CN104439032B - valve body forging method - Google Patents

valve body forging method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104439032B
CN104439032B CN201410520064.4A CN201410520064A CN104439032B CN 104439032 B CN104439032 B CN 104439032B CN 201410520064 A CN201410520064 A CN 201410520064A CN 104439032 B CN104439032 B CN 104439032B
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China
Prior art keywords
forging
valve
round steel
flanges
size
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CN201410520064.4A
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CN104439032A (en
Inventor
胡林
晏爽
许莉
李普
任德俊
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CHENGDU SHUANGLIU HENGSHENG FORGING Co Ltd
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CHENGDU SHUANGLIU HENGSHENG FORGING Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/20Making machine elements valve parts
    • B21K1/24Making machine elements valve parts valve bodies; valve seats

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of valve body manufacturing, in particular to a valve body forging method. The valve body forging method saves materials and energy and reduces consumption on the condition of meeting the requirement of customers for product diversification. At first, blank forming is achieved by utilizing free forging for executing the following steps of A, selecting round steel with the weight being 1.15-1.25 times the weight of a finished valve body, riveting the two ends of the round steel, conducting indentation material separation, and forging the round steel into the preset size; B, enabling the two ends of the round steel to get off a table, forging eccentricity of the middle and the two ends, and forging the two ends into 260-degree octagons; C, then utilizing pressing blocks for making octagonal pressure grooves in the two ends into the preset size, and ensuring that flanges and grooves of a green body are within the design size range. Then, final forming is achieved by adopting semi-die forging for executing the following steps of a, forging the middle octagon of the green body in a vertical die buckling and pressing mode; b, after the middle octagon is formed, controlling the height of the flanges at the two ends through cushion blocks and forging the flanges to be rounded; c, finally, trimming the sizes of all parts of the forged piece into the designed sizes.

Description

Valve body forging method
Technical field
The present invention relates to valve body manufactures field, especially a kind of valve body forging method.
Background technology
Valve products are widely used in the industries such as oil, chemical industry, nuclear power, metallurgy, electric power, waterpower, large-scale Coal Chemical Industry.With The transfer of oil development upcountry oil field and offshore oilfield, and power industry is from less than 300,000 kilowatts of thermoelectricity to 300,000 kilowatts Above thermoelectricity and water power and nuclear power developing, valve products also should accordingly change its performance and ginseng according to the change of equipment application field Number.Oil transportation, Gas transmission project develop to pipeline direction, and this needs substantial amounts of flat gate valve and ball valve again.Energy development another Face is exactly energy-conservation, so from the aspect of energy saving, Automatic steam trap Trap to be developed, and send out to subcritical and postcritical high parameter Exhibition.The construction in power station keeps the large-scale development, so also need to be needed with quickly with the relief valve of heavy caliber and high pressure and air relief valve simultaneously Opening/shutting valve etc., valve has become as the key equipment of manufacturing industry, transport service, Nuclear Power Industry.The key components and partss of valve are valves Body, it directly connects with pipeline, and general structure is fairly simple, but to the accurate to dimension of valve body, surface roughness, axiality Higher with position degree requirement.The quality of its performance is largely fixed the length in valve working life-span.And valve body is in work During work, often in contact with to liquid or gas medium, easily it is corroded and lost efficacy, if deposited inside or outside valve body itself In crackle, the probability of inefficacy can be larger.Valve is proposed with new requirement such as hold in terms of new period Petroleum Industry and conveying By high pressure, anti-corrosion, energy-saving consumption-reducing, environment-friendly type etc., at present, the valve body of most of producers preparation, can meet petroleum transportation substantially The requirement of industry, but the comprehensive serviceability of valve body cannot meet manufacturing growth requirement near net with manufacturing cost becomes The requirement of shape technology, that is, performance is disproportionate with cost, especially on preparing some large valve bodies.
The production method of valve body typically has casting, forging, bar to shape, and casting is the traditional method of comparison, due to preparation Process is simple, typically all adopts this kind of method to the not high valve body of performance requirement.But because valve body moulding tissue looseness, crystal grain are thick Greatly, be also easy to produce shrinkage cavity and porosity, be mingled with, the casting flaw such as the even, crackle of pore, wall unevenness, lead to its surface roughness, pressure-bearing And corrosion resistance is poor.So, for the more severe oil of working environment or carrier, the performance casting valve body cannot at all Meet its use requirement.Chen Siwei et al. improves the serviceability of casting valve body by improving casting technique.It passes through to casting The research of the technique of steel valve body, finds 1. to improve smelting process, and the content being mingled with using quick oxygen decarburization, minimizing phosphorus, sulfur is fitted When improving tapping temperature, after tapping, extend time of repose in ladle for the molten steel, 1540 DEG C of the pouring temperature of limit on the lower side should be adopted Left and right cast, makes molten steel quick solidification in sand mold, it is possible to reduce gas and be mingled with the chance invading people in sand mold, reduces shrinkage porosite. The defects such as shrinkage cavity;2. improve technology for making sand, using CO2Waterglass hardening process, sand core internal need to fill straw rope etc. to increase core Deformability, prevent molten steel solidification shrink when produce stress cracking;3. pass through to improve formative technology and Technology for Heating Processing can solve Certainly in valve body casting process, lower core is difficult, molten steel string skin, and wall unevenness is even, and the valve body that stress distribution inequality leads to is yielding etc. asks Topic, substantially increases the serviceability of casting valve body, but above-mentioned process modification process is complex, the technical merit to workman Require higher, manufacturing cost is higher, and the corrosion resistance of foundry goods or relatively low, performance with manufacturing cost do not comply with green The requirement that color manufactures.
The problem existing for foundry goods, the Wu Bin of Nanjing Aero-Space University is using according to 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel body Construction featuress, make forging technology, the forging mold using UG (NX6) software Aided Design, according to large, medium and small three kinds The examination forging of bar size, determines bar blank size, final production goes out qualified parts.This process uses full die forging and carries out Forging, the internal soundness of forging and outer surface quality are guaranteed, simultaneously with UG (NX6) as instrument, the three-dimensional mould designed, Three-dimensional mould have the advantages that intuitively, be easy to follow-up digital control processing.But 1Cr18Ni9Ti rustless steel resistance of deformation is larger, plasticity Low, mould and press device are required higher, manufacturing cost is high, is only suitable for the production of high-volume valve body forging.
Quality problems such as crackle, end face that Hunan railway Vocationl Technical College Liu Geng force et al. exists after being directed to valve body forging Shrinkage cavity, folding and the defect analysis discussion such as uneven it is believed that in forging process, due to valve body forging end face temperature Ratio is relatively low, and changes of section ratio is larger, and the distribution of material is not reasonable, and result in metal flow difficulty is to cause the master of quality problems Want reason.Adopt the forging technology of " two are even " by it is carried out with process modification, extract middle pole part afterwards, Broken it into two with the method for gas cutting again.After process modification, materials decrease, unborn crackle, necking and joint Locate uneven quality problems to have obtained thoroughly solving.Although this technique ensure that mechanical performance and the surface matter of valve body Amount, but still need improvement in terms of for saving valve body materials, and the material of saving is only 1.2%, and its technique is relatively Complexity, the manufacturing cycle is longer.
Valve inner quality that common contour forging technique produces and performance all can reach the requirement of operating mode, but it requires to mould Height, under the trend of current energy saving and material, the valve body intermediate portion of common die forging is mostly square, does not reach energy-conservation fall The requirement of consumption.And client may need the relatively large valve body of ratio, large-scale valve body adopts full die forging difficulty larger, manufacturing cost Higher.
Content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is on the premise of meeting consumer product diversified demand, provides a kind of section About material, energy-saving valve body forging method.
The present invention solves the valve body forging method that its technical problem is adopted,
Follow the steps below first with flat-die forging, to realize base:
A, the round steel of be valve body finished weight from weight 1.15~1.25 times, the two ends of round steel are forged in riveting, and carry out Impression sub-material, round steel is swaged into pre-set dimension;
B, by round steel two ends leave office, forge the bias of mid portion and two ends, then two ends be swaged into 260 ° of octagonals;Two ends It is the flange of following valve body, mid portion is the major part of following valve body;
C, recycling briquetting are by anistree indent to pre-set dimension it is ensured that the flange of base substrate and groove are in the size range designing Interior;When mould presses down, pressed out according to the shape of model, because the inside is fluted, claim indent;I.e. indent technique makes Form groove, i.e. the junction of valve body future major part and flange between two ends and mid portion;
Then followed the steps below using semi-stamping, shaped with final:
A, forged using the mode withholding mould up and down base substrate in the middle of anistree, octagonal will be swaged into by mid portion;
B, after middle anistree shaping, two end flanges cushion blocks are controlled highly forging circle afterwards;
C, finishing touch forging each several part size are to design size.
It is further, after the step c using semi-stamping, also to include Step d:Forging rear annealing process is carried out to forging, To eliminate internal stress.
It is further that, in Step d, annealing adopts following technique:Valve body is slowly heated to 500 DEG C~650 with stove DEG C, after insulation a period of time, slowly cool to less than 200 DEG C and come out of the stove with stove and carry out air cooling.
It is further that the material of round steel is Wc=0.25-0.45%, WCr=0.8-1.0%, WMo=0.15-0.25% Structural alloy steel.
It is further that, before whole forging starts, initial forging temperature should control at 1000 DEG C~1250 DEG C;Forge whole After end, final forging temperature should control at 700 DEG C -850 DEG C.
It is further, after semi-stamping, by forging modifier treatment:It is heated to 800-900 DEG C and carry out Water Quenching, afterwards It is reheated between 500-650 DEG C carry out temper, carry out water-cooled afterwards.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1st, open die forging, the fibrous tissue of the forging of flat-die forging output and forging profile base are used during base of the present invention Originally it is consistent, metal streamline is complete, do not have Shrinkage cavity it is ensured that part not only has the microstructure of densification and beautiful Outward appearance, and there is excellent mechanical property and longer service life, this be foundry goods incomparable.
2nd, the present invention uses semi-stamping when finally shaping, and process is simple is less demanding to mould, can be according to client couple Valve body shapes, the particular/special requirement small lot of size, multi items, high efficiency, the manufacture valve body of low cost.
3rd, on the premise of not affecting serviceability, using half module forging process, the mid portion of valve body is swaged into eight by square Angular, the weight of required round steel billet is 1.15-1.25 times of valve weight, and the steel billet that common die forging needs is then valve weight 1.45-1.55 times, at least can save 30% material, meet the requirement of " green manufacturing ".
4th, simple using equipment in the present invention, malleable wider range.At present, can forge the 1t that weighs about large complicated Forging, real genus is domestic rare.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the forging drawing after the completion of step A;
Fig. 2 is the left view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the forging drawing after the completion of step B;
Fig. 4 is the left view of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is the forging drawing after the completion of step C;
Fig. 6 is the left view of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is the forging drawing after the completion of a step;
Fig. 8 is the left view of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is the forging drawing after the completion of b step;
Figure 10 is the left view of Fig. 9;
Figure 11 is the forging drawing after the completion of step c;
Figure 12 is the top view of Figure 11;
Specific embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
As shown in figure 1, the present invention follows the steps below first with flat-die forging, to realize base:
A, the round steel of be valve body finished weight from weight 1.15~1.25 times, the two ends of round steel are forged in riveting, and carry out Impression sub-material, round steel is swaged into pre-set dimension;, referring to shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, impression is preliminary for forging schematic diagram after the completion of this step The main part and the flange section that have separated following valve body;
B, by round steel two ends leave office, forge the bias of mid portion and two ends, then two ends be swaged into 260 ° of octagonals;Two ends It is the flange of following valve body, mid portion is the major part of following valve body;Forging schematic diagram after the completion of this step referring to Shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, now first two ends are swaged into octagonal, are to prepare for follow-up forging circle, forging circle at the beginning, difficulty is special Not big, mould is had high demands, hardly possible in open die forging, and also the flow process forged, the side of being swaged into, in forging circle, contribute to The formation of forging flow lines is good to the mechanical property of forging;
C, recycling briquetting are by anistree indent to pre-set dimension it is ensured that the flange of base substrate and groove are in the size range designing Interior;When mould presses down, pressed out according to the shape of model, because the inside is fluted, claim indent;I.e. indent technique makes Form groove, i.e. the junction of valve body future major part and flange between two ends and mid portion;Forging after the completion of this step Part is illustrated to can be found in shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, blank forming now, and the preliminary blank of valve body presents;
Then followed the steps below using semi-stamping, shaped with final:
A, forged using the mode withholding mould up and down base substrate in the middle of anistree, octagonal will be swaged into by mid portion;This step Referring to shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, Fig. 7 represents and forges middle anise by the way of withholding mould up and down forging schematic diagram after the completion of rapid; Using semi-stamping, the mid portion of valve body is swaged into octagonal by square, the weight of required round steel billet be valve weight 1.15~ 1.25 times, and the steel billet that common die forging needs is then 1.45~1.55 times of valve weight, at least can save 30% material, Meet the requirement of " green manufacturing ".
B, after middle anistree shaping, two end flanges cushion blocks are controlled highly forging circle afterwards;Casting after the completion of this step Part schematic diagram referring to shown in Fig. 9 and Figure 10, now valve body basic forming;This step flange forging circle can be found in the narration in step B.
C, finishing touch forging each several part size to design size, control two end flanges to be saved on same axis, and Middle anise block and the offset of two end flanges.Its final figure is referring to Figure 11 and Figure 12.
Embodiment is given below to be specifically described to the present invention.Be necessary it is pointed out here that, following examples It is served only for the present invention being further described it is impossible to be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention, the technology in this field is ripe Practice that some that personnel make to the present invention according to present invention are nonessential to be improved and adjustment still belongs to protection scope of the present invention.
In addition, what deserves to be explained is, the percentage ratio used by following examples is all weight percentage;Gained forging is carried out Hardness HB, the measuring mechanical property such as tensile strength σ t;ASTM A388-JB/T4730-2005 standard is pressed to forging after heat treatment Carry out ultrasonic examination, II grade of standard is qualified;Finished product first carries out magnetic powder inspection, standard II according to ASTM E709-JB730.4 Level is qualified;Afterwards again by API Spec 6A PL 3 grades carry out water pressure test for strength, be not allow for pressure drop phenomena.
In addition, the blank employed in following examples is Wc=0.25-0.45%, WCr=0.8-1.0%, WMo= The alloy structure steel billet (square billet or ingot casting) of 0.15-0.25%.Following examples adopt forging equipment be:The different brightness in Beijing is dynamo-electric Company limited manufacture 3t Single arm, during semi-stamping moulds of industrial equipment used and be oneself design customization.Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings to this Invention further illustrates.
Embodiment 1
35CrMo steel alloy blank (420 × 320 × 260) good for blanking is first passed around 3T forging hammer open die forging and causes 410 × 310 × 250mm, two ends are forged in riveting, and being left office in two ends by impression sub-material, forges offset, then two ends are swaged into 260 ° of anises, Using briquetting by the anistree part indent by square 50mm length to 165 × 165 × 85mm length it is ensured that the long 80mm of termination flange, with And the long 85mm of groove;Then forge middle anise by the way of withholding mould up and down, note detaining instead in direction, withhold anise Square in the middle of Shi Xiuzheng, control in the middle of square height 305mm and width 250mm it is ensured that length 250mm-260mm;Third side After block forging puts in place, then two end flanges are controlled height forging circle with cushion block.Finally revise each several part size to forging drawing illustrated dimension, Two end flanges are controlled to keep on same axis, and middle anise block and two ends flange eccentric amount, carry out afterwards at forging rear annealing Reason eliminates internal stress.Finally carry out a small amount of subsequent treatment (machining, heat treatment), performance test results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1
Embodiment 2
30CrMo steel alloy blank (420 × 320 × 260) good for blanking is first passed around 3T forging hammer open die forging and causes 410 × 310 × 250, two ends are forged in riveting, and being left office in two ends by impression sub-material, forges bias, then two ends are swaged into 260 ° of anises, adopt Briquetting is to 165 × 165 × 85mm length it is ensured that the long 80mm of termination flange and recessed by the anistree part indent by square 50mm length Flute length 85mm;Then forge middle anise by the way of withholding mould up and down, note detaining instead in direction, withhold and repair during anise Middle square, control in the middle of square height 305mm and width 250mm it is ensured that length 250mm-260mm;Middle square forging After putting in place, then two end flanges are controlled height forging circle with cushion block.Finally revise each several part size to forging drawing illustrated dimension, control Two end flanges keep on same axis, and middle anise block and two ends flange eccentric amount, carry out forging rear annealing process afterwards and disappear Except internal stress.Finally carry out a small amount of subsequent treatment (machining, heat treatment).Performance test results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2
Embodiment 3
35CrMo steel alloy blank (620 × 520 × 460) good for blanking is first passed around 3T forging hammer open die forging and causes 610 × 510 × 450mm, two ends are forged in riveting, and being left office in two ends by impression sub-material, forges offset, then two ends are swaged into 260 ° of anises, Using briquetting by the anistree part indent by square 80mm length to 265 × 265 × 1055mm length it is ensured that the long 100mm of termination flange, And the long 105mm of groove;Then forge middle anise by the way of withholding mould up and down, note detaining instead in direction, withhold Square in the middle of revising when anistree, control in the middle of square height 405mm and width 350mm it is ensured that length 350mm-360mm;In Between square forging put in place after, then by two end flanges with cushion block control height forging circle.Finally revise each several part size to shown in forging drawing Size, controls two end flanges to keep on same axis, and middle anise block and two ends flange eccentric amount, carries out forging afterwards and retreats Fire processes and eliminates internal stress.Finally carry out a small amount of subsequent treatment (machining, heat treatment).Performance test results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all essences in the present invention Any modification, equivalent and improvement made within god and principle etc., should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. valve body forging method it is characterised in that:
Follow the steps below first with flat-die forging, to realize base:
A, the round steel of be valve body finished weight from weight 1.15~1.25 times, the two ends of round steel are forged in riveting, and carry out impression Sub-material, round steel is swaged into pre-set dimension;
B, by round steel two ends leave office, forge the bias of mid portion and two ends, then two ends be swaged into 260 ° of octagonals;
C, recycling briquetting are by two ends anise indent to pre-set dimension it is ensured that the flange of base substrate and groove are in the size range designing Interior;
Then followed the steps below using semi-stamping, shaped with final:
A, forged using the mode withholding mould up and down base substrate in the middle of anistree;
B, after middle anistree shaping, two end flanges cushion blocks are controlled highly forging circle afterwards;
C, finishing touch forging each several part size are to design size.
2. valve body forging method as claimed in claim 1 it is characterised in that:After the step c using semi-stamping, also include d Step:Forging rear annealing process is carried out to forging, to eliminate internal stress.
3. valve body forging method as claimed in claim 2 it is characterised in that:In Step d, annealing adopts following technique:Will Valve body is slowly heated to 500 DEG C~650 DEG C with stove, after insulation a period of time, slowly cools to less than 200 DEG C and comes out of the stove with stove and carry out Air cooling.
4. valve body forging method as claimed in claim 1 it is characterised in that:The material of round steel is Wc=0.25-0.45%, WCr =0.8-1.0%, WMoThe structural alloy steel of=0.15-0.25%.
5. valve body forging method as claimed in claim 1 it is characterised in that:Before whole forging starts, initial forging temperature should be controlled System is at 1000 DEG C~1250 DEG C;After whole forging terminates, final forging temperature should control at 700 DEG C -850 DEG C.
6. the valve body forging method as described in claim 1 to 5 any claim it is characterised in that:After semi-stamping, will forge Part modifier treatment:It is heated to 800-900 DEG C and carries out Water Quenching, be reheated to afterwards carry out at tempering between 500-650 DEG C Reason, carries out water-cooled afterwards.
CN201410520064.4A 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 valve body forging method Active CN104439032B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104907475B (en) * 2015-06-24 2017-01-18 中车戚墅堰机车车辆工艺研究所有限公司 Integral forging mold of valve body with flanges, and forging method
CN106077389A (en) * 2016-06-17 2016-11-09 二十二冶集团精密锻造有限公司 The multidirectional precision die forging process of valve with flange
CN106111861A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-11-16 安徽省瑞杰锻造有限责任公司 5Cr13 deflector roll recess moulding process
CN109794569A (en) * 2019-01-17 2019-05-24 宁波埃美柯铜阀门有限公司 A kind of brass water nozzle hot forging of valve body bends molding production technology

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US1799390A (en) * 1928-04-07 1931-04-07 Columbus Machine Company Method of making a valve assembly
DE816940C (en) * 1950-06-16 1951-10-15 Rosista G M B H Process for the production of fittings, in particular three-way valves and the like.
JPH078394B2 (en) * 1985-11-05 1995-02-01 三菱重工業株式会社 Method for improving ultrasonic transmission characteristics of tubular member
CN1110384C (en) * 1999-03-05 2003-06-04 吴乐瑞 Method for forging formation of flange type ball valve body
CN102198481A (en) * 2011-04-20 2011-09-28 大连大高阀门有限公司 Technology for integrally forging valve with flange
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