CN105414430A - Profiling forging method of large cylinder forge piece provided with internal and external steps - Google Patents

Profiling forging method of large cylinder forge piece provided with internal and external steps Download PDF

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CN105414430A
CN105414430A CN 201511021902 CN201511021902A CN105414430A CN 105414430 A CN105414430 A CN 105414430A CN 201511021902 CN201511021902 CN 201511021902 CN 201511021902 A CN201511021902 A CN 201511021902A CN 105414430 A CN105414430 A CN 105414430A
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forging
step
outer diameter
profiling
section
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CN 201511021902
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105414430B (en )
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孙嫘
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二重集团(德阳)重型装备股份有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/06Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor for performing particular operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/06Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor for performing particular operations
    • B21J5/08Upsetting

Abstract

The invention discloses a profiling forging method of a large cylinder forge piece provided with internal and external steps. According to the profiling forging method of the large cylinder forge piece provided with the internal and external steps, raw material consumption and machining allowance can be reduced under the premise that internal quality is guaranteed. The profiling forging method comprises steps as follows: A, tongs hold is performed; B, rolling, drawing and blanking are performed; C, upsetting and punching are performed; D, a common mandrel is subjected to pre-reaming until a step saddle can penetrate into a forging stock; E, step saddle pre-drawing is adopted to enable an inner hole of the forging stock to form the step, an outer contour of the forging stock forms a step cylinder shape, and meanwhile, the length of the forging stock meets the technical processing size; F, the step saddle and a step reaming anvil are adopted for hole reaming forming. With the adoption of the profiling forging method, natural streamline of metal can be prevented from being cut off, so that fibers of the forge piece are continuous, and improvement of synthesized mechanical properties of the forge piece is facilitated.

Description

带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法 With inner and outer profiling method for forging large stepped cylindrical forgings

技术领域 FIELD

[0001]本发明涉及锻造技术,尤其是一种带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to forging technology, in particular a forging method and external profiling step forgings with a large cylinder.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002]公知的:带内外台阶大型筒体锻件在核电、石油化工和深海压力容器中均有应用,因设备为锻焊结构,原来的设计是将法兰和筒身段分开,最后再焊接为一体。 [0002] known: application are stepped with inner and outer cylindrical large forgings in nuclear, petrochemical and deep sea pressure vessels, for the forge welding apparatus because the structure of the original design is to separate the flange and the barrel figure, and finally welded into one. 随着容器规格的日益增大和技术要求的不断提高,尽量减少焊缝已经成为一种共识,这一方面可以提高设备安全性、可靠性和使用寿命,同时还可以降低核电等产品的在役检查次数和风险。 With the increasing container specifications and the continuous improvement of the technical requirements to minimize the weld has become a consensus in this regard can improve equipment safety, reliability and service life, while also reducing in-service inspection of nuclear power and other products times and risks. 因此,目前这种锻件的法兰和筒身段已经被设计为一个整体,从而形成了外圆和内孔均带台阶的双台阶特殊大型筒体结构,锻造难度和风险极大,常规的锻造方法根本无法满足要求。 Thus, the current figure forging flange and the barrel has been designed as a whole, thereby forming a cylindrical bore and a large special cylinder are double-stepped stepped structure, forging difficult and risky, the conventional forging method simply can not meet the requirements.

[0003]传统工艺是将工件外圆和内孔分别按最大和最小直径简化为直壁筒体,这样虽然成形相对简单,但增加了锻件的加工余量、切断了金属的自然流线,而且很大一部分致密的锻造表层被白白加工掉,造成了极大的材料浪费和性能损失,更为可观的是,由于锻件外形庞大,这样做将使钢锭重量剧增,从而在增加钢锭制造难度的同时将使锻件的质量风险进一步加大。 [0003] The conventional process is cylindrical and the inner bore of the workpiece respectively the maximum and minimum diameter of simplified straight cylindrical wall, shaped so that although relatively simple, but the machining allowance increases forging, cutting off the flow of natural line metal, and a large part of forging a dense surface is machined away in vain, caused great material waste and loss of performance, even more impressive is that, due to the huge shape forging, steel ingot weight surge will do so, thereby increasing the difficulty of the steel ingot manufacturing At the same time the quality will further increase the risk of forgings. 甚至使所需钢锭规格过大而无法满足制造要求。 Even so desired ingot size is too large to meet manufacturing requirements.

[0004]生产带内外台阶大型筒体锻件存在以下难点: [0004] The following major difficulties of producing a stepped inner and outer cylindrical forgings:

[0005] 1)锻件在结构上存在法兰和筒身段两个部分,其中法兰端外径大、内径小,接管筒体外径小、内径大,因而形成了内外均带台阶的异形结构,给锻件成形制造了很大难度。 [0005] 1) present in the structure forging flange and the barrel movements in two parts, wherein the flanged end outer diameter, a small inner diameter, an outer diameter of the cylindrical body to take over the small and large diameter, thereby forming a shaped stepped structure both inside and outside, prototyping and manufacturing to forging a very difficult. 锻件尺寸规格越大,难度越突出。 Forging the larger the size specifications, the more prominent difficulty.

[0006] 2)锻件尺寸庞大,重量超重,在锻造过程中设备处于极限负荷状态,给工艺操控形成了很大障碍,尤其是制坯精度的控制。 [0006] 2) forging large in size, weight, overweight, during forging apparatus in the limit load state, to form a big obstacle process control, especially the control precision preform.

[0007] 3)锻件由于两端壁厚不一致,在变形过程中极易形成喇叭口,且拔长时壁厚超厚,容易形成凹心。 [0007] 3) Since the forging ends inconsistent thickness, easy to form the toroidal deformation process, and the long pull thick wall thickness, easy to form a concave heart.

[0008] 4)锻件在整个扩孔过程中内外台阶差始终发生着动态变化,因此,如何保证内外台阶差满足工艺尺寸成为又一大难点。 [0008] 4) throughout the forging process of the inner and outer stepped counterbore always undergoing dynamic change, therefore, how to ensure that the inner and outer dimensions to meet the process stepped become another major difficulty.

[0009] 5)法兰和筒身段根部的金属在扩孔变形过程中处于过渡部位,既无法与法兰端同步,又无法与筒身段端同步,因此极易形成“收腰”缺陷。 [0009] 5) and the barrel flange in the figure reaming root metal deformation process transition region, neither synchronized with the flanged end, they can not be synchronized with the movements tube end, thus easy to form a "waist" defect.

[0010] 6)变形过程中,法兰段走料慢,接管筒体段走料快,因此很容易形成接管筒体段尺寸已到位而法兰段仍然尺寸不足的局面。 [0010] 6) during the deformation, the flange segments expected to go slow, to take over the cylinder segment material moving fast, it is easy to form a cylinder segment size has been put in place to take over the flange segment is still insufficient and the size of the situation.

[0011 ] 7) 一体化带内外台阶大型筒体仿形锻造方法不仅形状特殊,而且厚度超厚,锻件综合机械性能要求极高,如何在成形过程中保证晶粒度细小均匀和锻件内部致密,是一项很大的难题。 [0011] 7) integrated with inner and outer cylindrical stepped profiling of large forging method not only special shape and the thickness of the thick forging demanding mechanical properties, the process of how to ensure a uniform fine grain size and a dense inner forging molding, It is a very big problem.

[0012]传统工艺方法是将锻件按最大外径、最小内径简化成直圆筒。 [0012] The conventional process for forging press is a maximum outer diameter, the minimum inside diameter reduced to a straight cylinder.

[0013]常规的工艺流程为:下料—镦粗冲孔—芯轴拔长—芯轴扩孔。 [0013] Conventional process: cutting - upsetting punch - stretching mandrel - reamer mandrel.

[0014]带内外台阶大型筒体锻件传统工艺的存在以下缺点: The presence of [0014] large stepped with inner and outer cylindrical forging the disadvantage of the traditional process:

[0015]①传统工艺方法采用简化锻件图的形式锻造,虽然使锻造成形难度降低,但大大增加了锻件重量,增加了原材料投入和机加工台时,而且随着容器产品越来越向大型化方向发展,采用这种方式所带来的已不单是成本和周期问题,更严重的是,过多的敷料使钢锭尺寸极度扩大,已经限制了生产投料,必将严重制约规模化的生产。 When [0015] ① traditional processes employed in a simplified form in FIG forging forging, forging while making difficult to reduce, but greatly increases the weight of the forging, an increase of raw material input and machining units, and with more products to large-scale container direction, in this way has brought about not only the cost and cycle issues, more seriously, too much dressing extremely expand the ingot size, have limited the production of feed, will seriously restrict large-scale production.

[0016]②锻件内外台阶部分采用机加方式加工出,切断了金属的自然流线,很大一部分致密的锻造表层被白白加工掉,不利于锻件的综合性能。 [0016] ② forged inner and outer stepped part is machined manner processed, cut the natural flow lines of metal, a large part of the surface dense forging is machined away in vain, is not conducive to the overall performance of the forging.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0017]本发明所要解决的技术问题是提供一种能够确保内部质量的前提下降低原材料消耗、减少机械加工余量的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法。 [0017] The present invention solves the technical problem is to provide a reduced raw material consumption under the premise of ensuring the quality of the interior, reducing the forging method with inner and outer profiling stepped cylindrical forgings large machining allowance.

[0018]本发明解决其技术问题所采用的技术方案是:带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,包括以下步骤: [0018] aspect of the present invention to solve the technical problem is that: the forging method of profiling large stepped with inner and outer cylindrical forging, comprising the steps of:

[0019] A、压钳口;B、滚圆拔长、下料;C、镦粗、冲孔;D、采用普通芯轴预扩孔至台阶马杠能够穿入锻坯;E、采用台阶马杠预拔长使锻坯内孔形成台阶,并使得锻坯的外轮廓成台阶筒体形状,同时使得锻坯的长度符合工艺加工尺寸;F、采用台阶马杠和台阶扩孔砧扩孔成形; [0019] A, jaw pressure; B, rounded stretching, cutting; C, upsetting, punching; D, the pre-reaming ordinary mandrel bar to be able to penetrate the stepped horse forging stock; E, MA Stepped pre-stretching lever so that the blank is formed a stepped bore forging, forging stock and such that the outer contour of a stepped cylindrical shape, such that while the length of the forging billet size consistent with processing technology; F, using the step and the step horse bars shaped reamer reaming anvil ;

[0020]在步骤C中,将锻坯的镦粗冲孔工序分为两个火次实施:第一火在1250±15°C将法兰段的端面向上镦粗直至镦不动为止;第二火第一步:仍然在1250 ± 15°C,将法兰段的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300 ± 5mm,直到法兰段达到外径尺寸要求,然后采用球面镦粗板将锻坯高度压至工艺要求的高度,制成带有10〜13°锥度的锥台坯料;第二火第二步:将工件翻面,法兰段的端面向下冲孔。 [0020] In step C, upsetting the forging blank punching step is divided into two sub-fire embodiments: a first fire 1250 ± 15 ° C up to the end face of the flange section heading upsetting until it stops; first fire Step two: in still 1250 ± 15 ° C, up to the end face of the flange section show upsetting pressure, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, the outer diameter until the flange portion reaches the requirements, then a spherical upsetting forged plate blank pressed to the height of the height of the process requirements made of the billet with 10~13 ° frustum taper; tHERMAL second step: turning the workpiece surface, the end face of the punch downwardly flange portion.

[0021]进一步的,在步骤E中滚圆拔长以工件的法兰段和接管筒体段交接处为界,使得工件的制坯外径以交接处向两端逐渐递减;在法兰段形成法兰段的制坯外径且在法兰段形成3〜4°的制坯锥度;在接管筒体段形成接管筒体段的制坯外径,且在接管筒体段形成1.5〜3°的制坯锥度;所述法兰段与接管筒体段相交端的外径大于法兰段另一端的外径,所述接管筒体段与法兰段相交端的外径大于接管筒体段另一端的外径。 [0021] Further, in the stretching step E rounded to take over the cylindrical section and the flange section is bounded by the intersection of the workpiece, such that the outer diameter of the preform to the work junction decreases gradually toward both ends; formed in the flange section the outer diameter of the flange section preform and preform formed in the tapered flange section 3~4 °; take over the outer diameter of the cylindrical body is formed preform segment taking over barrel sections, and taking over the formed barrel sections 1.5~3 ° the preform taper; takeover section and an outer diameter of said flange intersects the cylindrical body portion is greater than the outer diameter of the end flange section of the other end of the cylindrical body section and the flange section to take over the intersection of the outer diameter than the other end of the cylindrical body portion end of takeover the outer diameter.

[0022]本发明的有益效果是:采用发明所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,通过采用芯轴预扩孔,采用台阶马杠预拔长;同时采用台阶马杠和台阶扩孔砧扩孔成形;从而一次成型带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的锻坯,避免了传统工艺成型中生产成直圆筒形然后再进行加工的方式,因此从工件的尺寸看,锻件各部尺寸均能满足加工要求,且锻件形状规整、余量均匀,加工余量少,避免了切断金属的自然流线;锻件没有任何超标缺陷,内外部质量良好;从性能结果看,虽然锻件壁厚超厚,且性能要求极高,但锻件整体性能均匀,各项指标均完全满足要求,因此采本发明所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,能够使得锻件纤维连续,有利于提高锻件的综合机械性能。 [0022] Advantageous effects of the invention are: the use of a stepped with inner and outer profiling method of forging the forging of large barrel of the present invention, by using the pre-reaming mandrel, using a pre-stretching step horse bars; bars while using a step and horses shaped anvil reamer reaming step; thus forming a large stepped with inner and outer cylindrical forging billet forging, avoid the traditional production process of molding into a straight cylindrical manner and then processed, thus seen from the size of the workpiece, the forging departments size can meet processing requirements, forgings and regular shape, homogeneous balance, less allowance to avoid cutting natural metal flow lines; no excessive forging defects, the good external quality; from the performance results, although the thickness forgings thick, and the high performance requirements, the overall performance, but uniform forging, the indicators are fully satisfactory, and therefore adopt a stepped with inner and outer profiling method of forging the forging of large barrel of the present invention, forging enables continuous fibers, there help to improve the mechanical properties of forgings. 同时在对坯料进行镦粗、冲孔的过程中,将镦粗分为两个火次进行实施,在镦粗的过程中使得锻坯在的法兰段和接管筒体段整体形成制坯锥度,同时通过拔长使得锻坯由法兰段与接管筒体段的交界处向两端分别形成制坯锥度。 While upsetting the blank, the punching process, the upset carried out in two times the fire, so that the flange section in the forging stock and barrel sections taken over the course of upsetting integrally formed tapered preform , while that by stretching the tapered preform forging billet is formed by the junction of the two ends of the cylindrical body section and a flange section takeover. 从而满足锻件分料时的直径要求,同时避免芯轴拔长时引起端面凹心。 To meet the requirements of the diameter forgings dosing while heart when recessed end surface to avoid stretching mandrel.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0023]图1是传统工艺方法的锻件图模式; [0023] FIG. 1 is a view schematically forging of traditional processes;

[0024]图2是本发明实施例中锻件图模式; [0024] FIG. 2 is a view schematically forging example embodiment of the present invention;

[0025]图3是本发明实施例中锻坯镦粗形成锥台坯料时的结构示意图; [0025] FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the embodiment frustum blank upset forging stock formed embodiment of the present invention;

[0026]图4是本发明实施例中锻坯冲孔后的示意图; [0026] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the embodiment of the present invention embodiment punching forging stock;

[0027]图5是本发明实施例中采用普通芯轴预扩孔后锻坯剖视图; [0027] FIG. 5 is a diagram used in common mandrel after the pre-reaming forging billet cross-sectional view of the present embodiment of the invention;

[0028]图6是本发明实施例中锻坯预扩孔后插入台阶马杠的结构示意图; [0028] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the bar after the insertion step horse forging billet embodiment of the present invention, the pre-reaming embodiment;

[0029]图7是本发明实施例中锻坯拔长后的示意图; [0029] FIG. 7 is a schematic view of the embodiment of the forging billet stretching embodiment of the present invention;

[0030]图8是本发明实施例中采用台阶马杠和台阶扩孔砧扩孔过程的示意图; [0030] FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating the steps employed in bars and horses anvil reaming step reaming process embodiment of the present invention;

[0031]图9是本发明实施例中采用台阶马杠和台阶扩孔砧扩孔成型示意图; [0031] FIG. 9 is a schematic view used in the molding step and the step horse bars reamer reaming the anvil embodiment of the present invention;

[0032]图中标示:1_锻坯,11-法兰段,12-接管筒体段,2-台阶马杠,3-台阶扩孔砧。 [0032] FIG denoted: 1_ forging stock, 11- flange section, 12 take over the barrel sections, 2 bars horse step, 3 step reaming anvil.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0033]下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进一步说明。 Figures and examples further illustrate the present invention [0033] The following binding.

[0034]本发明所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,包括以下步骤: [0034] The method of forging with inner and outer profiling stepped cylindrical large forgings according to the present invention, comprising the steps of:

[0035] A、压钳口;B、滚圆拔长、下料;C、镦粗、冲孔;D、采用普通芯轴预扩孔至台阶马杠2能够穿入锻坯1;E、采用台阶马杠2预拔长使锻坯1内孔形成台阶,并使得锻坯1的外轮廓成台阶筒体形状,同时使得锻坯1的长度符合工艺加工尺寸;F、采用台阶马杠2和台阶扩孔砧3扩孔成形; [0035] A, jaw pressure; B, rounded stretching, cutting; C, upsetting, punching; D, the pre-reaming ordinary mandrel bar 2 is able to penetrate the stepped horse forging billet 1; E, using Ma stepped bars 2 pre-stretching the inner bore forging stock formed in step 1, and such that the outer contour of the forging blank 1 into a stepped cylindrical shape, such that while the length of the forging blank 1 dimensions conform processing technology; F, and 2 bars horse stepped 3 reamer reaming anvil forming step;

[0036]在步骤C中,将锻坯1的镦粗冲孔工序分为两个火次实施:第一火在1250±15°C将法兰段11的端面向上镦粗直至镦不动为止;第二火第一步:仍然在1250±15°c,将法兰段11的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300±5mm,直到法兰段11达到外径尺寸要求,然后采用球面镦粗板将工件高度压至工艺要求的高度,制成带有10〜13°锥度的锥台坯料;第二火第二步:将工件翻面,法兰段11的端面向下冲孔。 [0036] In step C, the punching process upset forging billet 1 is divided into two sub-fire embodiments: a first fire 1250 ± 15 ° C The end face 11 of the flange section heading upwards upset until it stops ; tHERMAL Step: in still 1250 ± 15 ° c, the flange portion 11 of the end face show up upsetting pressure, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, until the flange portion reaches the outer diameter dimension in claim 11, and a spherical-headed the crude plate height of the workpiece pressed to the height requirements of the process, the blank formed with 10~13 ° frustum taper; tHERMAL second step: turning the workpiece surface, the end face of the flange portion 11 downward punching.

[0037]在步骤A中进行压钳口,便于工件的夹持。 [0037] The press-jaw in Step A, to facilitate gripping of the workpiece.

[0038]在步骤B中进行滚圆拔长、以及下料,从而实现锻坯的第一次制坯过程。 [0038] spheronization in step B stretching, and cutting, forging stock to achieve the first preform process.

[0039]如图3至图5所示,在步骤C中进行镦粗冲孔,通过镦粗,使得锻坯1外径进一步符合加工工艺尺寸要求,通过冲孔,将锻坯中心多余的材料冲脱。 [0039] FIGS. 3 to 5, upsetting punching step C, by upsetting, so that an outer diameter of the forging billet size requirement meets further processing, by punching, forging billet center of the excess material washed off.

[0040]对于尺寸庞大的锻件,一方面拔长分料时尺寸巨大,水压机常规整体镦粗已经无法满足锻件分料时的直径要求;另一方面,芯轴拔长时极易引起端面凹心,造成后续无法满足加工要求。 [0040] For large size forgings, when on the one hand great stretching size dosing, conventional hydraulic machine can not meet the overall diameter of the upset forging dosing requirements; the other hand, easily caused when the end surface of the concavity in stretching mandrel , resulting in subsequent unable to meet the processing requirements. 在步骤C中,将锻坯1的镦粗冲孔工序分为两个火次实施:第一火在1250±15°C将法兰段11的端面向上镦粗直至镦不动为止;第二火第一步:仍然在1250±15°C,将法兰段11的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300±5mm,直到法兰段11达到外径尺寸要求,然后采用球面镦粗板将工件高度压至工艺要求的高度,制成带有10〜13°锥度的锥台坯料;第二火第二步:将工件翻面,法兰段11的端面向下冲孔。 In step C, the punching process upset forging billet 1 is divided into two sub-fire embodiments: a first fire 1250 ± 15 ° C The end face 11 of the flange section heading upwards upset until it stops; second fire Step: in still 1250 ± 15 ° C, up to the end face 11 of the flange section show upsetting pressure, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, until the flange portion 11 reaches the outer diameter size requirements, then a spherical upsetting plate height of the workpiece pressed to the height requirements of the process, the blank formed with 10~13 ° frustum taper; tHERMAL second step: turning the workpiece surface, the end face of the flange portion 11 downward punching. 如图3所示,其中优选的将法兰段11的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300±5mm,直到法兰段11达到外径尺寸要求,然后采用球面镦粗板将工件高度压至工艺要求的高度,制成带有12.5°锥度的锥台坯料。 3, the preferred show an upward end face of the flange section 11 of the upsetting pressure, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, until the flange portion reaches the outer diameter dimension in claim 11, and a spherical plate upsetting pressure to the workpiece height process required height, made with the blank frustum 12.5 ° taper.

[0041] 通过将法兰段11的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300±5mm,然后采用球面镦粗板将工件高度压至工艺要求的高度;从而最大限度避免后续拔长时法兰凹心。 [0041] The end face of the flange section 11 by the upward pressure of upsetting development, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, and a spherical plate upsetting height of the workpiece pressed to the height of the process requirements; thereby avoid possible subsequent stretching flange recess heart. 采用上述工艺,既保证接管筒体段12的尺寸,又进一步保证了法兰段11的质量。 With the above process, both to ensure the segment size to take over the cylindrical body 12, but also to further ensure the quality of the flange portion 11.

[0042]如图6所示,在步骤D中芯轴预扩孔中间坯料,为后续变形中台阶马杠2能够穿入坯料创造条件。 [0042] As shown in FIG 6, in step D the pre-reaming mandrel intermediate material, to create conditions for a subsequent step in the modification 2 can penetrate the blank horse bars.

[0043]如图7所示,在步骤E中采用台阶马杠2预拔长,使锻坯1内孔形成台阶,并使得锻坯1的外轮廓成台阶筒体形状,同时使得锻坯1的长度符合工艺加工尺寸。 [0043] As shown, in step E using 7 horse stepped bars 2 pre-stretching, the inner hole formed blank forging step, forging stock and so that the outer contour of a stepped cylindrical shape, such that while forging billet 1 the length according to the size processing technology. 通过上述工艺在保证锻坯1中心孔形状的同时,保证了锻坯1的长度符合工艺加工尺寸。 Through the above process guarantees the forging billet 1 central hole shape while ensuring the length of the forging blank 1 dimensions conform processing technology.

[0044]如图8和图9所示,在步骤F中采用台阶马杠2和台阶扩孔砧3扩孔成形;通过台阶马杠2扩孔保证工件1最终的中心孔尺寸满足工艺加工要求,同时通过台阶扩孔砧3保证工件外径的尺寸符合工艺加工要求。 [0044] FIGS. 8 and 9, using 2 bars and the step step reaming horse anvil 3 counterbore formed in step F; MA lever 2 by step to ensure a final reaming the center hole machining process to meet the requirements of dimensions of the workpiece , while meeting the process requirements of the processing step by reaming the anvil 3 to ensure that the size of diameter of the workpiece.

[0045]综上所述,本发明所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,通过在步骤D、E、F中采用芯轴预扩孔,采用台阶马杠2预拔长;同时采用台阶马杠2和台阶扩孔砧3扩孔成形;从而一次成型带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的锻坯,避免了传统工艺成型中生产成直圆筒形然后再进行加工的方式,因此从工件1的尺寸看,锻件各部尺寸均能满足加工要求,且锻件形状规整、余量均匀,加工余量少,避免了切断金属的自然流线;锻件没有任何超标缺陷,内外部质量良好;从性能结果看,虽然锻件壁厚超厚,且性能要求极高,但锻件整体性能均匀,各项指标均完全满足要求,因此采用本发明所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,能够使得锻件纤维连续,有利于提高锻件的综合机械性能。 [0045] In summary, the forging method with inner and outer profiling large stepped cylindrical forgings according to the present invention, by using a pre-reaming mandrel in step D, E, F, the use of bars 2 pre-step stretching MA ; Ma bars while using a step 2 and the step 3 reamer reaming shaped anvil; thus forming a large stepped with inner and outer cylindrical forging billet forging, avoid the traditional production process of molding into a straight cylindrical manner and then processed, Thus viewed from the dimension of the workpiece 1, the various dimensions of the forging process can meet the requirements, and the forging regular shape, homogeneous balance, less allowance to avoid cutting natural metal flow lines; no excessive forging defects, the good external quality ; from the performance results, while forging thick wall thickness, and the high performance requirements, the overall performance, but uniform forging, the indicators are fully meet the requirements, so a large stepped cylinder with inner and outer profiling according to the present invention forgings the method of forging, forging enables continuous fibers, help to improve the mechanical properties of the forgings. 同时在对坯料进行镦粗、冲孔的过程中,将镦粗分为两个火次进行实施,在镦粗的过程中使得锻坯1在的法兰段11和接管筒体段12整体形成制坯锥度,同时通过拔长使得锻坯1由法兰段11与接管筒体段12的交界处向两端分别形成制坯锥度。 While upsetting the blank, the punching process, the upset carried out in two times the fire, so that the forging billet 1 in the flange section 11 and cylinder section 12 integrally formed to take over the upsetting process briquetting taper, while the forging stock by stretching such a preform is formed to taper both ends of the cylindrical body 11 at the junction section 12 to take over the flange section. 从而满足锻件分料时的直径要求,同时避免芯轴拔长时引起端面凹心。 To meet the requirements of the diameter forgings dosing while heart when recessed end surface to avoid stretching mandrel.

[0046]为了避免工件1在扩孔过程中容易产生喇叭口和卡腰缺陷,进一步的,在步骤E中拔长时以锻坯1的法兰段11和接管筒体段12交接处为界,使得锻坯1的制坯外径以交接处向两端逐渐递减;在法兰段11形成法兰段11的制坯外径,且在法兰段11形成3〜4°的制坯锥度;在接管筒体段12形成接管筒体段12的制坯外径,且在接管筒体段12形成1.5〜3°的制坯锥度;所述法兰段11与接管筒体段12相交端的外径大于法兰段11另一端的外径,所述接管筒体段12与法兰段11相交端的外径大于接管筒体段12另一端的外径。 [0046] In order to avoid the flare and the workpiece 1 prone to defects in the card back reaming process, further, when the step E stretching forging billet 1 to the flange section 11 and cylinder section 12 is bounded by the intersection takeover , so that the outer diameter of preform forging blank 1 decreases gradually toward both ends in a junction; the outer diameter of the flange section is formed preform 11 in the flange section 11, and the preform is formed in the tapered flange section 3~4 ° 11 ; taking over the cylindrical section 12 is formed to take over the outer diameter of the preform barrel section 12 and cylindrical section 12 is formed in the takeover preform taper 1.5~3 °; and the flange section 11 and cylinder section 12 to take over the intersecting end outer diameter larger than the outer diameter of the other end flange section 11, the cylindrical body portion 12 and take over the flange section 11 of outer diameter larger than the outer diameter of the end intersecting the other end 12 of the barrel sections takeover. 通过上述工艺措施,在法兰段11形成3〜4°的制坯锥度以及在接管筒体段12形成1.5〜3°的制坯锥度;从而将锻坯1制造成双锥度台阶筒体形状,为扩孔过程中补偿锻件形状缺陷做好了储备,有效避免了形成喇叭口和卡腰的缺陷。 Through the above process steps, the flange section 11 is formed in the preform 3~4 ° taper and cylindrical section 12 is formed in the takeover preform of 1.5~3 ° taper; forging blank 1 thereby producing double tapered and stepped cylindrical shape, well reaming reserves during forging shape defect compensation, effectively prevent the formation of defects in the card and flare waist.

[0047]由于在步骤F扩孔中变形量较大,因此法兰段11以及接管筒体段12需要设置制坯锥度。 [0047] Step F counterbore since the amount of deformation is large, and therefore take over the flange portion 11 and the cylindrical section 12 to set the tapered preform. 由于法兰段11的成型直径大于接管筒体段12的成型直径,因此法兰段11成型过程中的变形量大于接管筒体段12的变形量。 Since the diameter of the flange section 11 is formed larger than the diameter of the forming barrel sections 12 to take over, the deformation of the flange section 11 in the molding process to take over the cylindrical body portion is greater than the amount of deformation of 12. 将法兰段11的制坯锥度成型为3〜4°,接管筒体段12的制坯锥度成型为1.5〜3°;为扩孔过程中补偿锻件形状缺陷做好了储备,能够保证法兰段11以及接管筒体段12在成型后的外径尺寸要求;避免喇叭口和卡腰缺陷。 The preform flange section 11 is shaped taper 3~4 °, to take over the preform molding barrel taper section 12 is 1.5~3 °; well reaming reserves during the shape defect compensation forging, the flange can be guaranteed takeover section 11 and cylindrical body portion 12 the outer diameter dimension after molding requirements; card and avoid flare waist defects. 最优的法兰段11的制坯锥度成型为3.5°,接管筒体段12的制坯锥度成型为2°。 Optimal taper shaped flange section 11 of the preform is 3.5 °, the taper takeover preform molding section 12 of the barrel 2 °.

Claims (2)

  1. 1.带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,其特征在于包括以下步骤: A、压钳口;B、滚圆拔长、下料;C、镦粗、冲孔;D、采用普通芯轴预扩孔至台阶马杠(2)能够穿入锻坯(1);E、采用台阶马杠(2)预拔长使锻坯(1)内孔形成台阶,并使得锻坯(1)的外轮廓成台阶筒体形状,同时使得锻坯(1)的长度符合工艺加工尺寸;F、采用台阶马杠(2)和台阶扩孔砧(3)扩孔成形; 在步骤C中,将锻坯(1)的镦粗冲孔工序分为两个火次实施:第一火在1250 土15°C将法兰段(11)的端面向上镦粗直至镦不动为止;第二火第一步:仍然在1250±15°C,将法兰段(11)的端面向上展压镦粗,留量300±5mm,直到法兰段(11)达到外径尺寸要求,然后采用球面镦粗板将锻坯(1)高度压至工艺要求的高度,制成带有10〜13°锥度的锥台坯料;第二火第二步:将工件翻面,法兰段(11)的端面向下冲孔。 A method of forging with inner and outer profiling stepped cylindrical large forgings, comprising the steps of: A, pressing jaws; B, rounded stretching, cutting; C, upsetting, punching; D, ordinary core shaft horse pre-reaming bars to step (2) capable of penetrating forging stock (1); E, MA stepped bars (2) that the pre-stretching forging stock (1) within the hole forming step, and such forging stock (1) a stepped cylindrical outer profile shape, while such forging stock (1) length matches the size of the processing technology; F, horse stepped bars (2) and the step reaming anvil (3) forming counterbore; in step C, the forging billet (1) upsetting punching process is divided into two sub-fire embodiments: a first earth fire at 1250 [deg.] C to the end face flange 15 section (11) upwardly until upsetting forging stops; tHERMAL of step: in still 1250 ± 15 ° C, the end face of the flange section (11) of the upsetting press spanwise direction, leaving an amount of 300 ± 5mm, until the flange portion (11) reaches an outer diameter size requirements, then a spherical upsetting forging billet plate (1) pressed to the height of the height of the process requirements made of the billet with 10~13 ° frustum taper; tHERMAL second step: turning the workpiece surface, the end flange portion (11) facing under punching.
  2. 2.如权利要求1所述的带内外台阶大型筒体锻件的仿形锻造方法,其特征在于:在步骤E中拔长以锻坯(1)的法兰段(11)和接管筒体段(12)交接处为界,使得锻坯(1)的制坯外径以交接处向两端逐渐递减;在法兰段(11)形成法兰段(11)的制坯外径,且在法兰段(11)形成3〜4°的制坯锥度;在接管筒体段(12)形成接管筒体段(12)的制坯外径,且在接管筒体段(12)形成1.5〜3°的制坯锥度;所述法兰段(11)与接管筒体段(12)相交端的外径大于法兰段(11)另一端的外径,所述接管筒体段(12)与法兰段(11)相交端的外径大于接管筒体段(12)另一端的外径。 2. The method of forging with inner and outer profiling stepped cylindrical large forgings according to claim 1, wherein: the flange section length to pull forging stock (1) in step E (11) and barrel sections takeover (12) is bounded junction, such forging stock (1) of the preform to an outer diameter gradually decreasing toward both ends of the junction; (11) forming a preform outer diameter of the flange section (11) in the flange section, and in flange section (11) is formed 3~4 ° taper of the preform; (12) is formed to take over the outer diameter of preform barrel section (12) is taking over barrel sections, and (12) taking over the barrel sections formed 1.5~ the preform 3 ° taper; said flange section (11) to take over the cylindrical body portion (12) is greater than the outer diameter of the flange section intersecting an end (11) of the outer diameter of the other end, to take over the cylindrical body portion (12) and flange section (11) intersecting the outer diameter of the end section is larger than the outer diameter of the cylindrical body to take over the other end (12).
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