CN104018040B - A kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials - Google Patents

A kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104018040B
CN104018040B CN201410283404.6A CN201410283404A CN104018040B CN 104018040 B CN104018040 B CN 104018040B CN 201410283404 A CN201410283404 A CN 201410283404A CN 104018040 B CN104018040 B CN 104018040B
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alloy
sample
temperature
cold
annealing
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CN201410283404.6A
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CN104018040A (en
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郭明星
张济山
庄林忠
彭祥阳
汪小锋
张艳
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北京科技大学
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Abstract

The present invention proposes a kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials and preparation method thereof;Including:Novel aluminum alloy is homogenized, hot rolling deformation into component selections, alloy preparation and melting and casting, intermediate annealing or cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing, cold-rolling deformation, solid solution, quenching and multistage Pre-aging treatment.The alloy material can form a certain amount of multiple dimensioned particle between utilizing different solute elements, and then playing the double action that oversize grain stimulates Recrystallization nucleation and fine particle to hinder recrystal grain to grow up simultaneously in high-temperature heat treatment process so that sheet alloy is constituted in the recrystal grain that stamping preceding tissue is distributed by fine uniform;So that sheet alloy anisotropy is controlled very well, and stamping formabilily is more excellent.The novel aluminum alloy that there is high formability and high baking vanish to harden increment simultaneously is highly suitable to be applied for the manufacture of automobile body outer board, the particularly manufacture to striking out the Irregular Shaped Parts that performance and baking vanish hardening increment have higher requirements.

Description

A kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of aluminum alloy technology, it is related to a kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials and its preparation side Method, is developed particular for automotive field vehicle-body outer panel aluminium alloy to forming property and the particular/special requirement of dent resistance energy, can To ensure that anisotropy is preferably controlled before aluminum alloy plate materials shaping, and with excellent stamping formabilily, and after shaping Excellent baking vanish hardening characteristics are shown during baking vanish in short-term.
Background technology
With being continuously increased for automobile quantity, air pollution and climate condition constantly deteriorate, and countries in the world are to energy-conservation, emission reduction Consciousness constantly strengthen.Therefore, how the automobile lightweight and then purpose that reaches energy-saving and emission-reduction has become automotive field The key issue further developed.It is the light-weighted key of young mobile and aluminium alloy is numerous unique due to having the advantages that Material.Comparatively speaking, the 6xxx line aluminium alloys (i.e. Al-Mg-Si system alloy) in several big series alloys are due to following spy Point:Heat-treatable strengthened, corrosion resistance is good, weldability is good, be easy to surface coloring and formability is good, and what is more important should It is that generally with higher baking vanish hardening characteristics, (again through paint baking, its intensity can be obtained the molded component i.e. after mopping alloy Lifting further by a relatively large margin is obtained, and then causes sheet alloy that there is preferable sag resistant ability), all these advantages cause This is the processing that alloy is highly suitable to be applied for automobile body outer board, and the alloy for having had several trades mark at present obtains extensive Using such as AA6016, AA6111 and AA6022 etc..
In research and application process that Al-Mg-Si system alloy is used as to automobile body outer board, it is alloy tool to be found that while this There is preferable stamping formabilily, r values are general up to more than 0.55, but certain gap is still had compared with steel.Therefore, The stamping formabilily that the line aluminium alloy how is further improved in the case of ensureing that alloy baking vanish hardening capacity is preferable is it More wide variety of key point can be obtained.Because the preparation process of automobile exterior panel Al-Mg-Si system alloy is longer, relate to And heat processing technique it is complex.Therefore, with the change of alloying component and thermal process parameter, sheet alloy is knitted Significant changes can occur for structure component and content, microscopic structure, and then cause the stamping formabilily of sheet alloy also to occur Significantly change.There are some researches show if there is a number of oversize grain (diameter d in alloy substrate>1 μm), deformation states Particle can occur in high-temperature heat treatment process for alloy stimulates Recrystallization nucleation (i.e. so-called PSN effects), causes particle periphery There are a large amount of Recrystallizations, the appearance of these recrystal grains can also the recrystallization texture of sheet alloy to rotate cube Based on texture CubeND and P texture, these texture components are for improving the punching performance of sheet alloy advantageously.
If in addition, it is contemplated that only existing oversize grain in alloy substrate, then on the one hand tiny recrystal grain distribution Can be very uneven, the tiny recrystal grain on the other hand produced by PSN effects is also easy to grow in heat treatment process Greatly.Therefore, if a certain amount of other alloying elements or control hot-working can be further introduced into during composition design Technique causes in cold rolling state alloy substrate while there is a number of oversize grain and nano level small and dispersed particle, then Cold rolling state sheet alloy can necessarily form a large amount of tiny recrystal grains and be not easy during follow-up solution heat treatment Grow up (schematic diagram as shown in Figure 2 in detail), it is final to enable sheet alloy again through Pre-aging treatment simultaneously with excellent Stamping formabilily and baking vanish hardening capacity.The present invention is exactly to carry out new alloy composition design and system according to this design philosophy Standby process exploitation.
The content of the invention
The present invention is in order to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, for the Al-Mg-Si system alloy punching press of current automobile body outer board The problem of forming property is not ideal enough, develops a kind of novel aluminum with excellent punching performance and higher baking vanish hardening capacity and closes Gold.The novel alloy makes full use of different solute element interactions to form multiple dimensioned particle (oversize grain and tiny grain Son etc.), these multiple dimensioned particles can significantly affect the motion mode of dislocation and crystal boundary in hot procedure, and then in high temperature Performance oversize grain stimulates Recrystallization nucleation (PSN effects) simultaneously in heat treatment process and fine particle hinders recrystal grain long Big double action mode, the final recrystal grain that sheet alloy is distributed in stamping preceding tissue by fine uniform Constitute.This tissue signature can not only ensure that sheet alloy anisotropy is controlled very well, and can ensure sheet alloy Stamping formabilily it is more excellent.In addition, the outstanding contributions of multiphase reinforcing have been taken into full account in design of alloy, can be with Ensure to harden increment with higher baking vanish after sheet alloy is stamping, therefore, invention alloy is in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy bodies A certain amount of element Zn is with the addition of on the basis of system, is carried out very by the content to Mg, Si, Cu and Zn main alloying element and proportioning Design and optimize well, finally causing sheet alloy, not only stamping formabilily is more excellent, and baking vanish hardening increment is also obtained Obtained and significantly lifted.The invention alloy is suitably applied the manufacture of automobile body outer board, particularly to strike out performance and The manufacture for the Irregular Shaped Parts that baking vanish hardening increment has higher requirements.
The present invention is by composition design and optimization first to new high formability and the composition model of high baking vanish hardening aluminum alloy Enclose and selected, designed alloy is then prepared and to microstructure evolution process, forming property by processes such as melting and castings Studied with Precipitation behavior, the final novel aluminum alloy composition model determined with high formability and high baking vanish hardening capacity Enclose and sheet alloy corresponding preparation method.Specific preparation technology is as follows:Novel aluminum alloy is into component selections → alloy preparation With melting and casting → ingot homogenization → hot rolling deformation → intermediate annealing (or cold-rolling deformation → intermediate annealing) → cold-rolling deformation → Solid solution → quenching → preageing (as shown in Figure 1).
The first object of the present invention is to propose outside a kind of body of a motor car with high formability and high baking vanish hardening capacity Plate novel aluminum alloy, it is characterised in that the chemical composition and its mass percentage content of the alloy be:Zn:0.02~ 4.2wt%, Mg:0.4~1.5wt%, Si:0.2~1.25wt%, Cu:0.05~1.0wt%, Fe≤0.65wt%, Mn: 0.05~0.5wt%, Cr≤0.25wt%, Ti≤0.25wt%, B≤0.2wt%, surplus are Al.
Preferably, Zn, Si and Cu content range of its chemical composition are respectively Zn:.025~4.0wt%, Si:0.35~ 1.0wt%, Cu:0.1~0.95wt%, the Mg/Si mass of its chemical composition Mg, Si than scope be 1.0~2.3, Fe≤ 0.55wt%, Mn:0.06~0.4wt%.
The second object of the present invention is to propose a kind of above-mentioned automobile body outer board aluminium alloy material with high formability The preparation method of material, the preparation method comprises the following steps:
Step 1: melting and casting:Fine aluminium is all added into crucible first, furnace temperature is set in 850 DEG C, after after fine aluminium fusing Al-20wt%Si, Al-50wt%Cu, Al-20wt%Fe, Al-10wt%Mn intermediate alloy are added, and adds coverture (50wt%NaCl+50wt%KCl);Continue melt heating, treat that intermediate alloy melts, melt temperature enters after reaching 750 DEG C to it Row stirring is well mixed solute element, and setting furnace temperature makes melt cool to 710 DEG C after being then incubated 30min at 750 DEG C, then Pure Zn and pure Mg are added into melt, and is sufficiently stirred for making it thoroughly dissolve;The sampling point when melt temperature reaches 730 DEG C again Composition is analysed, if composition measurement value is less than design load, a certain amount of intermediate alloy is properly added according to scaling loss situation, if composition Measured value is higher than design load, is properly added a certain amount of metal fine aluminium according to excessive value and is diluted;Continue to treat that melt rises to 740 Skimmed after DEG C, add refining agent progress refinery by de-gassing;Al-5wt%Ti- is added when melt temperature then being down into about 720 DEG C 1wt%B grain refiners are simultaneously suitably stirred, and melt finally is cast into surrounding water cooling after this temperature 10min In punching block;
Step 2: single-stage or two-step homogenization:Aluminium alloy of the Zn contents less than 0.5wt% can be directly uniform using single-stage Change, i.e., the alloy sample after melting and casting is warming up to 540~560 DEG C of 15~30h of insulation with 20~50 DEG C/h, then again with 20 ~50 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall takes out sample when being cooled to 100 DEG C with stove;And Zn contents be in 0.5wt%~4.0wt% when, adopt Two-step homogenization technique is used, i.e., the alloy sample after melting and casting is started to warm up with 20~50 DEG C/h heating rates, treats temperature 450~490 DEG C of 2~6h of insulation are reached, then continue to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 15~30h, Ran Houzai with 20~50 DEG C/h Sample is taken out when being cooled to 100 DEG C with stove with 20~50 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall;
Step 3: hot rolling deformation:The sample that step 2 is taken out carries out hot rolling:Start rolling temperature is in 520~555 DEG C, passage Drafts is 4%~36%, and hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature obtains hot rolled plate less than 300 DEG C;
Step 4: intermediate annealing or cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing:The hot rolled plate that step 3 is obtained carries out intermediate annealing Or cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing, then directly take out progress air cooling and obtain annealed state sheet material;
Step 5: cold-rolling deformation:The annealed state sheet material that the step 4 is obtained carries out cold-rolling deformation, the cold-rolling deformation Cold rolling total deformation be in 50%~85% between, reduction in pass be in 10%~35% between obtain cold rolled sheet;
Step 6: solution treatment:The cold rolled sheet that step 5 is obtained carries out solution treatment:In 545~560 DEG C of heat treatments 1~15min solution treatment is carried out in stove, sample heating rate is more than 100 DEG C/min;
Step 7: Quenching Treatment:By the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with the drop more than 100 DEG C/s Warm speed is cooled to room temperature and obtains quenching state sample;
Step 8: multistage Pre-aging treatment:The quenching state sample that step 7 is obtained is transferred to 100 DEG C in 2~5min 1~30min isothermal preageing is carried out in~130 DEG C of isothermal preageing stoves, 60 DEG C~90 DEG C of isothermal is transferred it to 5~15h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in preageing stove, finally it is placed in room temperature and obtained with high formability within 14 days Aluminum alloy plate materials.
It is preferred that the step 4 in intermediate annealing be warming up to 300 with 20 DEG C/h~200 DEG C/min heating rate ~500 DEG C of 1~4h of progress annealing, then directly takes out carry out air cooling.
It is preferred that the step 4 in cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing be that cold-rolling deformation reduction in pass is 10~35%, Total deformation is 30~60%;Intermediate annealing is warming up to 300~500 DEG C with 20 DEG C/h~200 DEG C/min heating rate and entered 1~4h of row annealing, then directly takes out carry out air cooling.
It is preferred that the step 5 in cold-rolling deformation total deformation be in 50%~75% between, reduction in pass is in Between 15%~30%.
It is preferred that the step 6 in solution treatment:2~8min solid solution is carried out in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces Processing, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.
It is preferred that the step 7 in Quenching Treatment, by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with big Room temperature, which is cooled to, in 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall obtains quenching state sample.
It is preferred that the step 8 in multistage Pre-aging treatment, quenching state sample is transferred to 110 DEG C in 2~5min 1~15min isothermal preageing is carried out in~130 DEG C of isothermal preageing stoves, 60 DEG C~80 DEG C of isothermal is transferred it to 6~13h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in preageing stove, finally it is placed in room temperature and obtained with high formability within 14 days Aluminum alloy plate materials.
By using above-mentioned technical scheme, the present invention has following superiority:The present invention automobile high formability and High baking vanish hardening novel aluminum alloy can make full use of different scale particle in matrix to recrystal grain forming core, answering of growing up Reciprocation is closed, so that the recrystallization crystal particle dimension after solution treatment is tiny and uniform, is formed with and is struck out beneficial to raising The rotation cubic texture or P texture of shape performance, or texture are weakened;In addition, invention alloy makes full use of solute element Cu Deng to Mg-Si and Mg-Zn formation solute atoms cluster or corresponding GP areas facilitation, and by suitably process and heat at Reason process control causes sheet alloy after Pre-aging treatment, can not only show excellent stamping formabilily, and Excellent baking vanish hardening characteristics can be shown.Alloy of the present invention is highly suitable to be applied for adding for automobile body outer board aluminium alloy Work and production, and have the production and application of other parts of particular requirement to stamping formabilily, it also is adapted for being applied to certainly The other technology industries being had higher requirements to aluminium alloy forming property and aging response speed.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is alloy preparation technology flow chart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 different scales particle stimulate Recrystallization nucleation and growth process illustraton of model (a) (b) (c) solute element concentration compared with
Low aluminium alloy, the higher aluminium alloy of (d) (e) (f) solute element concentration;
The TEM microscopic structures of the cold rolling states of 5# alloys 1mm in Fig. 3 embodiments 5;
Fig. 4 a are 5# alloy solid solution quenching state alloy grain size schematic diagrames in embodiment 5;
Fig. 4 b are the EBSD analysis schematic diagrames of 5# alloy solid solution quenching states alloy grain orientation in embodiment 5;
6# alloy solid solutions quenching state alloy grain size schematic diagram in Fig. 5 a embodiments 6;
The EBSD analysis schematic diagrames that 6# alloy solid solution quenching states alloy grain is orientated in Fig. 5 b embodiments 6.
Embodiment
The present invention is further supplemented and described with reference to specific embodiment.
Fig. 1 is alloy preparation technology flow chart of the present invention;Preparation technology comprises the following steps as shown in the figure:
Raw material be respectively adopted 99.9wt% rafifinal, technical pure Mg, technical pure Zn, intermediate alloy Al-20wt%Si, Al-50wt%Cu, Al-20wt%Fe, Al-10wt%Mn etc..Specific fusion process in resistance furnace is, first that fine aluminium is complete Portion adds crucible, and furnace temperature is set in into 850 DEG C, after addition Al-20wt%Si, Al-50wt%Cu, Al- after fine aluminium fusing 20wt%Fe, Al-10wt%Mn intermediate alloy, and add coverture (50wt%NaCl+50wt%KCl);Continue melt heating, Treat that intermediate alloy melts, melt temperature, which reaches it to be stirred after 750 DEG C, is well mixed solute element, then at 750 DEG C Setting furnace temperature makes melt cool to 710 DEG C after insulation 30min, pure Zn and pure Mg is then added into melt, and be sufficiently stirred for making It thoroughly dissolves;Sampling analysis composition when melt temperature reaches 730 DEG C again, if composition measurement value is less than design load, root A certain amount of intermediate alloy is properly added according to scaling loss situation, if composition measurement value is higher than design load, is suitably added according to excessive value Plus a certain amount of metal fine aluminium is diluted;Continue to skim after melt rises to 740 DEG C, add refining agent progress refinery by de-gassing; Al-5wt%Ti-1wt%B grain refiners are added when melt temperature then being down into about 720 DEG C and are suitably stirred, finally Melt is cast in the punching block of surrounding water cooling after this temperature 10min.The specific chemical composition of alloy of carrying out an invention is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 carries out an invention alloy composition (mass percent, wt%)
Invention alloy cast ingot carries out Homogenization Treatments in circulation air stove, and handling process is:Zn contents are less than 0.5wt% Aluminium alloy can directly using single-stage homogenize, i.e., the alloy sample after melting and casting is continued to be warming up to 20~50 DEG C/h 540~560 DEG C of 15~30h of insulation, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 20~50 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall; And Zn contents are when being in 0.5wt%~4.0wt%, using two-step homogenization technique, i.e., by the alloy sample after melting and casting with 20~50 DEG C/h heating rates are started to warm up, and treat that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of 2~6h of insulation, then continue liter with 20~50 DEG C/h Temperature is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 20~50 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall and tried to 540~560 DEG C of 15~30h of insulation Sample, then carries out hot rolling deformation → intermediate annealing (or cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing) → cold-rolling deformation, so to homogenization state ingot casting The sheet coupon cut is put into the solution treatment that 2~8min is carried out in 545~560 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces afterwards, and it is quenched Fire processing, multistage Pre-aging treatment is then carried out to the sample after quenching, finally preageing state sheet alloy is struck out Shape performance and the measurement of baking vanish hardening capacity, and typicalness alloy microscopic structure are characterized.Specific embodiment is as follows:
Embodiment 1
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 1#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed is warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 16h, takes out and tries when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, heat Total deformation > 92% is rolled, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;300 are warming up to 40 DEG C/h heating rate to the sheet material after hot rolling ~500 DEG C of progress 1.5h annealing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled at 1mm thickness, reduction in pass In 10~30%, total deformation is 50~75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in 545~555 DEG C of heat 3min solution treatment is carried out in treatment furnace, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment Room temperature is cooled to from solid solution temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then quenching state sample is turned in 2~5min Move on in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves and carry out 2min isothermal preageing, transfer it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C 12h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in isothermal preageing stove, and 14 days (T4P preageings state) is placed in room temperature.Then will be many Level preageing state sample is divided into two groups, and performance is directly formed in one group of sample and the measurement of other mechanical properties (refers to the institute of table 2 Show), and another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, and then it is carried out at 185 DEG C/20min simulation baking vanish The baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 4 below) of reason analysis sheet alloy.
Embodiment 2
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 2#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 3h, then continue with 25 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 16h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, It is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies to roll, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature Less than 300 DEG C;300~500 DEG C of progress 1.5h annealing is warming up to 40 DEG C/h heating rate to the sheet material after hot rolling, Being cooled down in air cooling mode, it is thick to be then cold rolled to 1mm, reduction in pass is in 10~30%, total deformation is 50~ 75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in progress 3min solution treatment in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, Sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min pre- Carry out carrying out 12h in 2min isothermal preageing, the isothermal preageing stove for transferring it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C in aging furnace Isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and room temperature place 14 days (T4P preageings state).Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 2 below) is directly formed in group, one group of sample, and another group of sample enters first The pre-stretching of row 2%~5%, the baking vanish that 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy is then carried out to it is hard Quantizer input quantization increment (as shown in Table 4 below).
Embodiment 3
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 3#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed begins to warm to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 22h, is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, Hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;Sheet material after hot rolling is warming up to 100 DEG C/h heating rate 300~500 DEG C of progress 2.5h annealing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, passage pressure Amount is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50~75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in 545~555 5min solution treatment is carried out in DEG C heat-treatment furnace, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy after solution treatment Sample is cooled to room temperature from solid solution temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then by quenching state sample in 2~5min The isothermal preageing that 5min is carried out in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves is inside transferred to, 60 DEG C~80 are transferred it to DEG C isothermal preageing stove in carry out 9h isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and room temperature place 14 days (T4P preageings state).Then will Multistage preageing state sample is divided into two groups, and performance is directly formed in one group of sample and the measurement of other mechanical properties (refers to the institute of table 2 Show), and another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, and then it is carried out at 185 DEG C/20min simulation baking vanish The baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 4 below) of reason analysis sheet alloy.
Embodiment 4
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 4#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 4h, then continue with 25 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 22h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, It is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies to roll, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature Less than 300 DEG C;At the annealing for being warming up to 300~500 DEG C of progress 2.5h with 100 DEG C/h heating rate to the sheet material after hot rolling Reason, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, and reduction in pass is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50 ~75%;Then sample is directly cut on cold rolled sheet again to be placed in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces at progress 5min solid solutions Reason, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min Carry out carrying out 9h in 5min isothermal preageing, the isothermal preageing stove for transferring it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C in preageing stove Isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and room temperature place 14 days (T4P preageings state).Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 2 below) is directly formed in group, one group of sample, and another group of sample enters first The pre-stretching of row 2%~5%, the baking vanish that 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy is then carried out to it is hard Quantizer input quantization increment (as shown in Table 4 below).
Embodiment 5
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 5#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed begins to warm to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 29h, is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, Hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;Sheet material after hot rolling is heated up with 150 DEG C/min heating rate To 300~500 DEG C of progress 3.5h annealing, cooled down in air cooling mode, be then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, passage pressure Lower amount is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50~75%;Then directly cut on cold rolled sheet again sample be placed in 545~ 7min solution treatment is carried out in 555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by after solution treatment Alloy sample is cooled to room temperature from solid solution temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then by quenching state sample 2~ The isothermal preageing that 10min is carried out in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves is transferred in 5min, 60 are transferred it to DEG C~80 DEG C of isothermal preageing stove in carry out 7h isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and place 14 days (T4P preageings state) in room temperature. Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two groups, performance and the measurement of other mechanical properties is directly formed (in detail in one group of sample It is shown in Table 2), and another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, and 185 DEG C/20min simulation is finally carried out to it The baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 4 below) of paint baking analysis sheet alloy, while being carried out using TEM to the cold rolling state of 5# alloys Microscopic examination (as shown in Figure 3), and the crystallite dimension and texture distribution situation of 5# sheet alloys are analyzed (such as using EBSD Shown in Fig. 4 a and b).
Embodiment 6
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 6#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 5h, then continue with 20~50 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of guarantors Warm 29h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.By ingot casting crop milling after homogenization Face, is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, and reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finish to gauge temperature Degree is less than 300 DEG C;300~500 DEG C of progress 3.5h annealing is warming up to 150 DEG C/min heating rate to the sheet material after hot rolling Processing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, and reduction in pass is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50~75%;Then sample is directly cut on cold rolled sheet again to be placed in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces at progress 7min solid solutions Reason, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min 10min isothermal preageing is carried out in preageing stove, transfers it in 60 DEG C~80 DEG C of isothermal preageing stove and carries out 7h isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and place 14 days (T4P preageings state) in room temperature.Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 2 below) is directly formed in group, one group of sample, and another group of sample enters first The pre-stretching of row 2%~5%, the baking vanish that 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy is finally carried out to it is hard Quantizer input quantization increment (as shown in Table 4 below), while analyzing the crystallite dimension and texture distribution situation of 6# sheet alloys (as schemed using EBSD Shown in 5a and b).
Embodiment 7
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 1#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed begins to warm to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 16h, is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, Hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation, passage pressure first to hot rolled plate Lower amount is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 300 with 40 DEG C/h heating rate~ 500 DEG C of progress 1.5h annealing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, and reduction in pass is in 10~30%, total deformation is 50~75%;Then sample is directly cut on cold rolled sheet again to be placed at 545~555 DEG C of heat Manage and 3min solution treatment is carried out in stove, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from Solid solution temperature is cooled to room temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then quenching state sample is shifted in 2~5min Into 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves carry out 2min isothermal preageing, transfer it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C etc. 12h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in warm preageing stove, and 14 days (T4P preageings state) is placed in room temperature.Then by multistage Preageing state sample is divided into two groups, and performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 3 below) is directly formed in one group of sample, And another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking point is then carried out to it Analyse the baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 5 below) of sheet alloy.
Embodiment 8
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 2#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 3h, then continue with 25 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 16h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, It is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies to roll, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature Less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation first to hot rolled plate, reduction in pass is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30 ~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 300~500 DEG C of progress 1.5h annealing with 40 DEG C/h heating rate, with Air cooling mode is cooled down, and it is thick to be then cold rolled to 1mm, and reduction in pass is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50~ 75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in progress 3min solution treatment in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, Sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min pre- Carry out carrying out 12h in 2min isothermal preageing, the isothermal preageing stove for transferring it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C in aging furnace Isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and room temperature place 14 days (T4P preageings state).Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 3 below) is directly formed in group, one group of sample, and another group of sample enters first The pre-stretching of row 2%~5%, the baking vanish that 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy is then carried out to it is hard Quantizer input quantization increment (as shown in Table 5 below).
Embodiment 9
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 3#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed begins to warm to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 22h, is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, Hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation, passage pressure first to hot rolled plate Lower amount is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 300 with 100 DEG C/h heating rate ~500 DEG C of progress 2.5h annealing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled at 1mm thickness, reduction in pass In 10~30%, total deformation is 50~75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in 545~555 DEG C of heat 5min solution treatment is carried out in treatment furnace, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment Room temperature is cooled to from solid solution temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then quenching state sample is turned in 2~5min Move on in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves and carry out 5min isothermal preageing, transfer it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C 9h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in isothermal preageing stove, and 14 days (T4P preageings state) is placed in room temperature.Then by multistage Preageing state sample is divided into two groups, and performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 3 below) is directly formed in one group of sample, And another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking point is then carried out to it Analyse the baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 5 below) of sheet alloy.
Embodiment 10
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 4#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 4h, then continue with 25 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 22h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.Ingot casting is cut into 12 millings after homogenization Face, is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, and reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finish to gauge temperature Degree is less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation first to hot rolled plate, reduction in pass is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 300~500 DEG C of progress 2.5h annealing with 100 DEG C/h heating rate, Being cooled down in air cooling mode, it is thick to be then cold rolled to 1mm, reduction in pass is in 10~30%, total deformation is 50~ 75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in progress 5min solution treatment in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, Sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min pre- 5min isothermal preageing is carried out in aging furnace, transfers it in 60 DEG C~80 DEG C of isothermal preageing stove and carries out 9h's Isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and place 14 days (T4P preageings state) in room temperature.Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two groups, Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 3 below) is directly formed in one group of sample, and another group of sample is carried out first 2%~5% pre-stretching, then carries out the baking vanish hardening of 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy to it Increment (as shown in Table 5 below).
Embodiment 11
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 5#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 45 DEG C/h Speed begins to warm to 540~560 DEG C of insulation 29h, is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 45 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall Sample.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, it is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies and rolls, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, Hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature is less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation, passage pressure first to hot rolled plate Lower amount is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 150 DEG C/min heating rate 300~500 DEG C of progress 3.5h annealing, is cooled down in air cooling mode, is then cold rolled to 1mm thickness, passage pressure Amount is in 10~30%, and total deformation is 50~75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in 545~555 7min solution treatment is carried out in DEG C heat-treatment furnace, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy after solution treatment Sample is cooled to room temperature from solid solution temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s.Then by quenching state sample in 2~5min Inside be transferred in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves carry out 10min isothermal preageing, transfer it to 60 DEG C~ 7h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in 80 DEG C of isothermal preageing stove, and 14 days (T4P preageings state) is placed in room temperature.Then Multistage preageing state sample is divided into two groups, performance is directly formed in one group of sample and the measurement of other mechanical properties (refers to table 3 It is shown), and another group of sample carries out 2%~5% pre-stretching first, and 185 DEG C/20min simulation baking vanish is then carried out to it The baking vanish hardening increment (as shown in Table 5 below) of Treatment Analysis sheet alloy.
Embodiment 12
Carry out an invention after the smelting castings of alloy 6#, Homogenization Treatments are carried out to it, handling process is:Heated up with 25 DEG C/h Speed is started to warm up, and treats that temperature reaches 450~490 DEG C of insulation 5h, then continue with 25 DEG C/h to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of insulations 29h, sample is taken out when being then cooled to 100 DEG C with stove again with 25 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall.By ingot casting crop milling face after homogenization, It is reheated to 520~555 DEG C of heat supplies to roll, reduction in pass is 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature Less than 300 DEG C;Carry out a certain amount of cold-rolling deformation first to hot rolled plate, reduction in pass is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30 ~60%;Then cold rolled sheet is warming up to 300~500 DEG C of progress 3.5h annealing with 150 DEG C/min heating rate, Being cooled down in air cooling mode, it is thick to be then cold rolled to 1mm, reduction in pass is in 10~30%, total deformation is 50~ 75%;Then directly cut sample on cold rolled sheet again and be placed in progress 7min solution treatment in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, Sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.Then by the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with more than 200 DEG C/s rate of temperature fall is cooled to room temperature.Quenching state sample is then transferred to 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermals in 2~5min pre- Carry out carrying out 7h in 10min isothermal preageing, the isothermal preageing stove for transferring it to 60 DEG C~80 DEG C in aging furnace Isothermal Pre-aging treatment, and room temperature place 14 days (T4P preageings state).Then multistage preageing state sample is divided into two Performance and other mechanical properties measurement (as shown in Table 3 below) is directly formed in group, one group of sample, and another group of sample enters first The pre-stretching of row 2%~5%, the baking vanish that 185 DEG C/20min simulation paint baking analysis sheet alloy is then carried out to it is hard Quantizer input quantization increment (as shown in Table 5 below).
Mechanical property of several sheet alloys in T4P states in the embodiment 1-6 of table 2
Mechanical property of several sheet alloys in T4P states in the embodiment 7-12 of table 3
Several sheet alloy T4P states and simulation baking vanish state mechanical property in the embodiment 1-6 of table 4
Several sheet alloy isothermal T4P states and simulation baking vanish state mechanical property in the embodiment 7-12 of table 5
Because alloying component, heat processing technique and heat treating regime etc. are to Al-Mg-Si system alloy stamping formabilily Have an impact with baking vanish hardening increment, in particular with solute element change in concentration in alloy substrate, corresponding processing and heat treatment Technique must carry out certain adjustment, be only possible to so that a certain amount of different scale can be distributed with before solid solution in alloy substrate Particle, and then desired impact effect of the invention is produced to alloy recrystallization process and Texture evolution process.Fig. 2 shows this The schematic diagram regulated and controled using multiple dimensioned particle to recrystallization crystal particle dimension and form is intended in invention.Black line or dotted line in figure The Zona transformans formed in deformation process is represented, black point-like and black irregular pattern represent the different scale grain of distribution in matrix Son, grey irregular pattern represents recrystal grain.For the relatively low alloy of content of solute, though in cold rolling state alloy substrate A number of particle can be also so distributed with, but particle is mainly Mg2Si and Al15Mn3Si2Phase.These particle sizes are not Greatly, it is not small (reaching nanoscale) yet, so these particles can neither play PSN effects in high-temperature heat treatment process causes grain A large amount of recrystal grain forming cores, can not significantly hinder growing up for recrystal grain around sub, finally cause alloy with heat at The increase of reason time, the recrystal grain initially formed is quickly grown up (shown in such as Fig. 2 (a) (b) (c)).And for solute The higher alloy of concentration of element, is regulated and controled so that can be distributed with alloy substrate certain by suitably processing with Technology for Heating Processing The different scale particle of quantity, including thick Al (Fe, Mn) Si phases and tiny Mg2Si、Al6Mn or Al15Mn3Si2It is equal, Alloy, because the strain energy storage around oversize grain is larger, can induce largely again after cold-rolling deformation in high-temperature heat treatment process Crystal grain forming core (shown in such as Fig. 2 (e)), simultaneously because more small and dispersed particle is also distributed with alloy substrate (such as Al6Mn or Al15Mn3Si2Phase) grown up for recrystal grain with certain inhibition, finally cause alloy recrystallization crystal grain Size fine uniform, and because this inhibition can also cause crystal grain orientation rotation difficulty to increase and then influence in sheet alloy The Texture evolution process in portion, the final texture component for contain in alloy substrate and content advantageously shape in alloy punching The raising of performance.The present invention is exactly to carry out design of alloy according to this design philosophy, and passes through suitable heat processing technique Deng what is regulated and controled to tissue and performance.Embodiment 1~6 using intermediate annealing is carried out first after hot rolling, then carries out one again Determine the cold rolling of deflection and be machined to 1mm, then the solution hardening follow-up to sheet alloy progress and Pre-aging treatment etc., alloy Combination property is as shown in table 2.As can be seen from Table 2, with the increase of solute element concentration, the particle kind of distribution in alloy substrate Class is more and particle size range is bigger (as shown in the particle distribution map in the cold rolling state alloy substrates of Fig. 3 (a) (b)), more adjunction The nearly present invention regulates and controls the design philosophy of alloy structure and performance initially with different scale particle, even if therefore being just observed that Its corresponding forming property r value is also continuously increased in the case that alloy strength is continuously increased, and reaches as high as more than 0.6.To 5# and 6# alloy solid solutions state carries out corresponding EBSD crystallite dimensions and textile analysis it can be found that average grain size in 5# alloy substrates Only 15 μm or so, the texture component after corresponding texture component is also heat-treated with conventional aluminum alloys differs greatly, and mainly includes 18 ° of cube orientation Cube is have rotated around normal directionND18、Goss{011}<100>Texture, Copper { 112 }<111>Texture and P {011}<122>Texture, its corresponding volume fraction is respectively:9.95th, 4.20,4.54 and 6.36% (such as Fig. 4 (a) (b) institute Show).Rotation cubic texture CubeND18 and P texture in these texture components is conducive to the raising of alloy punching forming property With anisotropic reduction.But when containing a number of Zn elements in alloy substrate (the 6# alloys in such as embodiment 6), The crystallite dimension of the alloy not only further declines, and average grain size is only 14 μm, and what is more important is passed through Composition and process optimization, have also disappeared, the crystal grain in alloy substrate takes even if the faint texture observed in 5# alloy substrates To in random orientation (shown in such as Fig. 5 (a) (b)), this is very beneficial for reducing the anisotropy of sheet alloy and improves it substantially Corresponding stamping formabilily (as shown in table 2).
In addition, by table 2 it can be found that using the preparation technology in embodiment 1~6, although the punching press of 4#, 5# and 6# alloy Forming property is preferable, but the stamping formabilily of 1#, 2# and 3# alloy is relatively low (r values are generally less than 0.6).Therefore, it is right In the new series aluminium alloy developed, it is necessary to develop it is a kind of advantageously in improve this be alloy punching forming property preparation Technique, and be also using the stamping formabilily of suitable heat processing technique regulation and control texture component and content and then raising alloy One of means generally used at present.Embodiment 7-12 uses the cold-rolling deformation for carrying out certain deflection after hot rolling first, so Carry out intermediate annealing again afterwards, be then machined to 1mm by annealed state sheet alloy is cold rolling again, and follow-up consolidate is carried out to sheet alloy Molten quenching and Pre-aging treatment etc., alloy combination property is as shown in table 3.As can be seen from Table 3,1#-6# alloys are through this technique After processing, its corresponding r value is significantly improved, and the r values of 1# alloys bring up to 0.595 by 0.571 in embodiment 1, and 6# alloys increase rate is bigger (bringing up to 0.727 by 0.617 in embodiment 6).As can be seen here, different scale grain is made full use of Son is simultaneously aided with certain heat processing technique regulation and control and can be obviously improved the stamping formabilily of Al-Mg-Si system alloy, makes its r value More than 0.7 is once brought up to by conventional 0.6, the alloy and preparation technology developed are suitably applied Complex Automobile Parts Punching.
Because automobile board to stamping formabilily in addition to it there are certain requirements, increasing also is hardened to the baking vanish of sheet alloy Amount has higher requirement, otherwise can be relatively low due to auto parts and components intensity in actual application and deform or be recessed Problem.Invention alloy after the multistage isothermal Pre-aging treatment in embodiment 1~12, then through certain predeformation and 185 DEG C/ Very excellent baking vanish hardening increment is shown after 20min simulation paint bakings (as shown in table 4 and table 5).But with not adding Plus the Al-Mg-Si system alloy of Zn elements is compared, add a certain amount of element Zn again through multistage isothermal Pre-aging treatment substantially To show preferable baking vanish hardening increment.This is mainly due to can be with the Mg elements in alloy substrate after addition element Zn Mg-Zn solute elements cluster or formation and similar hardening constituent (such as η ') in Al-Zn-Mg systems alloys are formed, so that sending out Bright alloy can make full use of multiphase complex intensifying effect (including Mg-Si, Mg-Zn solute atoms cluster, β " are equal with η '), most Excellent baking vanish hardening increment is shown eventually.The baking vanish hardening increment of invention alloy reaches as high as 157MPa, and this increment is much high In the baking vanish hardening increment (being only 80~90MPa) of the AA6016 and AA6111 alloys of current commodity production.
In summary, the present invention is by composition design, processing and optimization of Heat Treatment Process, and then to divide in alloy substrate The different scale particle of certain content is furnished with, stimulation (i.e. PSN effect) of the oversize grain to recrystal grain forming core is utilized The inhibition grown up with small and dispersed particle to recrystal grain is so that recrystal grain is tiny after sheet alloy solution hardening Uniformly, corresponding texture with rotate cube and P texture based on, not there is texture even, finally cause the performance of T4P states sheet alloy Go out excellent stamping formabilily.In addition, by suitable preageing technique to each main alloying element Mg in novel aluminum alloy, The fine regulation and control of Si, Cu and Zn interphase interaction, the invention alloy finally also made equally has very excellent baking vanish hardening Increment.Therefore, alloy of the present invention and technique are not only highly suitable to be applied for the manufacture of automobile body outer board aluminium alloy, so that plus Fast automotive light weight technology process, and exploitation, processing for other field high formability and quick aging response type aluminium alloy Also there is certain directive significance with application, be worth automobile production producer and aluminium alloy processing enterprise to this invention alloy and related Preparation technology paid attention to, it is promoted and is applied in this field as early as possible.
Although an embodiment of the present invention has been shown and described, for the ordinary skill in the art, can be with A variety of changes, modification can be carried out to these embodiments, replace without departing from the principles and spirit of the present invention by understanding And modification, the scope of the present invention is by appended claims and its equivalent limits.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that the chemical composition and its mass percent of the alloy contain Measure and be:Zn:3.0~4.0wt%, Mg:0.4~1.5wt%, Si:0.35~1.0wt%, Cu:0.1~0.95wt%, Fe≤ 0.55wt%, Mn:0.06~0.4wt%, Cr≤0.25wt%, Ti≤0.25wt%, B≤0.2wt%, surplus are Al, and it is changed It is 1.0~2.3, the preparation method of automobile high formability aluminum alloy materials that point Mg, Si Mg/Si mass, which is studied, than scope Comprise the following steps:
Step 1: melting and casting:Fine aluminium is all added into crucible first, furnace temperature is set in 850 DEG C, is added after after fine aluminium fusing Al-20wt%Si, Al-50wt%Cu, Al-20wt%Fe, Al-10wt%Mn intermediate alloy, and add coverture 50wt% NaCl+50wt%KCl;Continue melt heating, treat that intermediate alloy melts, melt temperature, which reaches to be stirred it after 750 DEG C, to be made Solute element is well mixed, and setting furnace temperature makes melt cool to 710 DEG C after being then incubated 30min at 750 DEG C, then into melt Pure Zn and pure Mg are added, and is sufficiently stirred for making it thoroughly dissolve;Sampling analysis composition when melt temperature reaches 730 DEG C again, If composition measurement value is less than design load, a certain amount of intermediate alloy is properly added according to scaling loss situation, if composition measurement value Higher than design load, a certain amount of metal fine aluminium is properly added according to excessive value and is diluted;Continue to take off after melt rises to 740 DEG C Slag, addition refining agent carry out refinery by de-gassing;It is brilliant that Al-5wt%Ti-1wt%B is added when melt temperature then being down into about 720 DEG C Grain fining agent is simultaneously suitably stirred, and is finally cast to melt in the punching block of surrounding water cooling after this temperature 10min;
Step 2: single-stage or two-step homogenization:Aluminium alloy of the Zn contents less than 0.5wt% is directly homogenized using single-stage, will Alloy sample after melting and casting is warming up to 540~560 DEG C of 15~30h of insulation with 20~50 DEG C/h, then again with 20~50 DEG C/ H rate of temperature fall takes out sample when being cooled to 100 DEG C with stove;And Zn contents be in 0.5wt%~4.0wt% when, using twin-stage Homogenization process, i.e., started to warm up with 20~50 DEG C/h heating rates by the alloy sample after melting and casting, treat that temperature reaches 450 ~490 DEG C of 2~6h of insulation, then continue to be warming up to 540~560 DEG C of 15~30h of insulation with 20~50 DEG C/h, then again with 20~50 DEG C/h rate of temperature fall takes out sample when being cooled to 100 DEG C with stove;
Step 3: hot rolling deformation:The sample that step 2 is taken out carries out hot rolling:Start rolling temperature is in 520~555 DEG C, passage pressure Measure as 4%~36%, hot rolling total deformation > 92%, finishing temperature obtains hot rolled plate less than 300 DEG C;
Step 4: intermediate annealing or cold-rolling deformation+intermediate annealing:The hot rolled plate that step 3 is obtained carries out intermediate annealing or cold Deformation+intermediate annealing is rolled, progress air cooling is then directly taken out and obtains annealed state sheet material;
Step 5: cold-rolling deformation:The annealed state sheet material that the step 4 is obtained carries out cold-rolling deformation, the cold-rolling deformation it is cold Roll total deformation to be between 50%~85%, reduction in pass obtains cold rolled sheet between being in 10%~35%;
Step 6: solution treatment:The cold rolled sheet that step 5 is obtained carries out solution treatment:In 545~560 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces 1~15min solution treatment is carried out, sample heating rate is more than 100 DEG C/min;
Step 7: Quenching Treatment:By the alloy sample after solution treatment from solid solution temperature with the cooling speed more than 100 DEG C/s Rate is cooled to room temperature and obtains quenching state sample;
Step 8: multistage Pre-aging treatment:The quenching state sample that step 7 is obtained is transferred to 100 DEG C~130 in 2~5min 1~30min isothermal preageing is carried out in DEG C isothermal preageing stove, 60 DEG C~90 DEG C of isothermal preageing is transferred it to 5~15h isothermal Pre-aging treatment is carried out in stove, finally it is placed in room temperature and obtains the aluminium alloy with high formability within 14 days Sheet material.
2. automobile as claimed in claim 1 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:Centre in the step 4 Annealing is warming up to 300~500 DEG C of 1~4h of progress annealing, Ran Houzhi with 20 DEG C/h~200 DEG C/min heating rate Access out carry out air cooling.
3. automobile as claimed in claim 1 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:It is cold rolling in the step 4 Deformation+intermediate annealing is that cold-rolling deformation reduction in pass is 10~35%, and total deformation is 30~60%;Intermediate annealing is with 20 DEG C/h~200 DEG C/min heating rate is warming up to 300~500 DEG C of 1~4h of progress annealings, then directly takes out progress Air cooling.
4. automobile as claimed in claim 3 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:It is cold rolling in the step 5 Deform total deformation to be between 50%~75%, reduction in pass is between 15%~30%.
5. automobile as claimed in claim 3 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:Solid solution in the step 6 Processing:2~8min solution treatment is carried out in 545~555 DEG C of heat-treatment furnaces, sample heating rate is more than 200 DEG C/min.
6. automobile as claimed in claim 3 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:Quenching in the step 7 Processing, is cooled to room temperature with the rate of temperature fall more than 200 DEG C/s from solid solution temperature by the alloy sample after solution treatment and obtains To quenching state sample.
7. automobile as claimed in claim 3 high formability aluminum alloy materials, it is characterised in that:Multistage in the step 8 Pre-aging treatment, by quenching state sample be transferred in 2~5min in 110 DEG C~130 DEG C isothermal preageing stoves carry out 1~ 15min isothermal preageing, the isothermal for transferring it to 6~13h of progress in 60 DEG C~80 DEG C of isothermal preageing stove is pre- Ageing Treatment, it is finally placed obtain the aluminum alloy plate materials with high formability in 14 days in room temperature.
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