CN104104137A - Lithium iron phosphate power battery management system and management method - Google Patents

Lithium iron phosphate power battery management system and management method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104104137A
CN104104137A CN201410352410.2A CN201410352410A CN104104137A CN 104104137 A CN104104137 A CN 104104137A CN 201410352410 A CN201410352410 A CN 201410352410A CN 104104137 A CN104104137 A CN 104104137A
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battery pack
circuit
battery
master controller
voltage
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崔纳新
张承慧
商云龙
于广
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a lithium iron phosphate power battery management system and a lithium iron phosphate power battery management method. The lithium iron phosphate power battery management system comprises a main controller, a voltage detection circuit, a temperature detection circuit, an insulation monitoring circuit, an equalization circuit, a protection circuit, a DC/DC (direct current) power supply circuit, a pre-charging circuit, a cooling fan, a power battery pack, a personal computer (PC), a vehicle-mounted controller and a storage module. The lithium iron phosphate power battery management system has the following functions of detecting monomer voltage and total voltage of a battery, detecting charging and discharging currents of the battery pack, diagnosing faults of the battery pack and performing mandatory protection for over charging, over discharging and equalization and temperature protection, accurately estimating various states (SOC, SOH and RUL) of the battery pack, performing efficient and rapid equalization, charging in advance, measuring insulation of the battery pack, recording running and fault data of the battery pack, communicating with the vehicle-mounted controller and a display system, and communicating with a battery charger and providing battery charging information for the battery charger.

Description

A kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system and management method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system and management method.
Background technology
Energy crisis and environmental pollution are two hang-ups that the world today faces.Electric automobile is extensively welcomed by the people with energy-saving and environmental protection, has become the inexorable trend of future automobile development.The strategic of electric automobile " three vertical three horizontal strokes " has been established in China " 12 " planning.Three vertical be hybrid vehicle, pure electric automobile, fuel cell car; Three horizontal be battery, motor, automatically controlled.Wherein, vehicle mounted dynamic battery is as the critical component of electric automobile, and dynamic property, economy and the fail safe of its performance to car load is most important, is the key factor of restriction electric automobile scale development.And lithium ion battery is because of its high-energy-density, low discharge rate with there is no memory effect, is widely used in electric automobile and hybrid-electric car as power source.
But the abuse ability of lithium-ion-power cell, charge-discharge characteristic are affected by environment larger, and lithium ion battery series connection is while being applied in groups on electric automobile, and its performance, far away from cell, even occurs safety issue.Trace it to its cause, lithium battery has high non-linearity in essence, close coupling, hesitation and time-varying characteristics, cause its modeling accuracy low, versatility is poor, SOC (State of Charge), SOH (State of Health), RUL (Remaining Useful Life) evaluated error is large, portfolio effect is not good, and aging along with battery, the state estimation errors such as battery SOC are increasing, inconsistency between monomer is more and more obvious, thereby produce lithium-ion-power cell super-charge super-discharge, active volume reduces, cycle life declines, energy management is unreasonable, there is the problems such as midway casts anchor, in the course of time cause the most at last security incident to occur.Therefore,, for lithium-ion-power cell, battery management strategy is more complicated.Charge-discharge characteristic how to bring into play to greatest extent electrokinetic cell on the basis that ensures the life-span is core objective and the technical barrier of battery management system.
Developing rapidly of electric vehicle engineering proposed requirements at the higher level to battery management system: battery management system, except the safety of operation, cooperation vehicle control strategy, supervision battery status and protection battery pack that can be reliable and stable, also should possess battery pack power control strategy efficient, that optimize.Therefore, stack battery optimization discharges and recharges control strategy becomes technical barrier urgently to be resolved hurrily at present, is also the developing direction of following battery management system.
Summary of the invention
The present invention, in order to address the above problem, has proposed a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system and management method, and native system has following functions: 1. battery cell voltage and total voltage detect; 2. battery set charge/discharge current detecting; 3. battery failure is diagnosed and is overcharged, crosses and put and balanced mandatory protection and temperature protection; 4. the accurate estimation of the various states of battery pack (SOC, SOH, RUL); 5. efficient fast uniform; 6. precharge; 7. battery pack insulation measurement; 8. battery pack operation and fault data recorder; 9. with vehicle control device and display system communication; 10. with charger communication, for charger provides battery charge information.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system, comprises master controller, voltage detecting circuit, temperature sensing circuit, insulation detecting circuit, current sensor, equalizing circuit, protective circuit, pre-charge circuit and power battery pack; Wherein, master controller connects voltage detecting circuit, equalizing circuit, temperature sensing circuit, protective circuit and insulation detecting circuit, voltage detecting circuit, equalizing circuit connect respectively each battery cell two ends in power battery pack, temperature sensing circuit connects each battery cell, insulation detecting circuit connects the positive and negative end of battery pack, for judging that protective circuit that whether each battery cell voltage of battery pack exceeds limit value connects the two ends of each battery cell, battery pack two ends series connection pre-charge circuit, charger;
Described voltage detecting circuit detects the voltage of each battery cell in power battery pack, temperature sensing circuit obtains each battery cell temperature in battery pack, master controller, according to the difference of voltage, temperature value, with corresponding setting range comparison, is controlled equalizing circuit and is carried out corresponding balanced action.
The positive and negative electrode two ends of described power battery pack are connected respectively one end of DC/DC power supply circuits with a K switch b by a hand switch S1, the other end of DC/DC power supply circuits has positive-negative output end, being connected with respectively voltage detecting circuit, temperature sensing circuit, equalizing circuit and cooling fan, is above-mentioned module for power supply.
Described pre-charge circuit comprises two-way branch road in parallel, and a road connects a high-power resistance R after connecting relay switch Kp; Another road is relay switch K+, and one end of pre-charge circuit connects power battery pack by fuse KF, current sensor, and the other end connects charger.
Described master controller connects charger by CAN2 bus, and master controller connects vehicle control device by CAN1 bus, and master controller connects PC by RS232 serial ports, and master controller is connected with memory module.
Based on the management method of above-mentioned lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system, comprise the following steps:
(1) voltage detecting circuit detects the voltage of each battery cell in power battery pack, master controller judges whether voltage exceedes threshold value or in optimum range, according to the difference of magnitude of voltage, main controller controls K switch+, K-, all switches of equalizing circuit and the folding of K switch b;
(2) temperature sensing circuit obtains each battery cell temperature in battery pack, and master controller judges whether battery pack temperature exceedes setting, if exceed setting, disconnects all switches, does not allow to carry out charge and discharge and equalization operation;
(3) when each battery cell voltage of battery pack, temperature are all in prescribed limit, controller control battery pack is operated under charge/discharge mode.Under charge/discharge mode, master controller gathers the electric current of main circuit by current sensor, and judge whether to exceed limit value, if exceed, main controller controls K switch+and K-disconnect, stop discharging and recharging, if master controller does not cut off K switch+and K-, fast acting fuse KF will fuse, and play the overcurrent mandatory protection to battery pack;
(4) master controller is according to the cell voltage, electric current and the temperature data that obtain, the various states (SOC, SOH, RUL) of estimating battery, and by CAN1 by the above-mentioned information reporting of battery pack to entire car controller.
In described step (1), concrete grammar comprises:
(1-1) closed hand switch S1, DC/DC power supply circuits obtain electric, start master controller, equalizing circuit, voltage detecting circuit and temperature sensing circuit;
If the each battery cell voltage (1-2) in battery pack is lower than minimum threshold or be greater than max-thresholds, protective circuit meeting cut-off switch Kb, cut off DC/DC power supply circuits, master controller and equalizing circuit are without electricity, and then disconnect all switches, realize overcharging, crossing and put mandatory protection and balance protection battery pack;
If the each battery cell voltage (1-3) in battery pack is between threshold range, master controller obtains the voltage of each battery cell in battery pack by voltage detecting circuit, and judges that each battery cell voltage is whether in optimum range;
If (1-4) each battery cell voltage does not meet optimum range, main controller controls K switch+, all switches of K-and equalizing circuit disconnect, realize battery pack overcharged, cross and put and balanced soft protection;
If (1-5) each battery cell voltage meets optimum range, and judge whether maximum voltage difference is greater than balanced threshold value, if be greater than, control equalizing circuit battery pack is carried out to equilibrium; Otherwise, do not need battery pack balancing.
The minimum threshold of described monomer battery voltage is 2V, and max-thresholds is 3.7V, and optimum range is [2.5,3.65], and balanced threshold value is 0.02V.
In described step (2), concrete grammar comprise:
(2-1) each battery cell temperature in the battery pack that master controller obtains according to temperature sensing circuit, and judge that temperature is whether between setting, if exceed setting, master controller disconnects all switches, does not allow to carry out charge and discharge and equalization operation;
If (2-2) battery pack temperature is between setting, and judge whether temperature exceedes high-temperature threshold value, if so, master controller startup cooling fan carries out cooling to battery pack.
In described step (2), setting is [25 DEG C, 75 DEG C], and high-temperature threshold value is 55 DEG C.
In described step (3), under charge mode, first master controller is controlled pre-charge circuit and is carried out precharge: first Closing Switch KF, Kp and K-, after 10 seconds, turn-off again Kp, and closed K+, and keep KF and K-conducting always; Charger is connected with master controller by CAN2 bus, and charger, obtaining after battery voltage, temperature, current information, carries out charging operations to battery pack.
In described step (3), under discharge mode, the direct Closing Switch K+ of master controller and K-, then battery pack is carried out to discharge operation.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) battery management system and battery binding, form smart battery pack, can realize overcharging, crossing and put and balanced hardware mandatory protection of power battery pack;
(2) multivariable closed-loop control, can realize the software protection of power battery pack, can realize the various states (SOC, SOH, RUL) of battery pack and estimate;
(3) there is the function of efficient fast uniform and precharge, strengthen the management of management system and controlled function, can carry out CAN with charger communicates by letter, make charger there is better applicability and versatility, improve the intelligent level of charging process, simplified charging staff the loaded down with trivial details work such as charge parameter are set.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is structural representation of the present invention.
Wherein, 1, the pressure-wire of the each battery cell of battery pack; 2, the temperature line of the each battery cell of battery pack; 10, master controller; 20, voltage detecting circuit; 30, equalizing circuit; 40, protective circuit; 50, temperature sensing circuit; 60, insulation detecting circuit; 70, memory module; 80, PC; 90, cooling fan; 100, battery pack; 200, pre-charge circuit; 300, charger; 400, vehicle control device; 500, current sensor; 600, DC/DC power supply circuits.
Embodiment:
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the invention will be further described.
As shown in Figure 1, battery management system comprises master controller 10, voltage detecting circuit 20, temperature sensing circuit 50, insulation detecting circuit 60, equalizing circuit 30, protective circuit 40, DC/DC power supply circuits 600, pre-charge circuit 200, cooling fan 90, power battery pack 100, PC 80, vehicle control device 400 and memory module 70.There is following functions: 1. battery cell voltage and total voltage detect; 2. battery set charge/discharge current detecting; 3. battery failure is diagnosed and is overcharged, crosses and put and balanced mandatory protection and temperature protection; 4. the various states of battery pack (SOC, SOH, RUL) are accurately estimated; 5. Zero Current Switch fast uniform; 6. precharge; 7. battery pack insulation measurement; 8. battery pack operation and fault data recorder; 9. with vehicle control device and display system communication; 10. with charger communication, for charger provides battery charge information.
Described voltage detecting circuit 20 connects the two ends of each battery cell, for detection of each batteries monomer voltage in battery pack;
Described temperature sensing circuit 50 connects each battery cell, for detection of each batteries monomer temperature in battery pack;
Described insulation detecting circuit one end is connected in the both positive and negative polarity of battery pack, and one end is connected in master controller, whether has electric leakage for detection of battery pack;
Described equalizing circuit 30 connects the two ends of each battery cell, for the highest battery cell combination of battery pack voltage and the minimum battery cell combination of voltage being carried out to Zero Current Switch fast uniform under the control of master controller;
One end of described DC/DC power supply circuits 600 is connected with the both positive and negative polarity of battery pack respectively with a K switch b by a hand switch S1, the other end has positive-negative output end to be connected with voltage detecting circuit 20, temperature sensing circuit 50, equalizing circuit 30 and cooling fan 90 respectively, for giving above-mentioned module for power supply;
Described protective circuit 40 connects the two ends of each battery cell, be used for judging whether each battery cell voltage of battery pack exceeds limit value, if exceed, cut-off switch Kb, thereby cut off DC/DC power supply circuits 600, and then cut off all switches, realize overcharging, crossing and put mandatory protection and balance protection of battery pack;
Described pre-charge circuit comprises two-way, and a road meets a high-power resistance R after a little relay switch Kp, another Lu Weiyi large relay switch K+, and relay switch Kp and resistance R are connected in parallel on the two ends of large relay switch K+.One end of pre-charge circuit is connected in fuse KF, and the other end is connected in charger 300, is used for containing that battery pack is to the charger large discharging current of 300 electric capacity moments in the time of circuit turn-on;
The operation principle of described pre-charge circuit is: first Closing Switch KF, Kp and K-, after 10 seconds, turn-off again Kp, and closed K+, and keep KF and K-conducting;
The signal of described master controller receiver voltage testing circuit 20 is used for judging whether to need equilibrium, and if desired equilibrium is controlled equalizing circuit 30 battery pack is carried out to equilibrium.The signal of described master controller reception temperature sensing circuit 50 is used for judging whether carrying out battery cooling, and if desired the cooling cooling fan 90 of controlling carries out cooling to battery pack.The signal that described master controller receives insulation detecting circuit 60 is used for judging whether battery pack leaks electricity, if the main positive K switch of disconnection of electric leakage+and main negative K-;
Described charger 300 is connected with master controller by CAN2, for charger 300 provides battery charge information, and the charge mode coordinating with charger 300 for realizing battery management system;
Described current sensor 500 is connected in the major loop of battery pack, the positive pole of a termination battery pack, and one section connects fuse, for detection of the charge-discharge circuit of battery pack;
Described vehicle control device 400 is connected with master controller by CAN1, for obtaining the relevant information of battery pack, car load is carried out to energy management;
Described PC 80 is connected with master controller by RS232 serial ports, for showing the information such as voltage, electric current, temperature and fault of battery pack;
Described memory module 70 is connected with master controller, for information such as each joint monomer voltage, electric current, temperature and the faults of storage battery;
A management method of applying above-mentioned lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system, comprises the following steps:
S1. closed hand switch S1, DC/DC power supply circuits obtain electric, start master controller, equalizing circuit, voltage detecting circuit and temperature sensing circuit.
If the each battery cell voltage S2. in battery pack is lower than 2V or be greater than 3.7V, protective circuit 40 meeting cut-off switch Kb, cut off DC/DC power supply circuits 600, master controller and equalizing circuit 30 are without electricity, and then disconnect all switches, realize overcharging, crossing and put mandatory protection and balance protection battery pack;
If the each battery cell voltage S3. in battery pack is between 2V~3.7V, master controller obtains the voltage of each battery cell in battery pack by voltage detecting circuit 20, and judges that each battery cell voltage is whether lower than 2.5V or be greater than 3.65V;
If S4. lower than 2.5V or be greater than 3.65V, main controller controls K switch+, all switches of K-and equalizing circuit 30 disconnect, realize battery pack overcharged, cross and put and balanced soft protection;
If S5. between 2.5V~3.65V, and judge whether maximum voltage difference is greater than balanced threshold value 0.02V, if be greater than, control equalizing circuit 30 battery pack is carried out to equilibrium; Otherwise, do not need battery pack balancing;
S6. each battery cell temperature in the battery pack that master controller obtains according to temperature sensing circuit 50, and judge that temperature is whether between-25~75 DEG C, if do not exist, master controller disconnects all switches, does not allow to carry out charge and discharge and equalization operation;
If S7. battery pack temperature is between-25~75 DEG C, and judge whether temperature exceedes 55 DEG C, if so, master controller startup cooling fan 90 carries out cooling to battery pack;
S8. in battery pack, each battery cell voltage, temperature are all under the condition of normal range (NR), and power battery pack can be operated under charge mode and discharge mode, and can carry out equalization operation;
S9. under charge mode, first master controller is controlled pre-charge circuit and is carried out precharge: first Closing Switch KF, Kp and K-, after 10 seconds, turn-off again Kp, and closed K+, and keep KF and K-conducting always;
S10. charger 300 is connected with master controller by CAN2, and charger 300 is obtaining after battery voltage, temperature, current information, according to the charging algorithm arranging, battery pack is carried out to charging operations;
S11. under discharge mode, directly Closing Switch KF, K+ and K-, then according to the electric discharge algorithm arranging, battery pack is carried out to discharge operation;
S12. under charge/discharge pattern, master controller gathers the electric current of main circuit by current sensor 500, and judges whether to exceed limit value, if exceed, and main controller controls K switch+and K-disconnection, stop discharging and recharging, play the software protection to battery pack;
S13. exceed under the condition of limit value at electric current, if master controller does not cut off K switch+and K-, fast acting fuse KF will fuse, and play the overcurrent mandatory protection to battery pack;
S14. master controller is according to the cell voltage, electric current and the temperature data that obtain, the various states (SOC, SOH, RUL) of estimating battery, and by CAN1 by the above-mentioned information reporting of battery pack to entire car controller.
By reference to the accompanying drawings the specific embodiment of the present invention is described although above-mentioned; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay various amendments that creative work can make or distortion still in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system, is characterized in that: comprise master controller, voltage detecting circuit, temperature sensing circuit, insulation detecting circuit, current sensor, equalizing circuit, protective circuit, pre-charge circuit and power battery pack; Wherein, master controller connects voltage detecting circuit, equalizing circuit, temperature sensing circuit, protective circuit and insulation detecting circuit, voltage detecting circuit, equalizing circuit connect respectively each battery cell two ends in power battery pack, temperature sensing circuit connects each battery cell, insulation detecting circuit connects the positive and negative end of battery pack, for judging that protective circuit that whether each battery cell voltage of battery pack exceeds limit value connects the two ends of each battery cell, battery pack two ends series connection pre-charge circuit, charger;
Described voltage detecting circuit detects the voltage of each battery cell in power battery pack, temperature sensing circuit obtains each battery cell temperature in battery pack, master controller, according to the difference of voltage, temperature value, with corresponding setting range comparison, is controlled equalizing circuit and is carried out corresponding balanced action.
2. a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the positive and negative electrode two ends of described power battery pack are connected respectively one end of DC/DC power supply circuits with a K switch b by a hand switch S1, the other end of DC/DC power supply circuits has positive-negative output end, being connected with respectively voltage detecting circuit, temperature sensing circuit, equalizing circuit and cooling fan, is above-mentioned module for power supply.
3. a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: described pre-charge circuit comprises two-way branch road in parallel, and a road connects a high-power resistance R after connecting relay switch Kp; Another road is relay switch K+, and one end of pre-charge circuit connects power battery pack by fuse KF, current sensor, and the other end connects charger.
4. a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described master controller connects charger by CAN2 bus, master controller connects vehicle control device by CAN1 bus, master controller connects PC by RS232 serial ports, and master controller is connected with memory module.
5. the management method of a kind of lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery management system as described in any one in claim 1-4, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
(1) voltage detecting circuit detects the voltage of each battery cell in power battery pack, master controller judges whether voltage exceedes threshold value or in optimum range, according to the difference of magnitude of voltage, main controller controls K switch+, K-, all switches of equalizing circuit and the folding of K switch b;
(2) temperature sensing circuit obtains each battery cell temperature in battery pack, and master controller judges whether battery pack temperature exceedes setting, if exceed setting, disconnects all switches, does not allow to carry out charge and discharge and equalization operation operation;
(3) when the each battery cell voltage of battery pack, temperature are all in prescribed limit, controller control battery pack is operated under charge/discharge mode, under charge/discharge mode, master controller gathers the electric current of main circuit by current sensor, and judges whether to exceed limit value, if exceed, main controller controls K switch+and K-disconnect, stop discharging and recharging, if master controller does not cut off K switch+and K-, fast acting fuse KF will fuse, and play the overcurrent mandatory protection to battery pack;
(4) master controller is according to the cell voltage, electric current and the temperature data that obtain, the various states (SOC, SOH, RUL) of estimating battery, and by CAN1 by the above-mentioned information reporting of battery pack to entire car controller.
6. management method as claimed in claim 5, is characterized in that: in described step (1), concrete grammar comprises:
(1-1) closed hand switch S1, DC/DC power supply circuits obtain electric, start master controller, equalizing circuit, voltage detecting circuit and temperature sensing circuit;
If the each battery cell voltage (1-2) in battery pack is lower than minimum threshold or be greater than max-thresholds, protective circuit meeting cut-off switch Kb, cut off DC/DC power supply circuits, master controller and equalizing circuit are without electricity, and then disconnect all switches, realize overcharging, crossing and put mandatory protection and balance protection battery pack;
If the each battery cell voltage (1-3) in battery pack is between threshold range, master controller obtains the voltage of each battery cell in battery pack by voltage detecting circuit, and judges that each battery cell voltage is whether in optimum range;
If (1-4) each battery cell voltage does not meet optimum range, main controller controls K switch+, all switches of K-and equalizing circuit disconnect, realize battery pack overcharged, cross and put and balanced soft protection;
If (1-5) each battery cell voltage meets optimum range, and judge whether maximum voltage difference is greater than balanced threshold value, if be greater than, control equalizing circuit battery pack is carried out to equilibrium; Otherwise, do not need battery pack balancing.
7. management method as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that: the minimum threshold of described monomer battery voltage is 2V, and max-thresholds is 3.7V, and optimum range is [2.5,3.65], and balanced threshold value is 0.02V.
8. management method as claimed in claim 5, is characterized in that: in described step (2), concrete grammar comprise:
(2-1) each battery cell temperature in the battery pack that master controller obtains according to temperature sensing circuit, and judge that temperature is whether between setting, if exceed setting, master controller disconnects all switches, does not allow to carry out charge and discharge and equalization operation;
If (2-2) battery pack temperature is between setting, and judge whether temperature exceedes high-temperature threshold value, if so, master controller startup cooling fan carries out cooling to battery pack.
9. management method as claimed in claim 8, is characterized in that: in described step (2), setting is [25 DEG C, 75 DEG C], and high-temperature threshold value is 55 DEG C.
10. management method as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that: in described step (3), under charge mode, first master controller is controlled pre-charge circuit and is carried out precharge: first Closing Switch KF, Kp and K-, after 10 seconds, turn-off again Kp, closed K+, and keep KF and K-conducting always; Charger is connected with master controller by CAN2 bus, and charger, obtaining after battery voltage, temperature, current information, carries out charging operations to battery pack; Under discharge mode, the direct Closing Switch KF of master controller, K+ and K-, then battery pack is carried out to discharge operation.
CN201410352410.2A 2014-07-23 2014-07-23 Lithium iron phosphate power battery management system and management method Pending CN104104137A (en)

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Application publication date: 20141015