CN104880367A - Constant load tensile test method and test device for sample in stress sensitive environment - Google Patents

Constant load tensile test method and test device for sample in stress sensitive environment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104880367A
CN104880367A CN201510275558.5A CN201510275558A CN104880367A CN 104880367 A CN104880367 A CN 104880367A CN 201510275558 A CN201510275558 A CN 201510275558A CN 104880367 A CN104880367 A CN 104880367A
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China
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installing plate
tensile
test
sample
constant load
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Inventor
翟建明
寿比南
徐彤
赵博
宋明
桂乐乐
路晓瑜
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CSEI
China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute
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Abstract

The invention provides a constant load tensile test method and test device for a sample in a stress sensitive environment. The method comprises the following steps: step I: preparing a tensile sample (1); step II: obtaining the relation between the stress of the tensile sample (1) and strain; step III: mounting the tensile sample (1) on a constant load tensile test device (4) to enable the tensile sample (1) to be subjected to pre-arranged tensile stress; step IV: placing the tensile sample (1) subjected to the pre-arranged tensile stress in a stress sensitive environment; step V: taking the tensile sample (1) out for a performance test. The constant load tensile test method in a stress sensitive environment can simulate that metal materials are subjected to constant load in the stress sensitive environment, so as to evaluate the anti-environmental-degradation capability of the materials; the test method and the test device are particularly suitable for carrying out test in a system isolated from external environment (for example, high-pressure hydrogen environment).

Description

The constant load stretching test method of sample and test unit under stress sensitive environment
Technical field
The present invention relates to material mechanical performance testing and characterization technical field, the particularly constant load stretching test method of sample under a kind of stress sensitive environment, or a kind of constant load tensile test apparatus.
Background technology
In engineering, the tensile mechanical properties index of material has very important reference value in engineering design, inspection and maintenance etc.The conventional tension test that the ordinary test method obtaining material extending mechanical property can realize on material universal testing machine.But in some particular surroundingss, as high pressure hydrogen, strong corrosive environment, and in some closure environment, the Mechanics Performance Testing that Material Testing Machine realizes in above-mentioned environment cannot be adopted.In above-mentioned harsh environment, material can be more responsive to the effect (as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion etc.) of environment under effect of stress, the deterioration of interactively effect meeting accelerated material.Thereby, it is possible to make the environment of material accelerated deterioration under load effect namely can be described as stress sensitive environment.
For hydrogen energy source, hydrogen energy source belongs to emerging energy, is still in the starting stage in China, has much infrastructure, safety detection, evaluation method urgently to develop.In the evaluation of material Hydrogen Embrittlement, the Compatibility Evaluation standard abroad more commonly between material and filling gas (hydrogen), for selecting the test method (standard code ISO 11114-4) of anti-hydrogen embrittlement metal material.This standard comprises wafer test (A method), fracture toughness test (B method) and determines the test method (C method) of steel cylinder resistance against hydrogen cracking ability.And China there is no relevant standard distribution.In relevant gas cylinder manufacturer, the existing test method carrying out evaluating according to C method in ISO 11114-4 standard is being carried out, to detect the resistance against hydrogen cracking ability of gas vessel to material.But in the design of gas cylinder, the tensile strength of material, yield strength and the mechanical performance index under hydrogen environment are very important, and China there is no relevant test method at present.Due to hydrogen leakiness, inflammable, explosive characteristic, therefore ordinary test method cannot the tensile mechanical properties index of test material under high pressure hydrogen environment.Test unit designed in this patent and test method will provide resolving ideas for such problem, it should be noted that this test unit and test method are applicable to small deformation material.
Summary of the invention
In order to the tensile mechanical properties of test material in stress sensitive environment, the invention provides constant load stretching test method and the test unit of sample under a kind of stress sensitive environment, under this stress sensitive environment, the constant load stretching test method of sample can simulate metal material in stress sensitive environment by constant load, thus by weigh its crushing load, post-rift extensibility, reduction of area, non-fracture sample surface crack number and the index such as length, the ability of evaluating material environment resistant deterioration.This test method and test unit are particluarly suitable for carrying out experimental test in the system (as high pressure hydrogen environment) isolated with external environment.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: the constant load stretching test method of sample under a kind of stress sensitive environment, comprises the following steps:
Step one, prepare tensile sample;
Relation between the stress and strain of step 2, acquisition tensile sample;
Step 3, tensile sample is installed on constant load tensile test apparatus, makes the tension that tensile sample is preset;
Step 4, be positioned in stress sensitive environment by being subject to this tensile sample of tension preset;
Step 5, taking-up tensile sample carry out performance test.
Tensile sample is bar-shaped tensile sample, and the two ends of tensile sample are provided with external thread, and the diameter in the middle part of tensile sample is less than the diameter at tensile sample two ends.
In step 2, be positioned over mode tensile sample machine applying tensile load after pasting foil gauge by the surface at the middle part by tensile sample and obtain relation between the tension of tensile sample and strain.
In step 2, before the relation between the stress and strain obtaining tensile sample, also need tensile strength and the yield strength of determining tensile sample.
This constant load tensile test apparatus contains the first installing plate and the second installing plate, first installing plate and the second installing plate interval are arranged, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib between first installing plate and the second installing plate, first installing plate is provided with the first installation through hole, second installing plate is provided with installs the second corresponding threaded hole of through hole with first, and first installs the axis of through hole and the dead in line of the second threaded hole.
In step 3, first paste described foil gauge on the surface at the middle part of tensile sample, then be threaded connection fixing with the second threaded hole after making one end of tensile sample, through first, through hole is installed, the other end of tensile sample installs tightening nut, tightening nut and the first installing plate is made to abut or make tightening nut to be abutted with the first installing plate by Compress Spring, by carrying out pretension to tightening nut and observing the tension that this foil gauge makes tensile sample reach default.
In step 4, be positioned in the autoclave of sealing by the tensile sample being subject to the tension that this is preset, in autoclave, be filled with test medium and heat this autoclave, the time of setting placed by this tensile sample in autoclave.
A kind of constant load tensile test apparatus, containing the first installing plate and the second installing plate, first installing plate and the second installing plate interval are arranged, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib between first installing plate and the second installing plate, first installing plate is provided with the first installation through hole, second installing plate is provided with installs the second corresponding threaded hole of through hole with first, and first installs the axis of through hole and the dead in line of the second threaded hole.
First installing plate and the second installing plate are circle, first installing plate and the second installing plate are parallel to each other, first bearing rib is cruciform, the dead in line of the axis of the first installing plate, the axis of the second installing plate and the first bearing rib, four sector regions are formed between first installing plate and the second installing plate, first installation through hole is corresponding with this sector region with the position of the second threaded hole, and the first diameter installing through hole is more than or equal to the diameter of the second threaded hole.
Second installing plate is positioned at the below of the first installing plate; the top of the first installing plate is also provided with fender; fender is parallel with the first installing plate; be connected and fixed by the second bearing rib between fender and the first installing plate; second bearing rib is cruciform; projection along axially the second bearing rib and first bearing rib of the first bearing rib overlaps; fender is circular; be provided with four fan-shaped pylones corresponding with this sector region in fender, the thickness of fender is less than the thickness of the first installing plate and the second installing plate.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, under this stress sensitive environment, the constant load stretching test method of sample can simulate metal material in stress sensitive environment by constant load, thus by weigh its crushing load, post-rift extensibility, reduction of area, non-fracture sample surface crack number and the index such as length, the ability of evaluating material environment resistant deterioration.The constant load tension test that this test method and test unit are particluarly suitable for carrying out in the system (as high pressure hydrogen environment) isolated with external environment small deformation sample is tested.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail.
Fig. 1 is constant load tensile test apparatus front view in use.
Fig. 2 is constant load tensile test apparatus vertical view in use.
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram that constant load tensile test apparatus is placed in autoclave.
Wherein 1. tensile samples, 2. tightening nut, 3. Compress Spring, 4. constant load tensile test apparatus, 5. foil gauge, 6. autoclave;
41. first installing plates, 42. second installing plates, 43. fenders, 44. first bearing ribs, 45. first install through hole, 46. second threaded holes, 47. second bearing ribs.
Embodiment
It should be noted that, when not conflicting, the embodiment in the application and the feature in embodiment can combine mutually.Below with reference to the accompanying drawings and describe the present invention in detail in conjunction with the embodiments.
A constant load stretching test method for sample under stress sensitive environment, comprises the following steps:
Step one, prepare tensile sample 1;
Step 2, the loading force gathering tensile sample 1 and strain data, obtain the relation between the drawing stress of tensile sample 1 and strain;
Step 3, tensile sample 1 is installed on constant load tensile test apparatus 4, makes the tension that tensile sample 1 is preset;
Step 4, be positioned in stress sensitive environment by being subject to this tensile sample 1 of tension preset;
Step 5, taking-up tensile sample 1 carry out performance test and evaluation.
Below above-mentioned five sample steps are described in detail:
In step, generally can carry out in enclosed environment owing to testing, be put to the test the restriction in space, tensile sample 1 is the bar-shaped tensile sample of dumbbell shape, the two ends of tensile sample 1 are provided with external thread, one end is for connecting constant load tensile test apparatus 4, and the other end realizes the loading to material by tightening nut 2.Diameter in the middle part of tensile sample 1 is less than the diameter at tensile sample 1 two ends, the diameter d=5mm in the middle part of tensile sample 1.
In step 2, be positioned over mode tensile sample machine applying tensile load after pasting foil gauge by the surface at the middle part by tensile sample 1 and obtain relation between the tension of tensile sample 1 and strain.Tensile strength and the yield strength of determining tensile sample 1 is also needed before relation between the stress and strain obtaining tensile sample 1.
Specifically, on cupping machine to the loaded load of tensile sample 1 and the change of strain gathers and record.First need to carry out tension test to tensile sample 1, determine the tensile strength R of tensile sample 1 mand yield strength R p0.2; Afterwards sample is carried out to the demarcation of power-strain.Paste foil gauge 5 at tensile sample 1 parallel-segment center section, tensile sample 1 clamping is carried out tensile load applying on tensile sample machine, the load of applying will be determined according to stress level during test, and stress level during test is R p0.2percentage, such as 0.7 R p0.2, 0.9 R p0.2deng.Different stress levels should be selected during test to carry out respectively, specifically can determine according to test situation.The execution of tension test and demarcation can refer to GB/T 228.1-2010 standard.
In the present invention, this constant load tensile test apparatus 4 is containing the first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42, first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42 are between the upper and lower every setting, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib 44 between first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42, first installing plate 41 is provided with the first installation through hole 45, second installing plate 42 is provided with installs the second corresponding threaded hole 46 of through hole 45 with first, first installs the axis of through hole 45 and the dead in line of the second threaded hole 46, as depicted in figs. 1 and 2.
This constant load tensile test apparatus 4 realizes loading the constant load of tensile sample 1 by tightening nut 2, to be placed on by tensile sample 1 in stable environment after certain hour, is taken out and observes crack conditions, and measures relevant mechanical performance index.Foil gauge 5 on dependence tensile sample 1 can realize the accurate loading to tensile sample 1, and Compress Spring 3 can ensure that tensile sample 1 bears constant load simultaneously.According to indexs such as the crushing loads recorded after having tested, the ability that evaluation material environment resistant is attacked is selection and the design accumulation data basis of engineering steel.
In step 3, the concrete mode that the tension preset applies is, first paste foil gauge on the surface at the middle part of tensile sample 1, then be threaded connection fixing with the second threaded hole 46 after making the lower end of tensile sample 1, through first, through hole 45 is installed, tightening nut 2 is installed in the upper end of tensile sample 1, tightening nut 2 and the first installing plate 41 is made to abut or make tightening nut 2 to abut (as shown in Figure 1 by Compress Spring 3 with the first installing plate 41, now Compress Spring 3 is set in outside tensile sample 1), by carrying out pretension to tightening nut 2 and observing the tension that this foil gauge 5 makes tensile sample 1 reach default.Namely while pretension, note down the data variation of foil gauge 5, the pretightning force of tightening nut 2 is determined by the change of data, to determine whether the prestress that tensile sample 1 bears reaches default tension, according to the relation between stress and strain, foil gauge 5 reaches predetermined length can think the tension that tensile sample 1 reaches default.In pretension process, according to test needs, can select to adopt Compress Spring 3 or do not adopt Compress Spring 3 at tightening nut 2 pretension end, wherein Compress Spring 3 adopts is constant in order to ensure load, but needs to demarcate it before the test.In addition, when taking out sample in stress sensitive environment, to there is not disrumpent feelings sample, can gather its strain data, the forward and backward tensile load change of environment is put in contrast.
In step 4, the tensile sample 1 being subject to the tension that this is preset is positioned in the autoclave 6 of sealing, as shown in Figure 3, in autoclave 6, be filled with test medium and heat this autoclave 6 to simulate stress sensitive environment, the time of setting placed by this tensile sample 1 in autoclave 6.Common stress sensitive environment, as high pressure hydrogen, strong corrosive environment etc., generally belongs to the enclosed environment isolated with external environment.Be positioned in autoclave 6 by the tensile sample 1 being subject to the tension that this is preset in the present embodiment, the time of test can harsh degree environmentally be selected, as 24h, 96h, 720h, 1000h etc.For the constant load tension test (being filled with hydrogen in autoclave 6) in high pressure hydrogen environment, constant load tensile test device 4, autoclave 6 need to utilize alcohol to clear up on pretreatment, then autoclave is sealed, utilize nitrogen to carry out cleaning displacement to autoclave after sealing, after nitrogen displacement, system oxygen level is no more than 3%.Vacuumize autoclave 6 subsequently, vacuum tightness is qualified to be not more than 3Pa.Vacuumizing rear beginning and fill hydrogen (hydrogen purity is not less than 99.999%) in autoclave 6, as occurred without pressure release phenomenon, can heat autoclave 6.In the present embodiment, described stress sensitive environment adopts and in the autoclave 6 of sealing that is hedged off from the outer world, is filled with test medium and the mode of heating obtains, and this test medium can be high-purity hydrogen or corrosive liquids etc., and autoclave 6 also can be other airtight container.After system temperature, pressure stability, start timing, the test period in high pressure hydrogen environment is 1000h.
In step 5, the parameter evaluating cracking sensitivity the most frequently used reaches complete disrumpent feelings duration, and this test is carried out, to determine its limit stress under recommending tensile sample 1 to be in different primary stresss, namely lower than this stress, test specimen there will not be completely disrumpent feelings.To completely disrumpent feelings sample, can by its disrumpent feelings time stress, test specimen extensibility, reduction of area etc., the change of evaluating material mechanical performance index.If do not occur completely disrumpent feelings after having tested, then crack detection is carried out to sample, the crackle number on sample per unit length, can be used for comparing the susceptibility of cracking sensitivity especially hydrogen induced cracking germinating.If make in this way, should determine the method measuring crackle number, such as metal lographic examination specimen cross section can find invisible crackle.Note, except test material to be evaluated, a kind of typical ambient stress sensitive material should be chosen as a comparison, be completed the evaluation of material environment resistant attacking ability by comparative test.
Introduce a kind of constant load tensile test apparatus in the present invention below in detail, this constant load tensile test apparatus 4 is containing the first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42, first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42 are between the upper and lower every setting, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib 44 between first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42, first installing plate 41 is provided with the first installation through hole 45, second installing plate 42 is provided with installs the second corresponding threaded hole 46 of through hole 45 with first, first installs the axis of through hole 45 and the dead in line of the second threaded hole 46, as depicted in figs. 1 and 2.
First installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42 are circle, first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42 are parallel to each other, first bearing rib 44 is in cruciform, the axis of the first installing plate 41, the axis of the second installing plate 42 and the dead in line of the first bearing rib 44, four sector regions are formed between first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42, first installation through hole 45 is corresponding with this sector region with the position of the second threaded hole 46, as shown in Figure 2, in the present embodiment, in this sector region each, correspondence installs through holes 45 and two the second threaded holes 46 containing two first, first diameter installing through hole 45 is more than or equal to the diameter of the second threaded hole 46.
Second installing plate 42 is positioned at the below of the first installing plate 41, the top of the first installing plate 41 is also provided with fender 43, fender 43 is parallel with the first installing plate 41, be connected and fixed by the second bearing rib 47 between fender 43 and the first installing plate 41, second bearing rib 47 is in cruciform, size and the shape of the second bearing rib 47 and the first bearing rib 44 are identical, projection along axially the second bearing rib 47 and first bearing rib 44 of the first bearing rib 44 overlaps, fender 43 is circular, fender 43 is provided with four fan-shaped pylones corresponding with this sector region, the thickness of fender 43 is less than the thickness of the first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42.
In the present embodiment, the thickness of fender 43 is 5mm, and the thickness of the first installing plate 41, second installing plate 42, first bearing rib 44 and the second bearing rib 47 is 20mm, to ensure that loading timer has enough rigidity.The manufactured materials of this constant load tensile test apparatus 4 should possess the ability of higher Resistance Test environmental attack.Distance between first installing plate 41 and the second installing plate 42 is 12.5mm, and the distance between the first installing plate 41 and fender 43 is 17.5mm.
The above, be only specific embodiments of the invention, can not limit the scope that invention implements with it, so the displacement of its equivalent assemblies, or the equivalent variations done according to scope of patent protection of the present invention and modification, all still should belong to the category that this patent is contained.In addition, the technical characteristic in the present invention and all can using by independent assortment between technical characteristic, between technical characteristic and technical scheme, between technical scheme and technical scheme.

Claims (10)

1. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment, it is characterized in that, under described stress sensitive environment, the constant load stretching test method of sample comprises the following steps:
Step one, prepare tensile sample (1);
Relation between the stress and strain of step 2, acquisition tensile sample (1);
Step 3, tensile sample (1) is installed on constant load tensile test apparatus (4), makes the tension that tensile sample (1) is preset;
Step 4, be positioned in stress sensitive environment by being subject to this tensile sample (1) of tension preset;
Step 5, taking-up tensile sample (1) carry out performance test.
2. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, tensile sample (1) is bar-shaped tensile sample, the two ends of tensile sample (1) are provided with external thread, and the diameter at tensile sample (1) middle part is less than the diameter at tensile sample (1) two ends.
3. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 2, be positioned over mode tensile sample machine applying tensile load after pasting foil gauge (5) by the surface at the middle part by tensile sample (1) and obtain relation between the tension of tensile sample (1) and strain.
4. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 2, before the relation between the stress and strain obtaining tensile sample (1), also need tensile strength and the yield strength of determining tensile sample (1).
5. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, this constant load tensile test apparatus (4) is containing the first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42), first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42) interval are arranged, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib (44) between first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42), first installing plate (41) is provided with the first installation through hole (45), second installing plate (42) is provided with installs corresponding the second threaded hole (46) of through hole (45) with first, first installs the axis of through hole (45) and the dead in line of the second threaded hole (46).
6. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, in step 3, first paste described foil gauge (5) on the surface at the middle part of tensile sample (1), then making one end of tensile sample (1) install through hole (45) through first is threaded connection fixing with the second threaded hole (46) afterwards, the other end of tensile sample (1) installs tightening nut (2), tightening nut (2) and the first installing plate (41) is made to abut or make tightening nut (2) to be abutted with the first installing plate (41) by Compress Spring (3), tensile sample (1) is made to reach default tension by carrying out pretension to tightening nut (2) and observing this foil gauge.
7. the constant load stretching test method of sample under stress sensitive environment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 4, the tensile sample (1) being subject to the tension that this is preset is positioned in the autoclave (6) of sealing, in autoclave (6), be filled with test medium and heat this autoclave (6), the time of setting placed by this tensile sample (1) in autoclave (6).
8. a constant load tensile test apparatus, it is characterized in that, this constant load tensile test apparatus is the constant load tensile test apparatus (4) described in claim 1, this constant load tensile test apparatus (4) is containing the first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42), first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42) interval are arranged, be connected and fixed by the first bearing rib (44) between first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42), first installing plate (41) is provided with the first installation through hole (45), second installing plate (42) is provided with installs corresponding the second threaded hole (46) of through hole (45) with first, first installs the axis of through hole (45) and the dead in line of the second threaded hole (46).
9. constant load tensile test apparatus according to claim 8, it is characterized in that, first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42) are circle, first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42) are parallel to each other, first bearing rib (44) is in cruciform, the axis of the first installing plate (41), the axis of the second installing plate (42) and the dead in line of the first bearing rib (44), four sector regions are formed between first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42), first installation through hole (45) is corresponding with this sector region with the position of the second threaded hole (46), first diameter installing through hole (45) is more than or equal to the diameter of the second threaded hole (46).
10. constant load tensile test apparatus according to claim 9, it is characterized in that, second installing plate (42) is positioned at the below of the first installing plate (41), the top of the first installing plate (41) is also provided with fender (43), fender (43) is parallel with the first installing plate (41), be connected and fixed by the second bearing rib (47) between fender (43) and the first installing plate (41), second bearing rib (47) is in cruciform, projection along axially the second bearing rib (47) and first bearing rib (44) of the first bearing rib (44) overlaps, fender (43) is circular, four fan-shaped pylones corresponding with this sector region are provided with in fender (43), the thickness of fender (43) is less than the thickness of the first installing plate (41) and the second installing plate (42).
CN201510275558.5A 2015-05-26 2015-05-26 Constant load tensile test method and test device for sample in stress sensitive environment Pending CN104880367A (en)

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CN109777936A (en) * 2019-02-26 2019-05-21 东南大学 A kind of martensitic stain less steel ultralow temperature strain hardening method

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CN109777936B (en) * 2019-02-26 2020-11-20 东南大学 Ultra-low temperature strain strengthening method for martensitic stainless steel

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Application publication date: 20150902