CN104359229B - The solar energy heat absorbing system that a kind of intelligent valve controls - Google Patents

The solar energy heat absorbing system that a kind of intelligent valve controls Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104359229B
CN104359229B CN201410572568.0A CN201410572568A CN104359229B CN 104359229 B CN104359229 B CN 104359229B CN 201410572568 A CN201410572568 A CN 201410572568A CN 104359229 B CN104359229 B CN 104359229B
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fin
heat
pipeline
base tube
temperature
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CN104359229A (en
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曹薇
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Guangdong Water Resources and Electric Power Vocational Technology Institute
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GUANGDONG WATER RESOURCES AND ELECTRIC POWER VOCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
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Priority to CN201410572568.0A priority Critical patent/CN104359229B/en
Priority to CN201310495308.3A priority patent/CN103499150B/en
Publication of CN104359229A publication Critical patent/CN104359229A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems, e.g. uninterruptible or back-up power supplies integrating renewable energies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of solar energy heat absorbing system, described heat utilization equipment is arranged on and is arranged in parallel with the pipeline of solar water heater system, wherein with on the inlet pipeline of the heat utilization equipment of the pipeline connection of solar water heater system and outlet pipeline all valve is set, the pipeline of the solar water heater system in parallel with heat utilization equipment between inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline arranges valve.The invention provides a kind of solar energy heat absorbing system of automatic control, improve the heat absorption capacity of solar energy.

Description

The solar energy heat absorbing system that a kind of intelligent valve controls
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of solar energy, particularly relate to a kind of solar energy heat absorbing system.
Background technology
Along with the high speed development of modern social economy, the demand of the mankind to the energy is increasing.But the traditional energy storage levels such as coal, oil, natural gas constantly reduce, day by day in short supply, cause rising steadily of price, simultaneously the problem of environmental pollution that causes of conventional fossil fuel is also further serious, and these limit the development of society and the raising of human life quality all greatly.One of energy problem's most distinct issues having become contemporary world.Thus seek the new energy, particularly free of contamination clean energy resource has become the focus of present people research.Solar energy is a kind of inexhaustible clean energy resource, and stock number is huge, and the solar radiant energy total amount that earth surface is received every year is 1 × 1018kWh, for world's year consumes more than 10,000 times of gross energy.Countries in the world are all using as new energy development important one of the utilization of solar energy, and the Chinese government also clearly proposes to want develop actively new forms of energy at Report on the Work of the Government already, and wherein the utilization of solar energy is especially in occupation of prominent position.But arrive tellurian energy density little (about a kilowatt every square metre) due to solar radiation, and be again discontinuous, this brings certain difficulty to large-scale exploitation.Therefore, in order to extensively utilize solar energy, not only want the problem on technical solution, and must be able to compete mutually with conventional energy resource economically.The utilization of solar energy mainly contains photothermal conversion, photoelectric conversion, these three kinds of forms of Photochemical convertion.Compared to sky high cost and the low energy conversion efficiency of solar photovoltaic industry and Photochemical convertion, it is the Solar use mode that a kind of energy conversion efficiency and utilization rate are high and with low cost, can extensively promote in the whole society that solar heat transforms.In solar energy heat utilization device, key to convert solar radiant energy to heat energy, and the device realizing this conversion is called solar thermal collector.
The no matter solar thermal collector of which kind of form and structure, all will have an absorption piece being used for absorbing solar radiation, the hot property of heat-radiating properties to heat collector of this parts sorbent surface plays an important role.The physical quantity characterizing sorbent surface heat-radiating properties is absorptance and heat emission ratio, and the former characterizes the ability absorbing solar radiant energy, and the latter launches the ability of radiant energy under characterizing own temperature.The former is higher, and the latter is lower, shows that endothermic effect is best.
Summary of the invention
The present invention aims to provide a kind of high-absorbility solar energy system, especially provides a kind of heat absorbing coating of high-absorbility, improves the heat absorption capacity of solar energy.
To achieve these goals, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows: a kind of solar water heater system, comprise solar water heater and heat utilization device, described solar water heater comprises heat collector, described heat collector is for absorbing the heat of solar energy with the water in heating solar water heater, described heat collector is collector metal pipe, and collector metal pipe comprises metal base tube, and the outer surface of described metal base tube covers anticorrosive coat and heat-sink shell successively.
Described anticorrosive coat coating anticorrosive paint is formed, the composition of anticorrosive paint is as follows: anticorrosive paint is become to be grouped into by following: zinc flake 3.1%, flake aluminum 2.8%, sheet magnesium powder 3.3%, zinc oxide is 5.8%, and chromic anhydride is 4.3%, DAA is 0.4%, propane diols is 0.7%, and wetting dispersing agent is 0.4%, and thickener is 0.15%, defoamer is 0.23%, the water of surplus;
This kind of coating is applied over base tube surface by spraying, brushing, dip-coating, dries 10 ~ 60 minutes for 80 ± 10 DEG C, and 280 ± 40 DEG C solidify sintering 30 ~ 60 minutes, form good corrosion-inhibiting coating.
Described heat-sink shell from inside to outside comprises infrared reflection coating, heat absorbing coating and antireflection coatings successively, and wherein the ratio of the thickness of infrared reflection coating, heat absorbing coating and antireflection coatings is 1:1.5:2; Described infrared reflection coating is Ag; Heat absorbing coating from inside to outside comprises TiAl, Cr, Nb, Zr tetra-layers successively, and wherein the thickness proportion of TiAl, Cr, Nb, Zr tetra-layers is 1:1.1:0.84:1.14; Antireflection coatings is from inside to outside AlN, TiO successively 2, Ta 2o 5, SiO 2layer, wherein AlN, TiO 2, Ta 2o 5, SiO 2the thickness proportion of layer is 0.9:1:0.75:1.
The material of base tube is aluminium alloy, and the mass percent of the component of described aluminium alloy is as follows: 3.0%Cu, 1.9%Mg, 1.6%Ag, 0.6%Mn, 0.25%Zr, 0.3%Ce, 0.23%Ti, 0.38%Si, and all the other are Al.
Heat utilization device is the finned tubular radiator of circular arc enclosed construction, described radiator comprises the finned tube of upper header, lower collector pipe and connection upper header and lower collector pipe, described finned tube comprises circular base tube and the first fin, the second fin, first fin and the second fin are arranged on the outside of base tube and the extended line of the first fin and the second fin intersects at the central axis of the base tube at the place, the center of circle of base tube, and the first fin and the second fin are along the first plane specular by base tube central axis; Described finned tube comprises the 3rd fin and the 4th fin, described 3rd fin, the 4th fin along the second plane respectively with the first fin and the second fin specular, described second plane and the first plane orthogonal and the central axis through base tube; Arrange the first brace between described first fin and the second fin, arrange the second brace between described 3rd fin and the 4th fin, the first brace and the second brace are circular arc type metallic plate; 3rd fin and the 4th fin of the first fin, the second fin and adjacent fins pipe form space; The central axis at place, the center of circle of described circular arc-shaped metal plate and the central axes of base tube; Described base tube is straight tube, and the central axis of described adjacent base tube is parallel to each other; First fin of adjacent base tube is parallel to each other;
Angle between described first fin and the second fin is A, and the length of the first fin and the second fin is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and along base tube fin height H axially, the relation of above-mentioned four meets following formula:
Sin(A/2)=a*(L/R) 2+b*(L/R)+c
H/ (R*10)=e*Sin (A/2) 2wherein, A unit is angle to-f*Sin (A/2)+h, 60 ° of <A<110 °,
L is of a size of mm, 12mm<L<80mm,
The unit of R is mm, 10mm<R<80mm,
The unit of H is mm, 800mm<R<1200mm,
A, b, c, e, f, h are coefficient, and the scope of the scope of the scope of a to be the scope of 0.04-0.042, b be 0.266-0.28, c to be the scope of 0.36-0.37, e be 21-23, f is 44-45, h is 23-25.
Another preferred embodiment, heat utilization device is the finned tubular radiator of linear pattern enclosed construction, described radiator comprises the finned tube of upper header, lower collector pipe and connection upper header and lower collector pipe, described finned tube comprises circular base tube and the first fin, the second fin, first fin and the second fin are arranged on the outside of base tube and the extended line of the first fin and the second fin intersects at the central axis of the base tube at the place, the center of circle of base tube, and the first fin and the second fin are along the first plane specular of the central axis by base tube; Described finned tube comprises the 3rd fin and the 4th fin, described 3rd fin, the 4th fin along the second plane respectively with the first fin and the second fin specular, described second plane and the first plane orthogonal and the central axis through base tube; Arrange the first brace between described first fin and the second fin, arrange the second brace between described 3rd fin and the 4th fin, the first brace and the second brace are straight linear metallic plate; 3rd fin and the 4th fin of the first fin, the second fin and adjacent fins pipe form space; Described base tube is straight tube, and the central axis of described adjacent base tube is parallel to each other;
Angle between described first fin and the second fin is A, and the length of the first fin and the second fin is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and along base tube fin height H axially, the relation of above-mentioned four meets following formula:
Sin(A/2)=a×(L/R) 2+b×(L/R)+c
H/R=10×e×(Sin(A/2)) f
Wherein, A unit is angle, 60 ° of <A<110 °,
L is of a size of mm, 15mm<L<80mm,
The unit of R is mm, 10mm<R<80mm,
The unit of H is mm, 600mm<H<1200mm,
A, b, c, e, f are coefficient, and the scope of the scope of the scope of a to be the scope of 0.038-0.04, b be 0.26-0.27, c to be the scope of 0.34-0.35, e be 0.72-0.78, f is between-3.6 to-3.5.
Described heat utilization device is for providing the hot water output equipment of hot water to user, described hot water output equipment comprises heat exchanger, and described heat exchanger connects running water, and the hot water from solar water heater enters in heat exchanger, carries out heat exchange with running water;
Described hot water output equipment also comprises electrically heated rod, and when the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than the first temperature, electrically heated rod starts heating, and heats with the first power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than second temperature lower than the first temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the second power higher than the first power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than three temperature lower than the second temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 3rd power higher than the second power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than four temperature lower than the 3rd temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 4th power higher than the 3rd power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than five temperature lower than the 4th temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 5th power higher than the 4th power.
Also comprise electrical auxiliary heater and/or auxiliary heat homogeneous solution-type reactor in described system, electric heating system and hot water boiler system start automatically according to the temperature of the water entering electric heater and hot-water boiler, heat hot water.
Described system comprises electric heater, hot-water boiler, described heat utilization equipment is radiator and hot water output equipment respectively, described electric heater and hot water output equipment are arranged on a pipeline, and radiator and hot-water boiler are arranged on another pipeline, and described two pipelines are for being arranged in parallel.
Described heat utilization equipment is arranged on and is arranged in parallel with the pipeline of solar water heater system, wherein with on the inlet pipeline of the heat utilization equipment of the pipeline connection of solar water heater system and outlet pipeline all valve is set, the pipeline of the solar water heater system in parallel with heat utilization equipment between inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline arranges valve.
Compared with prior art, solar water appliance of the present invention has following advantage:
1) solar water appliance provided by the invention has anticorrosive coat and heat-sink shell, can reduce the corrosion to base tube, can strengthen the absorption to solar energy simultaneously.
2) the present invention devises new anti-corrosion material, strengthens antiseptic effect.
3) the present invention carries out meticulous selection and experiment to the material of heat-sink shell and thickness, has reached the technique effect of best heat absorption.
4) by the reasonable distribution to the mass percent of the component of aluminium alloy, high-fire resistance and the high-termal conductivity of base tube is improved.
5) the invention provides the closed finned tube radiator of board-type and circular arc two kinds of structures, pass through test of many times, devise different tube diameters, differing heights, angle fin test, thus obtain an optimum fin optimum results, and verified by test, thus demonstrate the accuracy of result.
6) by arranging the electrically heated rod of thermal output equipment, the temperature of heat utilization device is automatically controlled.
7) electrical auxiliary heater and/or auxiliary heat homogeneous solution-type reactor, can play auxiliary heating effect, and by automatically controlling the startup of auxiliary heating system, economize energy.
8) being connected in parallel by electric heater, hot-water boiler and heat utilization device, can realize independently controlling heat utilization device.
9) heat utilization equipment is arranged on and is arranged in parallel with the pipeline of solar water heater system, is communicated with heat utilization equipment, closes heat utilization equipment, with economize energy unwanted time when can be implemented in needs.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the solar energy system schematic diagram of cascaded structure of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the solar energy system schematic diagram of parallel-connection structure of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the heat utilization device of the present invention solar energy system schematic diagram in parallel with pipeline;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of anticorrosive coat of the present invention and heat-sink shell;
Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram of heat utilization device radiator;
Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram of the finned tube embodiment one of heat utilization device radiator;
Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of the finned tube embodiment two of heat utilization device radiator;
Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of control system;
Fig. 9 is that Fig. 6 is from the schematic diagram viewed from left side;
Figure 10 is that Fig. 7 is from the schematic diagram viewed from left side.
Reference numeral is as follows:
1 upper header, does not have the part of fin in 2 base tubes, 3 lower collector pipe, 4 finned tubes, 5 base tubes, 6 water first fins, 7 gaps, 8 first braces, 9 second fins, 10 the 4th fins, 11 the 3rd fins, 12 second braces, 13 central controllers, 14 solar energy system water-supply-pipes, 15 temperature sensors, 16 temperature sensors, 17 radiators, 18 solar water heaters, 19 electric heaters, 20 boilers, 21 hot water output equipments, 22 radiators, 23 pumps, 24 valves, 25 base tubes, 26 anticorrosive coats, 27 infrared reflection coatings, 28 heat absorbing coatings, 29 antireflection coatings.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in detail.
A kind of solar water heater system as Figure 1-3, comprise solar water heater 18 and heat utilization device 21 and 22, described solar water heater comprises heat collector, described heat collector is for absorbing the heat of solar energy with the water in heating solar water heater, described heat collector is collector metal pipe, collector metal pipe comprises metal base tube 25(see Fig. 4), the outer surface of described metal base tube covers anticorrosive coat 26 and heat-sink shell 27-29 successively.
Preferably, solar water heater comprises tank, and multiple thermal-collecting tube is connected with tank, the water in heating tank, and the current then heated are sunny can be recycled by water heater.
Tank is divided into three layers; often adjacently two-layerly to fit tightly; from inside to outside inside courtyard layer, stainless steel layer and rustproof lacquer layer respectively; tank is owing to have employed said structure, and ground floor is inside courtyard layer, can avoid occurring corrosion; the second layer is stainless steel layer; can increase rust-proof effect further, the 4th layer is rustproof lacquer layer, can protect and avoid producing corrosion.
Trilaminate material in tank is not limited to the material of foregoing description, those skilled in the art can reasonably select, but the selection of the material for three-decker, requirement is that the thermal coefficient of expansion of three-decker from inside to outside increases gradually, that is, the thermal coefficient of expansion of innermost layer is minimum, and secondly, third layer is maximum for the second layer.Why such setting, because in the process of heating, ground floor is first heated, first expand, then be the second layer, third layer expanded by heating successively, therefore three layers of coefficient of expansion increase successively and can ensure that expansion rate is consistent substantially, ensure the compactness that each layer connects and stability.
Described tank comprises heat-insulation layer, and heat-insulation layer has three layers, and from inside to outside the thermal coefficient of expansion of every layer of heat-insulation layer raises gradually.
It is further preferred that tank from inside to outside, from inner bag to heat-insulation layer, the thermal coefficient of expansion of every layer raises gradually.Thus realize ensureing that expansion rate is consistent substantially, ensure the compactness that each layer connects and stability.
As shown in Figure 1, the water in solar water heater heats through heat collector, and successively by assisted heating device, heat utilization device 21, heat utilization device 22, then backwater is circulated again into solar water heater 18 under the effect of pump 23, carries out new heating.
Preferably, assisted heating device can be electric heater 19, hot-water boiler 20, the Main Function of electric heater and hot-water boiler is the effect playing auxiliary heating, and such as, when the temperature utilizing the water of solar energy heating not reach predetermined, this to start electric heater and/or hot-water boiler.
Certainly, although Fig. 1 illustrates two kinds of heat utilization device, be actually not limited to two kinds, also can 3 kinds or more than, only one can certainly be set.Assisted heating device only can arrange one equally, such as, only arrange electric heater or hot-water boiler.
Fig. 2 illustrates the schematic diagram of heat utilization device 21 and 22 parallel-connection structure.Wherein electric heater 19 and heat utilization device 21 are arranged on a pipeline, electric heater 19 enters the water in heat utilization device 21 for auxiliary heating, and hot-water boiler and heat utilization device 22 are arranged on another pipeline, these described two pipelines are arranged in parallel, and two ends connect hot water outlet and the pump 23 of solar water heater respectively.
Certain above-mentioned setting is also exemplary, the pipeline that those skilled in the art can select increase many in parallel, every bar pipeline arranges heat utilization device, make to be arranged in parallel mutually between heat utilization device, simultaneously for additional heating device, such as hot-water boiler and electric heater, for a person skilled in the art, can select the need of setting as required, or only one is set.
The hydraulic pipeline illustrating heat utilization device and solar energy system in Fig. 3 is arranged in parallel.Wherein with on the inlet pipeline of the heat utilization equipment of the pipeline connection of solar water heater system and outlet pipeline valve 24 is all set, the pipeline of the solar water heater system in parallel with heat utilization equipment between inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline arranges valve 24.By arranging valve, can make when not needing to use heat utilization equipment, the water that can come on control piper by the valve opened on the pipeline of solar water heater system and the inlet pipeline of closing heat utilization equipment and outlet pipeline all being arranged valve does not carry out heat exchange with heat utilization equipment.
Certainly, be not only heat utilization equipment, additional firing equipment is also arranged in parallel with the hydraulic pipeline of solar energy system, wherein with on the inlet pipeline of the additional firing equipment of the pipeline connection of solar water heater system and outlet pipeline all valve is set, the pipeline of the solar water heater system in parallel with additional firing equipment between inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline arranges valve.By arranging valve, can making when not needing to use additional firing equipment, the inlet pipeline of additional firing equipment and outlet pipeline all can arrange valve and carry out water on control piper without additional firing equipment by opening valve on the pipeline of solar water heater system and closing.
Although the hydraulic pipeline giving all heat utilization equipment, additional firing equipment and solar energy system in Fig. 3 is arranged in parallel, but be not limited to above-mentioned equipment, to those skilled in the art, the hydraulic pipeline of one or more and solar energy system can be only selected to be arranged in parallel.The hydraulic pipeline that such as can enter to arrange wherein one or two heat utilization equipment and solar energy system is arranged in parallel, and the hydraulic pipeline that also only can arrange one or two additional firing equipments and solar energy system is arranged in parallel.
Although be all provided with electric heater 19, hot-water boiler 20 in Fig. 1-3, to those skilled in the art, solar water heater system can optionally arrange above-mentioned parts, such as, can only arrange electric heater or hot-water boiler, also can select neither to arrange.
Preferably, described anticorrosive coat coating anticorrosive paint is formed, and the mass percent composition of anticorrosive paint is as follows: anticorrosive paint is become to be grouped into by following: zinc flake 3.1%, flake aluminum 2.8%, sheet magnesium powder 3.3%, zinc oxide is 5.8%, chromic anhydride is 4.3%, and DAA is 0.4%, and propane diols is 0.7%, wetting dispersing agent is 0.3%, thickener is 0.15%, and defoamer is 0.25%, the water of surplus;
This kind of coating is applied over base tube surface by spraying, brushing, dip-coating, dries 10 ~ 60 minutes for 80 ± 10 DEG C, and 280 ± 40 DEG C solidify sintering 30 ~ 60 minutes, form good corrosion-inhibiting coating.
Prepare a method for above-mentioned anticorrosive paint, the method is implemented according to following steps,
A, by coating gross mass percentage, take a certain amount of water, the wetting dispersing agent of 0.3% and the defoamer of 0.25% respectively, then admixed together, abundant stirring makes it dissolving and makes coating mixed liquor A 1, the zinc flake 3.1% accounting for coating gross mass is added again in mixed liquor A 1, flake aluminum 2.8%, sheet magnesium powder 3.3%, stir and make coating mixed liquor A 2;
B, by coating gross mass percentage, take 4.3% chromic anhydride, composition mixed liquor, join in the water of 20% ~ 40% fully to dissolve and make inorganic acid mixed liquid B 1, in mixed liquid B 1, add the zinc oxide of 5.8% again, be stirred to and make inorganic acid mixed liquid B 2 without precipitation;
C, by coating gross mass percentage, taking DAA is 0.4%, and propane diols is 0.7%, joins in the water of 5% ~ 15%, stirs and makes reducing agent mixed liquor C;
D, by coating gross mass percentage, take the thickener of 0.15%, join in the water of 2.5% ~ 15%, be stirred to be translucent shape and gel-free of dissolving and occur namely stopping stirring making thickener mixed liquor D;
E, the inorganic acid mixed liquid B 2 of preparation is joined in coating mixed liquor A 2, then 1/5 ~ 1/2 of reducing agent mixed liquor C amount of preparation is added, add thickener mixed liquor D while stirring, add the water of surplus again, continue stirring 30 ~ 90 minutes, until coating mixed liquor uniformity soilless sticking particle, finally add remaining reducing agent mixed liquor C again, stir 10 ~ 40 minutes again, to obtain final product.
This kind of coating is applied over finned tube surface by spraying, brushing, dip-coating, dries 10 ~ 60 minutes for 80 ± 10 DEG C, and 280 ± 40 DEG C solidify sintering 30 ~ 60 minutes, form good anti-corrosion coating.
Described wetting dispersing agent is the SA-20 in peregal series, and hydroxyethylcellulose selected by described thickener; Tributyl phosphate selected by described defoamer.
Preferably, described heat-sink shell from inside to outside comprises infrared reflection coating 27, heat absorbing coating 28 and antireflection coatings 29 successively, and wherein the ratio of the thickness of infrared reflection coating 27, heat absorbing coating 28 and antireflection coatings 29 is 1:1.5:2; Described infrared reflection coating is Ag; Heat absorbing coating from inside to outside comprises TiAl, Cr, Nb, Zr tetra-layers successively, and wherein the thickness proportion of four layers is 1:1.1:0.84:1.14; Antireflection coatings is from inside to outside AlN, TiO successively 2, Ta 2o 5, SiO 2layer, wherein the thickness proportion of four layers is 0.9:1:0.75:1.
Preferably, the gross thickness of heat-sink shell is 1.8 μm.
Above-mentioned dimension scale is tested the result of the best got.By experiment, for the composition and the thickness that adopt each independent stratum in above-mentioned absorber coatings, the absorptance of the absorber coatings of preparation can be made to be greater than 0.94, and to realize the emissivity of 0.04.
For the manufacture method of above-mentioned coating, the vacuum magnetron sputtering coating film technique preparation that this area can be used often to adopt.
The material of the base tube 25 of heat collector is aluminium alloy, and the mass percent of the component of described aluminium alloy is as follows: 3.0%Cu, 1.9%Mg, 1.6%Ag, 0.6%Mn, 0.25%Zr, 0.3%Ce, 0.23%Ti, 0.38%Si, and all the other are Al.
The manufacture method of aluminium alloy is: adopt vacuum metallurgy melting, and argon for protecting pouring becomes circle base, through 600 DEG C of Homogenization Treatments, at 400 DEG C, adopts and is hot extruded into bar, and then after 580 DEG C of solution hardening, carry out artificial aging process at 200 DEG C.The tensile strength sigma b of alloy: room temperature >=550MPa, 200 DEG C >=440MPa, 300 DEG C >=-230MPa.
After tested, above-mentioned alloy has very high thermal conductivity factor and heat resistance.
For heat utilization device, radiator and hot water output equipment can be comprised, for radiator, mainly contain two specific embodiments, embodiment 1 is circular arc closed finned tube radiator, as shown in Figure 5,6, embodiment 2 is board-type closed finned tube radiators, as shown in Fig. 5,7.
The structure of embodiment 1 is as follows:
A kind of finned tubular radiator 17 of enclosed construction, comprise upper header 1, lower collector pipe 3 and be connected the finned tube 4 of upper header 1 and lower collector pipe 3, described finned tube 4 comprises circular base tube 5 and the first fin 6, second fin 9, first fin 6 and the second fin 9 are arranged on the outside of base tube 5 and the extended line of the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 intersects at the central axis of the base tube at the place, the center of circle of base tube 5, and the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 are along the first plane B specular by base tube central axis; Described finned tube comprises the 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10, described 3rd fin 11, the 4th fin 10 along the second plane C respectively with the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 specular, described second plane C is vertical with the first plane B and through the central axis of base tube 5; Between described first fin 6 and the second fin 9, first brace 8 is set, the second brace 12, first brace 8 is set between described 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10 and the second brace 12 is circular arc type metallic plate; The central axis of described circular arc-shaped metal plate and the central axes of base tube 5; Described base tube is straight tube, and the central axis of described adjacent base tube is parallel to each other.
Preferably, the first fin of adjacent base tube is parallel to each other, represents that the second fin of adjacent base tube is also parallel to each other, and in like manner, the 3rd fin, the 4th fin are also parallel to each other.This feature shows that finned tube arranges according to equidirectional.
It is to be understood that as shown in Figure 6, the central axis of base tube is exactly the line that the set of centre point on the cross section of base tube 5 is formed, and the central axis of circular arc-shaped metal plate is exactly the line that the set of the centre point of circular arc-shaped metal plate on cross section is formed.The central axis of described circular arc-shaped metal plate and the central axes of base tube 5 just refer on cross section, and circular arc-shaped metal plate and base tube are concentric circles.
Preferably, the size of all finned tubes is all identical.
By above-mentioned setting, make to form a gap 7 between fin and brace, when heat convection, gap 7 just defines a kind of chimney effect, can strengthen heat exchange.
3rd fin and the 4th fin of the first fin, the second fin and adjacent fins pipe form space, and this space forms certain space, can form chimney effect, add strong convection, augmentation of heat transfer.
Angle between described first fin 6 and the second fin 9 is A, and the length of the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and certainly, because specular, the length of the 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10 is also L naturally.But find in practice, if in heat transfer process. fin angle is too small, then heat exchange can be hindered, because the words that fin angle is too small, cause the first fin, the distance of the second fin is too near, then temperature boundary layer in closed area along with the direction of base tube height starts overlap, gas temperature moves closer to heat close to tube wall temperature saturated, flow resistance increases, finally worsen heat exchange on the contrary, the advantage of outer fin plays not out, same reason, along with the constantly increase of angle, make the distance of brace distance base tube original nearer, make temperature boundary layer equally in closed area along with the direction of base tube height starting overlap, gas temperature moves closer to heat close to tube wall temperature saturated, flow resistance increases, finally worsen heat exchange on the contrary, therefore angle has an optimum value.
For finned length, if oversize, even if then because the heat of base tube cannot arrive the end of fin in time or be effective also not obvious, if too short, then expand heat exchange area too little, cannot reach a good heat transfer effect, therefore the height of fin also has an optimum value.
For the distance between two finned tubes, if first distance is too near or completely close, then the space (see Fig. 5) of the spacing of the brace of two finned tubes is too little, then air cannot enter the space formed between finned tube by the gap between fin, heat exchange now can only rely on and enter air bottom radiator, good heat convection effect cannot be reached, same reason, if the distance is too far, then the one the second the 3 4th fins of finned tube cannot form the space of effective chimney effect, thus cause heat transfer effect to be deteriorated, therefore a suitable numerical value is also needed for the distance between two finned tubes.
As shown in Figure 8, for fin along base tube 5 height H axially, also need to have a suitable numerical value, if fin height is too high, then on the top of fin, because boundary layer in closed area along with the direction of base tube height starts overlap, cause the deterioration of heat exchange, in like manner, highly too low, then heat exchange does not give full play to, thus affects heat transfer effect.
Therefore, the present invention is the size relationship of the finned tube of the radiator of the best summed up by the test data of the radiator of multiple different size.Because finned tube also has included angle A, these three variablees of finned length L, fin height H, therefore, introduce two characteristic sin (A/2), L/R, H/R, R is the radius of base tube here, from the heat dissipation capacity maximum in heat transfer effect, calculate nearly 200 kinds of forms.Described size relationship is as follows:
Angle between described first fin and the second fin is A, and the length of the first fin and the second fin is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and along base tube fin height H axially, the relation of above-mentioned four meets following formula:
Sin(A/2)=a×(L/R) 2+b×(L/R)+c
H/ (R × 10)=e × Sin (A/2) 2wherein, A unit is angle to-f × Sin (A/2)+h, 60 ° of <A<110 °,
L is of a size of mm, 12mm<L<80mm,
The unit of R is mm, 10mm<R<80mm,
The unit of H is mm, 800mm<R<1200mm,
A, b, c, e, f, h are coefficient, and the scope of the scope of the scope of a to be the scope of 0.04-0.042, b be 0.266-0.28, c to be the scope of 0.36-0.37, e be 21-23, f is 44-45, h is 23-25.
By testing after result of calculation, by the numerical value of computation bound and median, the result of gained matches with formula substantially, and error is substantially within 4%, and maximum relative error is no more than 6%, and mean error is 2% again.;
The optimum of coefficient optimization is: a is 0.0412, b be 0.02715, c be 0.03628, e be 22, f be 44.37, h is 23.86.
Preferably, the distance between adjacent base tube central axis is S=d × (L+R) × sin (A/2), and wherein d is 1.1-1.2.
As shown in Figure 6, the distance between adjacent base tube central axis is exactly the distance on cross section between two base tube centers of circle.
The optimum results of d is 1.118.
The structure of embodiment 2 is as follows:
A kind of finned tubular radiator 17 of enclosed construction, comprise upper header 1, lower collector pipe 3 and be connected the finned tube 4 of upper header 1 and lower collector pipe 3, described finned tube 4 comprises circular base tube 5 and the first fin 6, second fin 9, first fin 6 and the second fin 9 are arranged on the outside of base tube 5 and the extended line of the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 intersects at the base tube central axis at the place, the center of circle of base tube 5, and the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 are along the first plane B specular by base tube central axis; Described finned tube comprises the 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10, described 3rd fin 11, the 4th fin 10 along the second plane C respectively with the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 specular, described second plane C is vertical with the first plane B and through the central axis of base tube 5; Between described first fin 6 and the second fin 9, first brace 8 is set, the second brace 12, first brace 8 is set between described 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10 and the second brace 12 is straight linear metallic plate.Described base tube is straight tube, and the central axis of described adjacent base tube 5 is parallel to each other.
It is to be understood that as shown in Figure 7, the central axis of base tube is exactly the line that the set of centre point on the cross section of base tube 5 is formed.
By above-mentioned setting, make to form a gap 7 between fin and brace, when heat convection, gap 7 just defines a kind of chimney effect, can strengthen heat exchange.
Preferably, in one plane, in one plane, the plane at the first brace 8 and the second brace 12 place is parallel to each other for the second brace 12 of adjacent base tube 5 for the first brace 8 of described adjacent base tube 5.
Preferably, the first fin of adjacent base tube is parallel to each other, represents that the second fin of adjacent base tube is also parallel to each other, and in like manner, the 3rd fin, the 4th fin are also parallel to each other.This feature shows that finned tube arranges according to equidirectional.This feature shows that finned tube arranges according to equidirectional.
Preferably, the size of all finned tubes is all identical.
3rd fin and the 4th fin of the first fin, the second fin and adjacent fins pipe form space, and this space forms certain space, can form chimney effect, add strong convection, augmentation of heat transfer.
Angle between described first fin 6 and the second fin 9 is A, and the length of the first fin 6 and the second fin 9 is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and certainly, because specular, the length of the 3rd fin 11 and the 4th fin 10 is also L naturally.
For embodiment 2, be also optimized, the concrete result optimized is as follows:
Angle between described first fin and the second fin is A, and the length of the first fin and the second fin is L, and the outer radius of base tube is R, and fin is along base tube fin height H axially, and the relation of above-mentioned four meets following formula:
Sin(A/2)=a×(L/R) 2+b×(L/R)+c
H/R=10×e×(Sin(A/2)) f
Wherein, A unit is angle, 60 ° of <A<110 °,
L is of a size of mm, 15mm<L<80mm,
The unit of R is mm, 10mm<R<80mm,
The unit of H is mm, 600mm<H<1200mm,
A, b, c, e, f are coefficient, and the scope of the scope of the scope of a to be the scope of 0.038-0.04, b be 0.26-0.27, c to be the scope of 0.34-0.35, e be 0.72-0.78, f is between-3.6 to-3.5.
Preferably, the distance between adjacent base tube central axis is S=d × (L+R) × sin (A/2), and wherein d is 1.05-1.2.
Wherein d is preferably 1.13.
Another embodiment of heat utilization device is the hot water output equipment providing hot water to user, and described hot water output equipment comprises heat exchanger, and described heat exchanger connects running water, and the hot water from solar water heater enters in heat exchanger, carries out heat exchange with running water;
Described hot water output equipment also comprises electrically heated rod, and when the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than the first temperature, electrically heated rod starts heating, and heats with the first power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than second temperature lower than the first temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the second power higher than the first power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than three temperature lower than the second temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 3rd power higher than the second power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than four temperature lower than the 3rd temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 4th power higher than the 3rd power; When the hot water temperature that hot water input equipment exports is lower than five temperature lower than the 4th temperature, electrically heated rod heats with the 5th power higher than the 4th power.
In heat exchanger, running water and directly do not mix from the water in solar water heater carry out heat exchange, namely carry out heat exchange by mode indirectly.
As shown in Figure 8, described electric heating system and/or hot water boiler system also comprise control system, and electric heating system and/or hot water boiler system start automatically according to the temperature of the water entering electric heater and hot-water boiler, heat hot water.Be described for electric heater below.
Described control system comprises temperature sensor 15 and the central controller 13 of measuring tempeature, and temperature sensor 15 is for measuring the temperature of the water entering electric heater, and central controller is for controlling the heating power of electric heater.When the inflow temperature measured is lower than temperature a, electric heater starts heating, and heats with power A; When the inflow temperature of thermal measurement is lower than the temperature b lower than temperature a, electric heater heats with the power B higher than power A; When the inflow temperature measured is lower than the temperature c lower than temperature b, electric heater heats with the power C higher than power B; When the inflow temperature measured is lower than the temperature d lower than temperature c, electric heater heats with the power D higher than power C; When the inflow temperature measured is lower than the temperature e lower than temperature d, electric heater heats with the power E higher than power D.
Certainly, it is an option that the accuracy in order to increase measuring tempeature, another temperature sensor 16 can be set at the water outlet of electric heater, be calculated the starting power of electric heater by the mean value of the temperature of the measurement of two temperature sensors.
For boiler, automatic ignition device is set.When measure the temperature entering the water of boiler lower than certain temperature time, boiler heats with regard to starting ignition device.When the temperature of the water measured reaches certain temperature time, then heat with regard to stopping.
Certainly, it is an option that the accuracy in order to increase measuring tempeature, another temperature sensor can be set at the water outlet of boiler, be calculated the starting power of electric heater by the mean value of the temperature of the measurement of two temperature sensors.
Preferably, electric heater unit can be set in solar water heater, when the leaving water temperature of solar water heater is lower than certain numerical value, can electric heater unit be started.Such as electric heater unit can be set in heat collector and/or water tank.
For the situation shown in Fig. 3, can by arranging control system, described control system controls to enter the fluid flow in heat utilization device and/or assisted heating device according to temperature.Such as, for radiator, the flow of the fluid entered in radiator can be determined according to the temperature of indoor, when indoor temperature is higher than the first certain numerical value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is closed completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is opened completely, fluid is inflow radiator not, when indoor temperature is lower than certain second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is opened completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is closed completely, ensure that the water on the pipeline on solar water heater system enters radiator completely.When indoor temperature is between the first numerical value and second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is partially opened, the pipeline portions on solar water heater system is opened, ensure that only some fluid enters radiator.
For thermal output equipment, the temperature of the water that can export according to thermal output equipment determines the flow of the fluid entered in thermal output equipment, when the temperature of the water of thermal output equipment output is higher than the first certain numerical value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is closed completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is opened completely, fluid does not flow into thermal output equipment, when the temperature of the water of thermal output equipment output is lower than certain second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is opened completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is closed completely, ensure that the water on the pipeline on solar water heater system enters thermal output equipment completely.When the temperature of the water exported is between the first numerical value and second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is partially opened, the pipeline portions on solar water heater system is opened, ensure that only some fluid enters thermal output equipment.
For ancillary heating equipment, the flow of the fluid entered in ancillary heating equipment can be determined according to the temperature of the water entering ancillary heating equipment, when entering the temperature of water of ancillary heating equipment higher than the first certain numerical value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is closed completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is opened completely, fluid does not flow into ancillary heating equipment, when entering the temperature of ancillary heating equipment water lower than certain second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is opened completely, pipeline on solar water heater system is closed completely, ensure that the water on the pipeline on solar water heater system enters ancillary heating equipment completely.When the temperature of water entering ancillary heating equipment is between the first numerical value and second value, then the valve in inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline is partially opened, pipeline portions on solar water heater system is opened, ensures that only some fluid enters ancillary heating equipment.
Although the present invention discloses as above with preferred embodiment, the present invention is not defined in this.Any those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, all can make various changes or modifications, and therefore protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with claim limited range.

Claims (1)

1. a solar water heater system, comprise solar water heater and heat utilization device, described solar water heater comprises heat collector, described heat collector is for absorbing the heat of solar energy with the water in heating solar water heater, described heat collector is collector metal pipe, collector metal pipe comprises metal base tube, the outer surface of described metal base tube covers anticorrosive coat and heat-sink shell successively, the pipeline of described heat utilization device and solar water heater system is arranged in parallel, wherein with on the inlet pipeline of the heat utilization device of the pipeline connection of solar water heater system and outlet pipeline all valve is set, the pipeline of the solar water heater system in parallel with heat utilization device between inlet pipeline and outlet pipeline arranges valve,
It is characterized in that described heat-sink shell from inside to outside comprises infrared reflection coating, heat absorbing coating and antireflection coatings successively, wherein the ratio of the thickness of infrared reflection coating, heat absorbing coating and antireflection coatings is 1:1.5:2; Described infrared reflection coating is Ag; Heat absorbing coating from inside to outside comprises TiAl, Cr, Nb, Zr tetra-layers successively, and wherein the thickness proportion of TiAl, Cr, Nb, Zr tetra-layers is 1:1.1:0.84:1.14; Antireflection coatings is from inside to outside AlN, TiO successively 2, Ta 2o 5, SiO 2layer, wherein AlN, TiO 2, Ta 2o 5, SiO 2the thickness proportion of layer is 0.9:1:0.75:1.
CN201410572568.0A 2013-10-22 2013-10-22 The solar energy heat absorbing system that a kind of intelligent valve controls Expired - Fee Related CN104359229B (en)

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