CN104201848A - Double-stator permanent-magnet vernier wind driven generator - Google Patents

Double-stator permanent-magnet vernier wind driven generator Download PDF

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CN104201848A
CN104201848A CN201410321107.6A CN201410321107A CN104201848A CN 104201848 A CN104201848 A CN 104201848A CN 201410321107 A CN201410321107 A CN 201410321107A CN 104201848 A CN104201848 A CN 104201848A
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stator
permanent magnet
rotor
double
flux modulation
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CN104201848B (en
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林鹤云
张洋
房淑华
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Southeast University
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Southeast University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a double-stator permanent-magnet vernier wind driven generator, and belongs to the field of motor manufacturing. The double-stator permanent-magnet vernier wind driven generator comprises an outer stator (4), an inner stator (8) and a rotor (6), wherein the outer stator is provided with a pear-shaped groove and first stator teeth; the inner stator (8) is provided with second stator teeth (9), and each second stator tooth (9) is provided with a flux modulation electrode (10) and a flux modulation electrode groove (11); the rotor (6) is of a cup-shaped structure, and a Halbach-structure permanent magnet (7) is arranged on the rotor; the tooth number of the first stator teeth of the outer stator (4) is equal to that of the teeth of the flux modulation electrode (10); moreover, the pear-shaped groove of the outer stator (4) and the flux modulation electrode (10) are oppositely distributed and arranged, and the first stator teeth of the outer stator (4) and the flux modulation electrode groove (11) are oppositely distributed and arranged. The double-stator permanent-magnet vernier wind driven generator disclosed by the invention is capable of generating a high-sine air-gap magnetic field, and has the characteristic of a high output torque.

Description

A kind of double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of novel low speed high torque three-phase permanent vernier direct-drive aerogenerator, belong to motor manufacturing technology field.
Background technology
In existing renewable and clean energy resource, that wind energy has is green clean, safety, technology maturity advantages of higher, and its exploitation prospect is wide.Wind generator system can be transformed into mechanical kinetic energy by the kinetic energy of nature apoplexy, then carries out energy converting between mechanical, finally converts the electric energy that productive life can be used to.Wind power system core apparatus has been the wind-driven generator of energy converting between mechanical, and wind-driven generator performance quality is directly restricting wind energy utilization efficiency to a great extent, is related to reliability and the operation cost of wind generator system.High-power wind-driven generator rotating speed is lower, and the rotation speed of fan of MW level capacity only has tens turn/min.When being greater than 4m/s, wind speed can be used for wind power generation, existing most wind-driven generator generating efficiency in the time of lower wind speed is low, Wind Power Utilization is lower, limited the application of wind power generation in low speed occasion, design low speed high torque wind-driven generator is focus and the difficult point of wind-powered electricity generation research field always.
Vernier motor is a kind of novel low speed large torque moment permanent-magnet motor, its operation principle is based on " magnetic gear effect " principle, when the stator armature winding number of phases, rotor permanent magnet number of pole-pairs, when Flux modulation number of poles order three meets particular kind of relationship, the magnetic field that p-m rotor produces is modulated into the space magnetic field that contains different times harmonics by the Flux modulation utmost point, its main times harmonic is identical with the number of pole-pairs of the Flux modulation utmost point, the fundamental wave magnetic field that this main ripple and stator armature winding produce interacts, produce specific gearratio, be effective torque, thereby avoid using traditional gear box, realize low-speed high-torque direct driving formula wind power generation.
In the last few years, a kind of single stator surface-mount type permanent magnetism vernier motor (Surface Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine, hereinafter to be referred as SPMVM) due to its remarkable performance, the advantages such as higher in simple in structure, unloaded back electromotive force sine degree and low speed high torque, are subject to Chinese scholars extensive concern.But the permanent magnet utilance of this surface-mount type permanent magnetism Vernier motor is not high, its air gap flux density intensity is little, causes motor to be exerted oneself not, and torque density also has room for promotion.
Also fewer for the permanent magnetism vernier motor research of double-stator structure both at home and abroad at present.
Chinese patent (application number: CN201310069627.8) has been announced a kind of two stator radial magnetic field vernier motors of built-in permanent magnet formula, has provided four kinds of methods of built-in permanent magnetic rotor assembling.Above-mentioned proposed electric machine structure novelty, power factor is higher.In its internal stator, have groove, projection is stator tooth, and between two projections, groove holds winding, and this stator structure makes winding utilization not high.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: in order to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of air-gap field of height sine and the radial magnetic field double-stator permanent magnet vernier motor of large output torque characteristics.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator, comprises external stator (4), internal stator (8) and rotor (6); Described external stator (4), internal stator (8) size difference, and described external stator (4), the coaxial inside and outside socket of internal stator (8) are arranged, and described rotor (6) is arranged between external stator (4) and internal stator (8), and external stator (4), internal stator (8) and concentric distribution of rotor (6) three:
Described external stator (4) is cylindrical, and its inside is along circumferentially offering peariform slot, places the first threephase armature winding in described peariform slot groove, is the first stator tooth between adjacent slot;
Described internal stator (8) is cylinder toothed structure, described internal stator (8) is outside along being circumferentially provided with more than one the second stator tooth (9), between described the second adjacent stator tooth, place the second threephase armature winding, each the second stator tooth (9), along circumferentially the more than one Flux modulation utmost point (10) being all set, is provided with Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) between the described Flux modulation utmost point;
Described rotor (6) is cup-like structure, on described rotor (6) surfaces externally and internally, is provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet (7), and on surfaces externally and internally, the magnetizing direction of relative permanent magnet (7) is identical;
The number of teeth of the first stator tooth of described external stator (4) equates with the number sum of the upper Flux modulation utmost point tooth (10) of internal stator (8); And the peariform slot of described external stator (4) and the Flux modulation utmost point (10) just arrange distributing, the first stator tooth of external stator (4) and Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) just arrange distributing.
Further: also comprise casing (1), rotating shaft (2), described rotating shaft (2) is arranged in casing (1), and the moved end of doing of rotating shaft (2) is connected with casing (1) by clutch shaft bearing, and this stretches out outside casing (1) as moved end; It is upper that described external stator (4) is fixed on casing (1), and internal stator (8) is fixed on casing (1) by electric machine stand arm (12); Described rotating shaft has been provided with projection on (2), and described cup-shaped rotor (6) one sides are connected with rotating shaft (2) by projection, and opposite side is fixed on support arm (12) by bearing (3).
Preferred: described the first threephase armature winding, the second threephase armature winding all adopt three-phase fractional-slot concentrating structure form.
Preferred: the upper Flux modulation utmost point (10) of described the second stator tooth (9) is parallel teeth trapezoid groove structure.
Preferred: described Halbach structure permanent magnet (7) is arranged at the surfaces externally and internally of rotor by the mode of Surface Mount.
Preferred: described Halbach structure permanent magnet (7) is arranged on rotor by built-in mode, and described Halbach structure permanent magnet is packaged in rotor by magnetic shield.
Preferred: the number of the Flux modulation utmost point on described each the second stator tooth (9) is three.
Preferred: on the upper circumference of described external stator (4), to be evenly distributed with 18 peariform slots; The number of described the second stator tooth (9) is 6.
Motor torque density of the present invention and back-emf height sine principle are as follows:
By adopting inside and outside Surface Mount Halbach type permanent magnet (7) the body mode of rotor (6), providing higher air gap density magnetic flux simultaneously to motor, air gap flux density Waveform sine improves a lot, inside and outside double-stator structure, can increase the electromotive force of stator armature winding (5), thereby improve motor torque density.
Operation principle:
In described peariform slot groove, placing the first threephase armature winding because external stator (4) is inner along circumferentially offering peariform slot, is the first stator tooth between adjacent slot; Internal stator (8) is outside along being circumferentially provided with more than one the second stator tooth (9), between described the second adjacent stator tooth, place the second threephase armature winding, each the second stator tooth (9), along circumferentially the more than one Flux modulation utmost point (10) being all set, is provided with Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) between the described Flux modulation utmost point; On described rotor (6) surfaces externally and internally, be provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet (7), and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet being oppositely arranged on surfaces externally and internally (7) is identical; And the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of described external stator (4) equates with the number sum of the upper Flux modulation utmost point tooth (10) of internal stator (8); And the peariform slot of described external stator (4) and the Flux modulation utmost point (10) just arrange distributing, the first stator tooth of external stator (4) and Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) just arrange distributing; Therefore the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of external stator (4) equals the first threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sum of permanent magnet (7) number of pole-pairs and external stator (4), internal stator (8) Flux modulation number of poles equals permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs and internal stator (8) second threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sums, the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of external stator (4) equates with the upper Flux modulation number of poles of internal stator (8), first and second threephase armature winding back-emf same frequency of interior external stator; Permanent magnet (7) number of pole-pairs is motor-driven ratio with external stator field pole logarithm ratio; In the time that p-m rotor (6) has a small change in location, just can cause a larger flux change, thereby produce large torque output, meet vernier motor harmonic wave modulation operation principle.
A kind of double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator provided by the invention, compared to existing technology, has following beneficial effect:
1. omit gear box link, reduced wind generator system failure rate, improved the reliability of whole wind generator system.
2. produce the higher counter potential waveform of sinusoidal degree, stator and rotor sructure is simple, is easy to manufacture, assemble, easy to maintenance.
3. motor stator armature winding adopts centralized winding, can effectively reduce winding overhang length, and motor end effect is obviously reduced.
Brief description of the drawings
The assembling schematic diagram that accompanying drawing 1 is motor of the present invention;
The structural representation that accompanying drawing 2 is motor of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 3 is motor stator tooth of the present invention and Flux modulation utmost point schematic diagram;
The winding distribution schematic diagram that accompanying drawing 4 is motor of the present invention;
(6) three kinds of the rotors that accompanying drawing 5 is motor of the present invention are multi-form, Fig. 5 .1 (a) is Halbach permanent magnet rotor structure, the inside and outside Surface Mount permanent magnet rotor structure of Fig. 5 .1 (b), Fig. 5 .1 (c) is for having the built-in permanent magnetic rotor structure of poly-magnetic effect.
In figure: 1 casing, 2 rotating shafts, 3 bearings, 4 external stators, 5 armature winding, 6 cup-shaped rotors, 7Halbach structure permanent magnet, 8 internal stators, 9 stator tooths, the 10 Flux modulation utmost point 11 Flux modulation utmost point grooves, 12 support arms, 13 magnetic shields.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is further described.
A kind of double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator, as shown in Figure 1, comprises external stator 4, internal stator 8 and rotor 6; Described external stator 4, internal stator 8 size differences, and the coaxial inside and outside socket of described external stator 4, internal stator 8 arranges, and described rotor 6 is arranged between external stator 4 and internal stator 8, and external stator 4, internal stator 8 and concentric distribution of rotor 6 threes:
Example motor of the present invention contains double-layer air gaps topological structure, and described external stator 4 is cylindrical, and its inside is along circumferentially offering peariform slot, places the first threephase armature winding in described peariform slot groove, is the first stator tooth between adjacent slot;
Described internal stator 8 is cylinder toothed structure, described internal stator 8 is outside along being circumferentially provided with more than one the second stator tooth 9, between described the second adjacent stator tooth, place the second threephase armature winding, each the second stator tooth 9, along circumferentially the more than one Flux modulation utmost point 10 being all set, is provided with Flux modulation utmost point groove 11 between the described Flux modulation utmost point;
Described rotor 6 is cup-like structure, is provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet 7 on described rotor, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet 7 of inside and outside Surface Mount is identical; Be to be provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet (7) on described rotor (6) surfaces externally and internally, and on surfaces externally and internally, the magnetizing direction of relative permanent magnet (7) is identical.
The number of teeth of the first stator tooth of described external stator 4 equates with the number sum of Flux modulation utmost point tooth 10 on internal stator 8; Stator armature winding number of pole-pairs, rotor permanent magnet number of pole-pairs and stator magnetic flux modulation number of poles have multiple combination, as shown in 2, have 17 pairs of rotor poles, 1 pair of stator poles and 18 Flux modulation utmost points; And the peariform slot of described external stator 4 and the Flux modulation utmost point 10 just arrange distributing, the first stator tooth of external stator 4 and Flux modulation utmost point groove 11 just arrange distributing.
Described external stator 4, internal stator 8 geomery differences, external stator 4 numbers of teeth equate with Flux modulation number of poles on internal stator 8, inside and outside stator armature winding all adopts three-phase set Chinese style winding, external stator 4, internal stator 8 and concentric distribution of rotor 6 threes, on rotor 6, there is Halbach type Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 7, produce highly sinusoidal counter potential waveform.The number of teeth of the first stator tooth of external stator 4 equals the first threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sum of permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs and external stator 4, and internal stator 8 Flux modulation numbers of poles equal permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs and internal stator 8 second threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sums.Therefore permanent magnet 7 number of pole-pairs Pr of the present invention, internal stator armature pole logarithm Ns and Flux modulation utmost point number N fMPbetween meet N fMP=Ns+Pr, completes harmonic flux modulation operation principle, realizes low speed high torque operation.This motor adopts described pair of stator and the inside and outside Surface Mount Halbach permanent-magnet structure of rotor, can effectively improve torque and the power density of motor, reduces the copper loss of motor.
On described external stator 4, on circumference, be evenly distributed with 18 peariform slots; The number of described the second stator tooth 9 is 6.
As shown in Figure 1, also comprise casing 1, rotating shaft 2, described rotating shaft 2 is arranged in casing 1, and the moved end of doing of rotating shaft 2 is connected with casing 1 by clutch shaft bearing, and this stretches out outside casing 1 as moved end; Described external stator 4 is fixed on casing 1, and internal stator 8 is fixed on casing 1 by electric machine stand arm 12; In described rotating shaft 2, be provided with projection, described cup-shaped rotor 6 one sides are connected with rotating shaft 2 by projection, and opposite side is fixed on support arm 12 by bearing 3.
Above-mentioned external stator 4, internal stator 8, rotor 6 construction machine stability are stronger, and stress equalization can ensure that electromagnetic performance of the present invention is unaffected.
Described in example of the present invention, on the second stator tooth 9, the Flux modulation utmost point 10 is parallel teeth trapezoid groove structure.Be that on electric motor internal stator 8, the Flux modulation utmost point 10 preferably adopts parallel teeth trapezoid groove structure, as shown in Figure 3, the number of the Flux modulation utmost point on described each the second stator tooth 9 is three.Be on each stator tooth, to have three Flux modulation utmost points 10.
The vernier motor rotor 6 of example of the present invention adopts inside and outside Surface Mount Halbach permanent-magnet structure, compared with tradition list stator permanent magnet surface-mount type vernier motor, motor of the present invention also can improve by a relatively large margin the sinusoidal degree of air-gap flux in improving main flux, double-stator structure has increased motor torque fan-out capability, has improved the power factor of motor.
Described the first threephase armature winding, the second threephase armature winding all adopt three-phase fractional-slot concentrating structure form, the interior external stator 4 of vernier motor that is example of the present invention all adopts three-phase set Chinese style winding, Fig. 4 is this motor winding schematic diagram, and winding order is A+A-C-C+B+B-A-A+C+C-B-B+.
Fig. 5 by three kinds of different rotor structures of proposition motor, shown in Fig. 5 .1 (a) vernier motor rotor in structure, inside and outside Surface Mount Halbach permanent-magnet structure rotor, this structure can produce highly sinusoidal air-gap field, Fig. 5 .1 (b) is inside and outside surface-mount type permanent-magnet structure rotor, Fig. 5 .1 (c) permanent magnet insert structure rotor, and this structure has poly-magnetic benefit, but there is leakage field phenomenon, need to increase magnetic shield.That is:
Described Halbach structure permanent magnet 7 is arranged at the surfaces externally and internally of rotor by the mode of Surface Mount.
Described Halbach structure permanent magnet 7 is arranged on rotor by built-in mode, and described Halbach structure permanent magnet is packaged in rotor by magnetic shield.
Example vernier motor adjacent pole magnetic circuit path of the present invention is: pass internal stator 8 teeth to the Flux modulation utmost point 9 from internal stator 8 yoke portions, air gap through internal stator 8 and rotor 6 again, then through rotor 6, then the air gap through rotor 6 and external stator 4, finally arrives external stator 4 yoke portions by external stator 4 tooth portions.
Motor torque density of the present invention and back-emf height sine principle are as follows:
By adopting the inside and outside Surface Mount Halbach type permanent magnet 7 body modes of rotor 6, providing higher air gap density magnetic flux simultaneously to motor, air gap flux density Waveform sine improves a lot, inside and outside double-stator structure, can increase the electromotive force of stator armature winding 5, thereby improve motor torque density.
Operation principle:
In described peariform slot groove, placing the first threephase armature winding because external stator 4 is inner along circumferentially offering peariform slot, is the first stator tooth between adjacent slot; Internal stator 8 is outside along being circumferentially provided with more than one the second stator tooth 9, between described the second adjacent stator tooth, place the second threephase armature winding, each the second stator tooth 9, along circumferentially the more than one Flux modulation utmost point 10 being all set, is provided with Flux modulation utmost point groove 11 between the described Flux modulation utmost point; On described rotor 6 surfaces externally and internallies, be provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet 7, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet 7 being oppositely arranged on surfaces externally and internally is identical; And the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of described external stator 4 equates with the number sum of Flux modulation utmost point tooth 10 on internal stator 8; And the peariform slot of described external stator 4 and the Flux modulation utmost point 10 just arrange distributing, the first stator tooth of external stator 4 and Flux modulation utmost point groove 11 just arrange distributing; Therefore the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of external stator 4 equals the first threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sum of permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs and external stator 4, internal stator 8 Flux modulation numbers of poles equal permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs and internal stator 8 second threephase armature winding number of pole-pairs sums, the number of teeth of the first stator tooth of external stator 4 equates with Flux modulation number of poles on internal stator 8, first and second threephase armature winding back-emf same frequency of interior external stator; Permanent magnet 7 numbers of pole-pairs are motor-driven ratio with external stator field pole logarithm ratio; In the time that p-m rotor 6 has a small change in location, just can cause a larger flux change, thereby produce large torque output, meet vernier motor harmonic wave modulation operation principle.
From the above, the present invention proposes vernier motor and magnetic gear have obvious difference.Magnetic gear is made up of external rotor and the adjustable magnetic ring by high permeability material and non-magnet material staggered with the internal rotor of less magnetic pole High Rotation Speed, more magnetic pole low speed rotation, the permanent magnet of different poles logarithm is placed on inner and outer Rotator surface, adjustable magnetic ring maintains static, the plurality object space magnetic field that multistage external rotor is produced is modulated into and contains the space harmonics that main harmonic number is identical with internal stator number of pole-pairs in the air gap of inner side, and adjustable magnetic ring plays the effect in modulation inner and outer Rotator magnetic field.This shows, magnetic gear, due to the existence of adjustable magnetic ring, has produced double-layer air gaps structure, makes air-gap field comparatively complicated, causes its power density lower.The present invention proposes a kind of Novel double-stator low speed high torque vernier motor, in realizing low speed high torque, can effectively increase magnetic field intensity and the power density of motor.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention; be noted that for those skilled in the art; under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, can also make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator, comprises external stator (4), internal stator (8) and rotor (6); Described external stator (4), internal stator (8) size difference, and described external stator (4), the coaxial inside and outside socket of internal stator (8) are arranged, and described rotor (6) is arranged between external stator (4) and internal stator (8), and external stator (4), internal stator (8) and concentric distribution of rotor (6) three, is characterized in that:
Described external stator (4) is cylindrical, and its inside is along circumferentially offering peariform slot, places the first threephase armature winding in described peariform slot groove, is the first stator tooth between adjacent slot;
Described internal stator (8) is cylinder toothed structure, described internal stator (8) is outside along being circumferentially provided with more than one the second stator tooth (9), between described the second adjacent stator tooth, place the second threephase armature winding, each the second stator tooth (9), along circumferentially the more than one Flux modulation utmost point (10) being all set, is provided with Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) between the described Flux modulation utmost point;
Described rotor (6) is cup-like structure, on described rotor (6) surfaces externally and internally, is provided with Halbach structure permanent magnet (7), and on surfaces externally and internally, the magnetizing direction of relative permanent magnet (7) is identical;
The number of teeth of the first stator tooth of described external stator (4) equates with the number sum of the upper Flux modulation utmost point tooth (10) of internal stator (8); And the peariform slot of described external stator (4) and the Flux modulation utmost point (10) just arrange distributing, the first stator tooth of external stator (4) and Flux modulation utmost point groove (11) just arrange distributing.
2. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: also comprise casing (1), rotating shaft (2), described rotating shaft (2) is arranged in casing (1), and the moved end of doing of rotating shaft (2) is connected with casing (1) by clutch shaft bearing, and this stretches out outside casing (1) as moved end; It is upper that described external stator (4) is fixed on casing (1), and internal stator (8) is fixed on casing (1) by electric machine stand arm (12); Described rotating shaft has been provided with projection on (2), and described cup-shaped rotor (6) one sides are connected with rotating shaft (2) by projection, and opposite side is fixed on support arm (12) by bearing (3).
3. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 2, is characterized in that: described the first threephase armature winding, the second threephase armature winding all adopt three-phase fractional-slot concentrating structure form.
4. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 3, is characterized in that: the upper Flux modulation utmost point (10) of described the second stator tooth (9) is parallel teeth trapezoid groove structure.
5. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 4, is characterized in that: described Halbach structure permanent magnet (7) is arranged at the surfaces externally and internally of rotor by the mode of Surface Mount.
6. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: described Halbach structure permanent magnet (7) is arranged on rotor by built-in mode, and described Halbach structure permanent magnet is packaged in rotor by magnetic shield.
7. according to the double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator described in claim 5 or 6, it is characterized in that: the number of the Flux modulation utmost point on described each the second stator tooth (9) is three.
8. double-stator permanent magnet vernier wind-driven generator according to claim 7, is characterized in that: on the upper circumference of described external stator (4), be evenly distributed with 18 peariform slots; The number of described the second stator tooth (9) is 6.
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CN110808673A (en) * 2019-12-09 2020-02-18 武汉理工大学 Novel double-stator Halbach alternating pole permanent magnet vernier motor
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