/DC changer (7) opens, and aluminium-air cell horsepower output is super capacitor (8) charging, returns step one after charging terminates;
Step 11, entire car controller (4) calculate the B.P. P of battery-driven car b, judge the remaining capacity SOC of super capacitor 2whether be greater than the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge; If SOC 2be greater than γ, then carry out earial drainage by discharge device, return and perform step one; If SOC 2be less than γ, the braking energy that entire car controller (4) reclaims electronlmobil by actuator (9) is super capacitor (8) charging, returns step one after charging terminates.
3. the energy distributing method utilizing the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 2, is characterized in that, the minimum threshold values h of aluminium-air cell state-of-charge is 20% of aluminium-air cell Full Charge Capacity.
4. the energy distributing method utilizing the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 2, the minimum threshold values g of super capacitor state-of-charge is 10% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
5. the energy distributing method utilizing the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 2, the maximum threshold values γ of super capacitor state-of-charge is 90% of super capacitor fullcharging electricity condition.
6. the energy distributing method utilizing the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 2, in step 4 when the opening amount signal of Das Gaspedal is greater than 0, adopt and calculate car load driving power P according to the speed of Das Gaspedal aperture and electronlmobil epass through formula:
T qd=T qdmaxα
p e=T qdω
In formula, T qdfor motor target drive torque, T qdmaxfor motor maximum driving torque, α is Das Gaspedal aperture, is motor actual speed and vehicle speed value.
7. the energy distributing method utilizing the power distribution means of a kind of city electric bus compound energy according to claim 2, in step 11, entire car controller (4) calculates the B.P. P of battery-driven car bpass through formula:
T qb=T qbmaxf brk(β)
p b=T qbω
Realize, in formula, T qbfor motor target braking torque, T qbmaxfor motor maximum braking torque, be brake pedal aperture, 0< β 1≤ 0.05,0.05< β 2≤ 0.3,0.3< β 3≤ 1, P2 is automobile brake demand power, and ω is motor actual speed and vehicle speed value.
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CN106042976A (en) * 2016-06-24 2016-10-26 清华大学 On-line real-time torque optimal distribution control method of distributed driving electric automobile
CN106515467A (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-03-22 中车株洲电力机车有限公司 Vehicle, energy device employing aluminum air battery and supercapacitor and control method of energy device
CN106515467B (en) * 2016-11-22 2019-05-03 中车株洲电力机车有限公司 The control method of the energy source device of aluminium-air cell and super capacitor for vehicle
CN107097685B (en) * 2017-04-24 2019-02-12 清华大学 Electric car composite energy storage system and energy distributing method based on elastic energy storage
CN107054140A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-08-18 哈尔滨理工大学 Fuel cell hybrid car energy-storage system and energy distributing method based on elastic energy storage
CN107089148A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-08-25 清华大学 The energy distributing method of the fuel cell hybrid system of flexible stored energy mechanism
CN107097685A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-08-29 清华大学 Electric automobile composite energy storage system and energy distributing method based on elastic energy storage
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