CN104060081B - Prevent the method that carburized gears heat treatment deformation is overproof - Google Patents

Prevent the method that carburized gears heat treatment deformation is overproof Download PDF

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CN104060081B
CN104060081B CN201410324174.3A CN201410324174A CN104060081B CN 104060081 B CN104060081 B CN 104060081B CN 201410324174 A CN201410324174 A CN 201410324174A CN 104060081 B CN104060081 B CN 104060081B
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刘澄
赵振波
赵斌
张琦
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Yangzhou University
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of method preventing carburized gears heat treatment deformation overproof, belong to technical field of heat treatment, it is mainly characterized by the microscopic structure from controlled forge process wheel blank, in steel, the factor such as content of actual component is on the microscopic structure after steel normalizing and mechanical property difference and the impact of inhomogeneities, treatment process for isothermal normalizing is used to make the steel with different quenching degree all can obtain identical microscopic structure and the mechanical property having good uniformity, the Novel isothermal normalizing that the present invention proposes, isothermal truly can be realized by adjusting parameters, can obtain identical, stable, uniform microscopic structure and mechanical property.Under identical machining condition, it is thus achieved that identical and stable internal stress distribution, thus keep little and stable carburizing heat treatment deformation, make deformation overproof rate reduce by 10%.The present invention is the workpiece to same heat (batch) number, and all formula and technique are built upon being smelted the alloying component of the provided steel of rear line by steel mill.

Description

Prevent the method that carburized gears heat treatment deformation is overproof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method preventing carburized gears heat treatment deformation overproof, belong to technical field of heat treatment.
Background technology
Carburized gears is the part that vehicle transmission mechanism is particularly important.It is at work except requiring punching pressure, wear-resisting, resistance to Hit, outside plasticity_resistant deformation, counter-bending fatigue and surface contact fatigue, form and dimensional precision also had strict requirements.Cause Directly affect transmission accuracy for the latter, operate steadily and the size of noise.The accuracy of gear is the highest, face is bad, both can draw Play high noise, flank of tooth premature wear can be increased again.
Gear heat treatment deformation (distortion) is the concentrated expression reducing gear manufacture precision.Affect the factor of gear shifting quadrant texturing very Many, and the impact interactively with each other of many of which factor.Although modern enterprise produces gear and has fixed (control) many impacts The factor of deformation, but deform overproof (overproof deformation) and happen occasionally, sometime up to 35%, even up to 50%, and because of not Allow correction, cause massive losses, become the difficult problem in gear manufacture.The auto manufacturing of the state such as American-European, Japanese is generally recognized For, the topmost effective measures reducing carburized gears deformation are to use H steel.So-called H steel refers to that the Jominy end-quench curves of steel is being specified End quenching distance must have technically demanding hardness, and hardness number fluctuation is the least.First this kind of steel is marked for U.S. SAE Quasi-ization processes, and adds " H " and represent, because of referred to herein as H steel after grade of steel.As a example by carburizing steel, such as 4620H, 8620H etc..Hereafter, day This lists H steel in, such as SCM22H, SNC21H etc. in JIS standard.Although some country does not has H to indicate, but increases carburizing steel yet Strict quenching degree requirement.J such as Germany's 20MnCr5 steel10(i.e. Jominy end-quench curves hardness at the end 10mm that quenches exists=33-39 Between HRC33-39, the width of Jominy end-quench curves band is 7HRC).It was verified that use H steel batch production gear to truly have at reduction heat The effect of reason deformation, and Jominy end-quench curves band the narrowest (hardness number fluctuation is the least) deformation is the least.In Japan, also there are some well-known enterprises The gear of the H steel making reputable brand car that industry uses width to be 3HRC.Why H steel can reduce gear heat treatment deformation, It is owing to it has stable quenching degree characteristic, is readily available identical microscopic structure and close hardness after causing normalizing, cuts Cutting forming residual stress stable, heat treatment deformation is stable.Such that it is able to by deformation allowance, reduction is crumpled.Steel mill produces Non-H steel, mainly controls the alloying element in steel and impurity content, for single factors control, is easier, and metallurgical qualification rate can Reach more than 95%.Production H steel, in addition to composition control, also to control specifying end quenching quench away from the hardness number being had and reduce Its undulatory property, i.e. to be affected by several factors, and implementation process is extremely difficult.Different heat (batch) number steel qualities is difficult to control to, i.e. Making same heat (batch) number steel quality problems the most often occur, steel qualification rate is relatively low, and the most only about 50%.Therefore production cost increases Height, 2 times of the most non-H steel.It is to say, the method that currently used H steel reduces gear heat treatment deformation, in reality Production exists cost high, expensive problem.And, even with H steel, the instability of carburized gears is overproof also can be through Often occur, and often fluctuate because of season, the change of grade of steel, become hard nut to crack.
The isothermal normalizing technique used now is to be fitted together by workpiece used, is heated to a temperature, then dries Cold.Workpiece is extremely difficult to identical temperature and rate of cooling, and therefore obtained tissue also differs.The most useless reach the most sincere justice On isothermal normalizing, be the isothermal normalizing of "false".
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention on the premise of ensureing performance requirement, for Present Domestic, outer enterprise produces automobile carburizing tooth Take turns the shape that the heat treatment deformation overproof rate being widely present is excessive, unstable, it is provided that one prevents carburized gears heat treatment deformation Overproof method, stably obtains the good microscopic structure of machinability and mechanical property, changes and price can only be used at present high, tight Lattice control the present situation of the H steel making carburized gears of quenching degree, are conducive to can substitute for the use of H steel in actual production, use valency The relatively low non-H steel of lattice produces less or without heat treatment deformation automobile gear.
It is an object of the invention to be achieved through the following technical solutions, a kind of prevent carburized gears heat treatment deformation overproof Method, is characterized in that, described method is to combine the component content of carburized gears to be heated, distribution consistency degree, crystal grain The each correlative factor of size, effective thickness on the microscopic structure after steel normalizing and mechanical property difference and the impact of inhomogeneities, from Minimum cooling temperature before the longest cool time, gear isothermal before austenitizing heating-up temperature, austenitizing holding time, gear isothermal Degree, isothermal normalizing treatment temperature, isothermal normalizing temperature retention time each technological parameter aspect carry out science and engineering at the isothermal normalizing of personalization Skill, thus stably obtain microscopic structure and the mechanical property that technology requires.
Present invention microscopic structure from controlled forge process wheel blank, in steel, the factor such as content of actual component is to steel just Microscopic structure after fire and mechanical property difference and the impact of inhomogeneities, use treatment process for isothermal normalizing to make have difference and quench The steel of property all can obtain identical microscopic structure and the mechanical property having good uniformity thoroughly, and the Novel isothermal that the present invention proposes is just Fire, can realize isothermal truly by adjusting parameters, can obtain identical, stable, the most micro- Microstructure and mechanical property.Under identical machining condition, it is thus achieved that identical and stable internal stress distribution, thus keep little and steady Fixed carburizing heat treatment deformation, makes deformation overproof rate reduce by 10%.The present invention is the workpiece to same heat (batch) number, all formula and technique It is built upon being smelted the alloying component of the provided steel of rear line by steel mill.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the influence factor of carburizing steel gear heat treatment deformation;
Fig. 2 is the CCT figure of three kinds of SCM22 steel and the cooling curve that thickness is 100mm steel part normalizing air cooling;
Fig. 3 is automobile carburized gears isothermal normalizing computer expert system program;
Fig. 4 is Supercooled Austenite Isothermal Transformation Diagram and the Isothermal Treatment of three kinds of SCM22 steel.
Detailed description of the invention
Further illustrating the present invention, our early-stage Study draws in conjunction with the embodiments: the deformation of carburizing steel gear heat treatment Influence factor have design, forging, by 8 aspects such as steel, machine add 60 more than, as shown in Figure 1.Under the conditions of modern production, permitted The multifactor control that takeed effective measures so that it is impact is fixing.H steel can be reduced the research table of gear heat treatment Deformation Reasons Bright, owing to the product of this kind of steel can obtain identical microscopic structure and the power of close applicable machining after normalized treatment Learn performance, make cutting residual stress during machining less and stable and consistent, so that the deformation after gear carburizing quenching is relatively Little and stable, it is simple to take measures, be compensated by and correct.
Carburizing steel beneficially machining and to produce compared with the microscopic structure of low residual stress be the thicker free iron of crystal grain Ferritic (F) adds fine pearlite (P), should not have bainite (B), martensite (M), and its hardness is between HB160-180.In reality Border produce in, even if use H steel reduce heat treatment deformation, generally also can because of the fluctuation in the reasonable scope of its chemical composition, And cause the change of performance, cause the increase of product disqualification rate.
As a example by Japan's SCM22 (being equivalent to China 20CrMnMo) steel, standard specifies that its chemical analysis is for (wt%): 0.17-0.23C, 0.15-0.17Si, 0.55-0.9Mn, 0.85-1.35Cr, 0.15-0.35Mo, other alloying element (Ni, Cu Deng)≤0.35.The overcooling austenite continuous cooling transformation of three kinds of different components (all within standard specifies composition) of this grade of steel is bent Line (CCT figure) is as shown in Figure 2.Steel part effective thickness (including that steel part compact reactor puts effective thickness) is 100mm, and air cooling is (the most just Fire cooling) curve is also shown in figure.After the main chemical of three kinds of steel and normalizing, hardness is as follows:
1 (dotted line): 0.17C, 0.56Mn, 0.85Cr, 0.16Mo (wt%);HB140-150.
2 (solid lines): 0.20C, 0.72Mn, 1.01Cr, 0.27Mo (wt%);HB170-180.
3 (chain-dotted lines): 0.23C, 0.90Mn, 1.25Cr, 0.35Mo (wt%);HB180-210.
It can be seen that No. 2 steelworks that quenching degree is moderate, that obtain after normalizing is F+P, and hardness also complies with technology requirement.1 Although a number steelwork is F+P, but hardness is too low, defective.No. 3 steelworks are F+P+B, and much higher hard is the most defective.Defective Its machining of steel part after residual stress big, heat treatment deformation is also big, and can destroy normal deformation rule.Thus illustrate The stability of steel (including H steel) quenching degree is extremely important to actual production.
The present invention according to factors such as component content, distribution consistency degree, grain sizes in actual product steel to normalizing The microscopic structure of rear steel and mechanical property difference and the impact of inhomogeneities, and by the strict microscopic structure controlling forging stock, make They all have identical statenchyma (prevent normalizing from heating Structure Inheritance and cause mixed crystal) and use isothermal processes (supercool Austria Family name's body decomposes under constant temperature), even if the quenching degree of steel is different, each product all can obtain identical microscopic structure and mechanics Performance.Acquisition microscopic structure is F+P (ferrite adds pearlite), and hardness is HB160-180, and can be by adjusting isothermal temperature Degree adjusts the hardness of steel part.It is as follows that it is embodied as step:
The first step: regulation Gear Forging Stock cooling after forged express delivery≤100 DEG C/h.Inspecting its microscopic structure by random samples is pro-eutectoid ferrite (F) fine pearlite (P), bainite (B) and martensite (M) content≤5% are added.
Second step: detection or the chemical analysis (wt%) of cognitive product reality steel, including C, Mn, Si, Cr, Ni, Mo, V, Ti、Al。
3rd step: the banded structure rank (grading by national standard) of detection steel.
4th step: determine the effective thickness (determining by engineering traditional method) of gear, thus obtain identical isothermal normalizing and add The grain size of austenite and the uniformity after heat.
5th step: collecting the main performance index required by wheel blank normalizing (with the required hardness number reached is generally Leading indicator)
6th step: utilize specialist system to calculate and determine the main points parameter of isothermal normalizing technique:
1) austenitizing temperature (TA), austenitizing temperature is determined by formula (1),
TA(DEG C)=a0-320C-b0Ni-c0Cu-d0Mn+e0W+f0Mo+g0Cr+h0Si+i0(V+Nb+Zr+Ti)+80~120
(1)
Wherein, a0=900~930, b0=8~12, c0=10~14, d0=12~16, e0=5~8, f0=10-16, g0 =3~6, h0=15~20, i0=30~50, C are phosphorus content, and alloying element symbol represents the constituent content of this element, following phase With.
2) austenitizing holding time (tA)
tA(min)=a × H (2)
In formula, a is constant, is 10-15 for alloy carburizing steel;H is effective thickness (mm).Effective thickness refers to make Each product heart portion is attained by requiring the minimum dimension of temperature.The shaft-like diameter that is often referred to of single placement, tabular is often referred to thickness. The effective thickness method typically determined by factory's steel part heat treatment heating, cooling determines.
3) (t the longest cool time before gear isothermals), this parameter can be determined by formula (3).
Logt (s)=(0.45-C)+a1Mo+b1(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)+c1W+d1Cr+e1Mn+f1Ni+g1Si+h1B*
(3)
In formula, a1=2.5~4.0, b1=1.8~2.6, c1=1.0~1.8, d1=0.8~1.6, e1=0.5~1.2, f1=0.15~0.35, g1=0.10~0.30, h1=0.6~1.2, B*For Boron contents, span is 0.001-0.005%.
4) minimum chilling temperature (T before gear isothermalmin), this parameter can be determined by formula (4).
Tmin(DEG C)=a2-b2Mn-c2(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)-d2Si-e2Cr-f2Mo-g2Ni-h2W
(4)
In formula, a2=600~680, b2=30~45, c2=35~50, d2=35~50, e2=20~35, f2=15~ 30, g2=10~25, h2=8~20.
5) isothermal normalizing treatment temperature (Tiso), this parameter can be determined by formula (5).
Tiso(DEG C)=[a3-b3Ni-c3Cu+d3Mn+e3Cr+f3Si-g3(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)-h3-[HB-(i3+j3C+
k3Al+l3(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)+m3Si+n3Cu+o3Mn+p3Mo+q3Ni+r3Cu+s3W)]/t3(C-0.1) (5)
In formula, a3=700~750, b3=10~18, c3=14~22, d3=12~20, e3=15~25, f3=25~ 40, g3=30~55, h3=10~25, i3=36~67, j3=80~130, k3=40~60, l3=40~60, m3=35~ 55, n3=18~35, o3=25~35, p3=30~40, q3=30~40, r3=8~20, s3=9~19, t3=1~2.5, HB is that technology requires hardness number.
6) isothermal normalizing temperature retention time (tiso), tiso(min)≥(tm/ 60)+1.5H (H is effective thickness)
tsCan be determined by formula (6).
logtm(s)=[a4C+b4(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)+c4Mo+d4Cr+e4Mn+f4W+g4Ni+h4Si]+i4 (6)
In formula, a4=1.8~3.8, b4=2~4, c4=0.5~0.8, d4=0.2~09.4, e4=0.25~0.45, f4 =0.15~0.35, g4=0.16~0.26, h4=0.12~0.18, i4=1.5~2.5.
7th step: the parameter value calculated according to above-mentioned formula, according to actual heat treatment equipment, completes isothermal normalizing technique Process.(also the numerical value that first five walks can be directly inputted in specialist system as shown in Figure 3, obtain corresponding parameter value)
8th step: verify and adjust.If the hardness number of such as steel part is on the low side, then can be allowed to reduce by adjusting isothermal temperature Improve the hardness number of steel part.Must be pointed out, although current industrial many enterprises all use isothermal normalizing technique, but owing to not having There are its essence implication of grasp and control technology, substantially belong to " false isothermal ".I.e. steel part and same charging basket steel part are all continuous colds But change under temperature match curing conditions, and each steel part is the most variant.Therefore, even if using H steel, after process, steel part is aobvious Micro-assembly robot and hardness also have the technology that do not meets to require, the overproof ratio of heat treatment deformation is the highest.
Embodiment 1:
During 20MnCr steel-tooth wheel blank uses the isothermal normalizing that common normalizing or non-critical control, add hot and cold because of in heaps But (air cooling after air cooling or isothermal), the actual rate of cooling of part being in different parts is different, it is thus achieved that microscopic structure incomplete Identical, the internal stress size of machining, difference is distributed, the deformation that carburizing and quenching causes also differs, and some part occurs Deform overproof.After using present invention process, owing to each part can be made to obtain identical microscopic structure and performance, cutting stress State is identical, and deformation rule is stable.
Embodiment 2:
8620 steel-tooth wheel blanks use the isothermal normalizing that common normalizing or non-critical control at present.Because this steel hardenability is relatively low, After normalizing, hardness low (requiring less than technology), prolongs plasticity height, and machinability is poor, and internal stress is big, and carburizing and quenching deformation overproof rate is the highest (more than 35%), becomes the difficult problem in domestic gear manufacture.The present invention can make this steel base obtain required by microscopic structure and Hardness, so that this product deformation overproof rate is less than 5%.
Embodiment 3:
As a example by the SCM22 steel of three kinds of different components as provided in Fig. 2, as front analysis is learnt, although this kind of H steel Chemical analysis fluctuates in allowed limits, but owing to causing the stability change of hardenability of steel, by common normalizing process After process, microscopic structure and the hardness of three kinds of steel are different, substandard product occur.Eight steps provided according to the present invention Suddenly, the final hardness of obtained steel is HB160-180, and microscopic structure is (F+P).Even if it is to say, the quenching degree of steel Different (chemical analysis is different), use the isothermal normalizing technique of the present invention, and each steel part can obtain identical microscopic structure and power Learning performance, cutting internal stress is little and the regularity of distribution stable, and carburizing and quenching deformation is little, stable.

Claims (1)

1. preventing the method that carburized gears heat treatment deformation is overproof, it is characterized in that, described method combines to be heated Micro-to after steel normalizing of each correlative factor of the component content of carburized gears, distribution consistency degree, grain size, effective thickness Microstructure and mechanical property difference and the impact of inhomogeneities, from austenitizing heating-up temperature, austenitizing holding time, gear etc. Minimum chilling temperature, isothermal normalizing treatment temperature, each work of isothermal normalizing temperature retention time before the longest cool time, gear isothermal before temperature Skill parameter aspect carries out the treatment process for isothermal normalizing of personalization, thus stably obtains microscopic structure and the mechanical property that technology requires Energy;Described treatment process for isothermal normalizing comprises the steps:
The first step: regulation Gear Forging Stock cooling after forged speed≤100 DEG C/h, inspecting its microscopic structure by random samples is pro-eutectoid ferrite (F) Add fine pearlite (P), bainite (B) and martensite (M) content≤5%;
Second step: by the detection of its percentage by weight or the chemical analysis of cognitive product reality steel, including C, Mn, Si, Cr, Ni, Mo、V、Ti、Al;
3rd step: by the banded structure rank of national standard detection steel;
4th step: determine the effective thickness of gear, thus after obtaining the heating of identical isothermal normalizing, the grain size of austenite is with equal Evenness;
5th step: collect the main performance index required by wheel blank normalizing, with the required hardness number reached as leading indicator;
6th step: utilize specialist system to calculate and determine the main points parameter of isothermal normalizing technique:
1) austenitizing temperature TA, unit is DEG C, formula (1) determine,
TA=a0-320C-b0Ni-c0Cu-d0Mn+e0W+f0Mo+g0Cr+h0Si+i0(V+Nb+Zr+Ti)+(80~120) (1)
Wherein, a0=900~930, b0=8~12, c0=10~14, d0=12~16, e0=5~8, f0=10-16, g0=3~ 6, h0=15~20, i0=30~50, C are phosphorus content, and alloying element symbol represents the constituent content of this element, the most identical;
2) austenitizing holding time tA, unit is min, formula (2) determine,
tA=a × H (2)
In formula, a is constant, is 10-15 for alloy carburizing steel;H is effective thickness, and unit is mm, and effective thickness refers to permissible Making each product heart portion be attained by requiring the minimum dimension of temperature, single placement acropachy diameter, tabular dinger thickness degree, by factory The effective thickness method that the heating of steel part heat treatment, cooling determine determines;3) t the longest cool time before gear isothermals, unit is Min, is determined by formula (3);
logts=(0.45-C)+a1Mo+b1(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)+c1W+d1Cr+e1Mn+f1Ni+g1Si+h1B* (3)
In formula, a1=2.5~4.0, b1=1.8~2.6, c1=1.0~1.8, d1=0.8~1.6, e1=0.5~1.2, f1= 0.15~0.35, g1=0.10~0.30, h1=0.6~1.2, B* are Boron contents, and span is 0.001-0.005%;
4) minimum chilling temperature T before gear isothermalmin, unit is DEG C, formula (4) determine,
Tmin=a2-b2Mn-c2(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)-d2Si-e2Cr-f2Mo-g2Ni-h2W (4)
In formula, a2=600~680, b2=30~45, c2=35~50, d2=35~50, e2=20~35, f2=15~30, g2 =10~25, h2=8~20;
5) isothermal normalizing treatment temperature Tiso, unit is DEG C, formula (5) determine,
Tiso=[a3-b3Ni-c3Cu+d3Mn+e3Cr+f3Si-g3(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)-h3-[HB-(i3+j3C+k3Al+l3(V+Ti+ Nb+Zr)+m3Si+n3Cu+o3Mn+p3Mo+q3Ni+r3Cu+s3W)]/t3(C-0.1) (5)
In formula, a3=700~750, b3=10~18, c3=14~22, d3=12~20, e3=15~25, f3=25~40, g3 =30~55, h3=10~25, i3=36~67, j3=80~130, k3=40~60, l3=40~60, m3=35~55, n3 =18~35, o3=25~35, p3=30~40, q3=30~40, r3=8~20, s3=9~19, t3=1~2.5, HB are skill Art requires hardness number;
6) isothermal normalizing temperature retention time tiso, unit is min, tiso≥(tm/ 60)+1.5H, wherein H is effective thickness, and unit is Mm, tmUnit is s, formula (6) determine
logtm=[a4C+b4(V+Ti+Nb+Zr)+c4Mo+d4Cr+e4Mn+f4W+g4Ni+h4Si]+i4 (6)
In formula, a4=1.8~3.8, b4=2~4, c4=0.5~0.8, d4=0.2~09.4, e4=0.25~0.45, f4= 0.15~0.35, g4=0.16~0.26, h4=0.12~0.18, i4=1.5~2.5;
7th step: the parameter value calculated according to above-mentioned formula, according to actual heat treatment equipment, completes at isothermal normalizing technique Reason;
8th step: verify and adjust, if the hardness number of steel part is on the low side, then can be allowed to reduce by adjustment isothermal temperature and improve The hardness number of steel part.
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