CN104014905A - Observation device and method of three-dimensional shape of molten pool in GTAW welding process - Google Patents

Observation device and method of three-dimensional shape of molten pool in GTAW welding process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104014905A
CN104014905A CN201410249929.8A CN201410249929A CN104014905A CN 104014905 A CN104014905 A CN 104014905A CN 201410249929 A CN201410249929 A CN 201410249929A CN 104014905 A CN104014905 A CN 104014905A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
welding
molten bath
welding process
molten pool
gtaw
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CN201410249929.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李海超
高洪明
金泽石
贾国庆
吕明达
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Priority to CN201410249929.8A priority Critical patent/CN104014905A/en
Publication of CN104014905A publication Critical patent/CN104014905A/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/12Automatic feeding or moving of electrodes or work for spot or seam welding or cutting
    • B23K9/127Means for tracking lines during arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/1272Geometry oriented, e.g. beam optical trading
    • B23K9/1274Using non-contact, optical means, e.g. laser means

Abstract

The invention provides an observation device and method of the three-dimensional shape of a molten pool in the GTAW welding process and belongs to the technical field of automatic welding. The observation device and method aim to solve the problem that only two-dimensional information of the molten pool can be obtained through an existing molten pool observation method based on vision sensing. The method is implemented on the basis of a GTAW welding device. The observation device comprises a laser, a grid diffraction grating, an image screen, an optical filter, a CCD camera and an image acquisition card. The method includes the steps that grid structured light is formed through the grid diffraction grating and used for irradiating the surface of the molten pool; the grid structured light is reflected through the molten pool and imaged on the image screen; image data are processed, the three-dimensional shape of the molten pool is obtained finally by extracting three-dimensional information of the molten pool in the welding process, real-time monitoring of the molten pool in the welding process is achieved, and consequently the whole welding process can be controlled. The observation device and method are used for observation of the three-dimensional shape of the molten pool in the welding process.

Description

Molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device and method in GTAW welding process

Technical field

The present invention relates to molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device and method in GTAW welding process, belong to automatic welding technique field.

Background technology

Automatic welding is for improving weld job condition, enhancing productivity, ensure that welding quality is significant.Welding in the extreme environments such as the maintenance of the underwater construction of ocean engineering and maintenance, nuclear power plant equipment and the construction of space station, welder is difficult to be in the action, and can only rely on welding robot to weld.No matter be the welding under automatic welding or extreme environment, monitoring welding process also obtains welding pool state, thereby realizes significant to the control welding quality control of welding work pieces fusion penetration and penetration.

At present, welding quality control mainly realizes by the weld size of controlling appearance of weld process.The method that current acquisition weld seam pattern adopts comprises: supersonic sensing, electric arc sensing, infrared sensing and visual sensing etc.The mainly detection to current molten bath information by sensor of these method for sensing, carries out real-time online adjusting by analyzing molten bath information to relevant parameters such as welding currents, thereby realizes the quality control of automatic welding.Visual sensing, owing to having abundant welding process information, not only can be realized the monitoring of welding process, and can extract weld size information, is the important method that realizes welding quality control.

What in the existing molten bath observation procedure based on visual sensing, extract acquisition is all the two-dimensional signal in molten bath.In welding process, molten bath 3 d surface topography is carrying abundant information, can reflect the situation such as stability, welding penetration state of welding process, and therefore weld pool surface pattern sensing and 3-d recovery thereof have profound significance.

Summary of the invention

The present invention seeks to can only obtain in order to solve the existing molten bath observation procedure based on visual sensing the problem of the two-dimensional signal in molten bath, molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device and method in a kind of GTAW welding process are provided.

Molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process of the present invention, it is realized based on GTAW welder, and described GTAW welder comprises welding work pieces, welding torch, computer, the source of welding current, motion platform, data collecting card and motion control cabinet,

The end of welding torch is near the place to be welded of welding work pieces, and welding work pieces is placed on motion platform, and the source of welding current, for being connected with welding torch and welding work pieces in welding process, forms welding circuit;

The electric current output of the Computercontrolled data acquisition card outputting analog signal amount control source of welding current, computer is also controlled data collecting card output pulse signal to motion control cabinet, by motion control cabinet controlled motion platform to realize the adjusting of welding work pieces speed of welding;

It comprises laser instrument, auze diffraction grating, as screen, optical filter, ccd video camera and image pick-up card,

The laser beam of laser instrument transmitting is for irradiating the molten bath of welding work pieces, auze diffraction grating is arranged on the light front end of emission of laser instrument, picture screen is for the reverberation imaging to behind the laser beam irradiation molten bath of laser instrument transmitting, image after the imaging of picture screen is taken and is obtained by ccd video camera, the camera lens front end of ccd video camera is provided with optical filter, and the image of ccd video camera collection sends computer to through image pick-up card.

The axis of welding torch and the axis of laser instrument are positioned at the same space plane, and this space plane is vertical with picture screen place plane.

Auze diffraction grating is for projecting into 9 × 9 network light by the cylinder laser beam of laser instrument transmitting.

Molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation procedure in a kind of GTAW welding process, it is realized based on molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in above-mentioned GTAW welding process, and it comprises the following steps:

Step 1: select initial welding parameter, determine the relative position of all component in described observation device;

Step 2: open the source of welding current and start welding, shield with ccd video camera and record molten bath three-dimensional appearance image by picture simultaneously, and send computer to;

Step 3: computer is processed the image information receiving by image processing module, obtains the above space coordinates of corresponding grid angle point of picture screen, and described grid is reflected in the grid image becoming on picture screen for auze diffraction optical grating projection and by molten bath;

Step 4: to upper each grid angle point procession identification of picture screen, judge the relative position relation between incident light source central point on each grid angle point and welding work pieces according to the distortion situation of each net boundary place line source, and then obtain in network that grid angle point on picture screen and auze diffraction grating form on welding work pieces the corresponding relation of incident ray accordingly;

Step 5: according to the corresponding relation of corresponding incident ray in the grid angle point on picture screen and described network, as the screen boundary condition that above space coordinates, incident ray equation and the molten bath boundary point short transverse coordinate Z of corresponding grid angle point are zero, obtain by optical reflection law and mathematical algorithm the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath;

Step 6: the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath is carried out to three-dimensional matching recovery, obtain the three-dimensional dimension in molten bath, thus the fitting surface of molten bath three-dimensional appearance is realized to reconstruct, then extract and obtain molten bath three-dimensional information by three-dimensional fitting surface.

Optical filter is narrow band pass filter.

Advantage of the present invention: the present invention forms network light by auze diffraction grating, irradiate weld pool surface, network light reflects by molten bath and imaging on picture screen, after view data is processed, the final three-dimensional appearance that obtains molten bath by extracting welding pool three-dimensional information, can realize the Real-Time Monitoring to welding pool, thereby control whole welding process.

The inventive method is calculated by the contrary of each grid angle point reflective projection, can obtain more accurately the real-time three-dimensional size of welding pool.It, can be for calculating the characteristic parameter of controlling appearance of weld by the real-time recovery of molten bath three-dimensional dimension.According to corresponding control algolithm, realize the molten wide control of weld penetration or reverse side, provide reliable technical support for realizing welding quality control.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the theory diagram of molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the network of auze diffraction grating and the schematic diagram of its incident light source central point.

Detailed description of the invention

Detailed description of the invention one: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1, three-dimensional appearance observation device in molten bath in GTAW welding process described in present embodiment, it is realized based on GTAW welder, described GTAW welder comprises welding work pieces 1, welding torch 2, computer 3, the source of welding current 4, motion platform 5, data collecting card 6 and motion control cabinet 7

The end of welding torch 2 is near the place to be welded of welding work pieces 1, and welding work pieces 1 is placed on motion platform 5, and the source of welding current 4, for being connected with welding torch 2 and welding work pieces 1 in welding process, forms welding circuit;

Computer 3 is controlled the electric current output of the data collecting card 6 outputting analog signal amount control sources of welding current 4, computer 3 is also controlled data collecting card 6 output pulse signals to motion control cabinet 7, by motion control cabinet 7 controlled motion platforms 5 to realize the adjusting of welding work pieces 1 speed of welding;

It comprises laser instrument 8, auze diffraction grating 9, as screen 10, optical filter 11, ccd video camera 12 and image pick-up card 13,

The laser beam that laser instrument 8 is launched is for irradiating the molten bath of welding work pieces 1, auze diffraction grating 9 is arranged on the light front end of emission of laser instrument 3, picture screen 10 is for the reverberation imaging behind the laser beam irradiation molten bath that laser instrument 8 is launched, image after 10 imagings of picture screen is taken and is obtained by ccd video camera 12, the camera lens front end of ccd video camera 12 is provided with optical filter 11, and the image that ccd video camera 12 gathers sends computer 3 to through image pick-up card 13.

In present embodiment, welding torch 2 is fixed on the top of welding work pieces 1, selects laser instrument 8 with respect to the position relationship of welding torch 2 and corresponding attitude according to actual situation.Picture screen 10 with respect to welding torch 2 main according to arc light intensity and laser intensity to recently regulating.Optical filter 11 is narrow band pass filter, and the radiation wave band wavelength of choosing through optical filter 11 is corresponding with laser instrument 8 wavelength.

Welding torch 2, as screen 10 and the position of ccd video camera 12 for being fixedly installed.The analog signal amount that data collecting card 6 is exported is corresponding through demarcating realization with the current output of the source of welding current 4.Motion control cabinet 7 realizes the adjusting of welding position and welding parameter according to actual welding condition.Computer is exported the pulse regulation stepper motor of different frequency speed by controlling data collecting card, realizes the control to motion platform 5.Laser instrument 8 rationally assembles with auze diffraction grating 9, makes laser instrument 8 axle center by auze diffraction grating 9 and perpendicular to its place plane.The density degree that reflects grid angle point by considering on the situation that stops of reflection ray and imaging screen is determined the incident angle of laser instrument 8 and welding torch 2 relative positions and laser instrument.Relation between picture screen 10 and welding torch 2 is determined by contrasting between arc light intensity and laser intensity, as screen position-adjustable.Position relationship between picture screen 10 and ccd video camera 12 mainly considers to make the center of image at picture as far as possible.

Detailed description of the invention two: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1, present embodiment is described further embodiment one, the axis of the axis of described welding torch 2 and laser instrument 8 is positioned at the same space plane, and this space plane is vertical with picture screen 10 place planes.

Detailed description of the invention three: below in conjunction with Fig. 2, present embodiment is described, present embodiment is described further embodiment one or two, described auze diffraction grating 9 projects into 9 × 9 network light for the cylinder laser beam that laser instrument 8 is launched.

Grid is relatively intensive can be guaranteed the accurate recovery of molten bath three-dimensional information and not occur omitting.

Detailed description of the invention four: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, three-dimensional appearance observation procedure in molten bath in GTAW welding process described in present embodiment, it is realized based on molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process claimed in claim 3, and it comprises the following steps:

Step 1: select initial welding parameter, determine the relative position of all component in described observation device;

Step 2: open the source of welding current 4 and start welding, simultaneously by picture shield 10 and ccd video camera 12 record molten bath three-dimensional appearance image, and send computer 3 to;

Step 3: computer 3 is processed the image information receiving by image processing module, obtains the space coordinates that picture shields corresponding grid angle point on 10, and described grid is reflected in the grid image becoming on picture screen 10 for 9 projections of auze diffraction grating and by molten bath;

Step 4: to each grid angle point procession identification on picture screen 10, judge the relative position relation between incident light source central point on each grid angle point and welding work pieces 1 according to the distortion situation of each net boundary place line source, and then obtain in network that grid angle point on picture screen 10 and auze diffraction grating 9 form on welding work pieces 1 corresponding relation of incident ray accordingly;

Step 5: the boundary condition that is zero according to the corresponding relation of corresponding incident ray in the grid angle point as on screen 10 and described network, as space coordinates, incident ray equation and the molten bath boundary point short transverse coordinate Z of corresponding grid angle point on screen 10, obtains by optical reflection law and mathematical algorithm the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath;

Step 6: the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath is carried out to three-dimensional matching recovery, obtain the three-dimensional dimension in molten bath, thus the fitting surface of molten bath three-dimensional appearance is realized to reconstruct, then extract and obtain molten bath three-dimensional information by three-dimensional fitting surface.

In present embodiment, select the relative position of suitable laser incident and picture screen in step 1, the height of for example laser instrument and inclination angle, as screen size and position, ccd video camera 12 positions etc.

In step 2, open the source of welding current and started arc welding, the information utilization picture screen and the video camera that when welding, laser are reflected on molten bath carry out record, are then input in computer by image pick-up card.

The coordinate of putting on the molten bath curved surface obtaining in step 5 is the concrete coordinate of the grid angle point on molten bath.

Detailed description of the invention five: below in conjunction with Fig. 1, present embodiment is described, present embodiment is described further embodiment four, described optical filter 11 is narrow band pass filter.

In device of the present invention or method, the material of welding work pieces 1 is the metals such as mild steel, stainless steel or aluminium alloy.Applicable welding method is mainly GTAW welding, also can expand for relatively stable molten bath 3-d recoveries in molten bath such as some gas metal-arc weldings.For the butt weld of square groove, be mainly used in thin plate docking.

The two dimensional image forming on picture screen after apparatus of the present invention or method reflect on molten bath by grid laser recovers molten bath three-dimensional appearance according to optical reflection law, can be used for the real-time recovery of molten bath three-dimensional appearance in the welding process of following situation: the GTAW that do not fill silk, electric current 70-90A.Also can be used for the not silk filling TIG welding of following process conditions: welding current 70~90A, tungsten electrode diameter 2.4mm, operating voltage is 10~15V, speed of welding 1~5mm/s, shielding gas flow amount 6~7L/min.

The inventive method can obtain the three-dimensional appearance in a certain moment of dynamic pool more exactly, thereby can obtain more intuitively the three-dimensional information in molten bath, so that realize the effective control for welding quality in automation and distant operation welding process.

Claims (5)

1. molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in a GTAW welding process, it is realized based on GTAW welder, described GTAW welder comprises welding work pieces (1), welding torch (2), computer (3), the source of welding current (4), motion platform (5), data collecting card (6) and motion control cabinet (7)
The end of welding torch (2) is near the place to be welded of welding work pieces (1), welding work pieces (1) is placed on motion platform (5), the source of welding current (4), for being connected with welding torch (2) and welding work pieces (1) in welding process, forms welding circuit;
Computer (3) is controlled the electric current output of data collecting card (6) the outputting analog signal amount control source of welding current (4), computer (3) is also controlled data collecting card (6) output pulse signal to motion control cabinet (7), by motion control cabinet (7) controlled motion platform (5) to realize the adjusting of welding work pieces (1) speed of welding;
It is characterized in that, it comprises laser instrument (8), auze diffraction grating (9), as screen (10), optical filter (11), ccd video camera (12) and image pick-up card (13),
The laser beam of laser instrument (8) transmitting is used for irradiating the molten bath of welding work pieces (1), auze diffraction grating (9) is arranged on the light front end of emission of laser instrument (3), picture screen (10) is for the reverberation imaging to behind the laser beam irradiation molten bath of laser instrument (8) transmitting, image after (10) imaging of picture screen is taken and is obtained by ccd video camera (12), the camera lens front end of ccd video camera (12) is provided with optical filter (11), and the image that ccd video camera (12) gathers sends computer (3) to through image pick-up card (13).
2. molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process according to claim 1, is characterized in that,
The axis of the axis of welding torch (2) and laser instrument (8) is positioned at the same space plane, and this space plane is vertical with picture screen (10) place plane.
3. molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, auze diffraction grating (9) is for projecting into 9 × 9 network light by the cylinder laser beam of laser instrument (8) transmitting.
4. a molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation procedure in GTAW welding process, it is realized based on molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation device in GTAW welding process claimed in claim 3, it is characterized in that, and it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: select initial welding parameter, determine the relative position of all component in described observation device;
Step 2: open the source of welding current (4) and start welding, shield (10) by picture and ccd video camera (12) records molten bath three-dimensional appearance image simultaneously, and send computer (3) to;
Step 3: computer (3) is processed the image information receiving by image processing module, obtain the space coordinates of the upper corresponding grid angle point of picture screen (10), described grid is reflected in the grid image becoming on picture screen (10) for (9) projection of auze diffraction grating and by molten bath;
Step 4: to upper each grid angle point procession identification of picture screen (10), judge the relative position relation between each grid angle point and the upper incident light source central point of welding work pieces (1) according to the distortion situation of each net boundary place line source, and then obtain the corresponding relation of the corresponding incident ray in the upper network forming of welding work pieces (1) as the grid angle point on screen (10) and auze diffraction grating (9);
Step 5: the boundary condition that is zero according to the corresponding relation of corresponding incident ray in the grid angle point on picture screen (10) and described network, as space coordinates, incident ray equation and the molten bath boundary point short transverse coordinate Z of the upper corresponding grid angle point of screen (10), obtains by optical reflection law and mathematical algorithm the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath;
Step 6: the coordinate of putting on the curved surface of molten bath is carried out to three-dimensional matching recovery, obtain the three-dimensional dimension in molten bath, thus the fitting surface of molten bath three-dimensional appearance is realized to reconstruct, then extract and obtain molten bath three-dimensional information by three-dimensional fitting surface.
5. molten bath three-dimensional appearance observation procedure in GTAW welding process according to claim 4, is characterized in that, optical filter (11) is narrow band pass filter.
CN201410249929.8A 2014-06-06 2014-06-06 Observation device and method of three-dimensional shape of molten pool in GTAW welding process CN104014905A (en)

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CN104625320A (en) * 2015-01-24 2015-05-20 无锡桑尼安科技有限公司 Underwater welding method
CN104816072A (en) * 2015-05-15 2015-08-05 大连大学 Method and system for laser measurement welding tracking of tiny joint seams of complex curved surface thin wall board
CN105290576A (en) * 2015-09-29 2016-02-03 湘潭大学 Real-time detecting method and device for surface topography of swing arc MAG welding molten pool
CN106141426A (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-23 大族激光科技产业集团股份有限公司 A kind of optical imaging system followed the trail of for laser welded seam
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CN106546597A (en) * 2015-09-22 2017-03-29 泰科电子(上海)有限公司 Weld quality prediction system and method
CN107131844A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-09-05 西南交通大学 A kind of electric arc silk filling increasing material manufacturing surface quality automatic testing method
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CN107835931A (en) * 2015-12-04 2018-03-23 安德烈.弗拉基米罗维奇.克里莫夫 The method for monitoring the linear dimension of 3D solid
CN108458707A (en) * 2018-01-22 2018-08-28 西南科技大学 Work robot autonomic positioning method and its positioning system under more Suspended pipeline scenes
CN109175747A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-11 湖南大学 A kind of comprehensive method directly observed of metal material penetration fustion welding keyhole profile
CN110193679A (en) * 2019-06-28 2019-09-03 清华大学 A kind of appearance of weld control device and method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107635715A (en) * 2015-01-07 2018-01-26 伊利诺斯工具制品有限公司 Automatic welding translates platform
CN104625320A (en) * 2015-01-24 2015-05-20 无锡桑尼安科技有限公司 Underwater welding method
CN104588833A (en) * 2015-01-24 2015-05-06 无锡桑尼安科技有限公司 Underwater welding robot based on image identification
CN106141426A (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-23 大族激光科技产业集团股份有限公司 A kind of optical imaging system followed the trail of for laser welded seam
CN104816072A (en) * 2015-05-15 2015-08-05 大连大学 Method and system for laser measurement welding tracking of tiny joint seams of complex curved surface thin wall board
CN106546597A (en) * 2015-09-22 2017-03-29 泰科电子(上海)有限公司 Weld quality prediction system and method
CN105290576A (en) * 2015-09-29 2016-02-03 湘潭大学 Real-time detecting method and device for surface topography of swing arc MAG welding molten pool
CN107835931A (en) * 2015-12-04 2018-03-23 安德烈.弗拉基米罗维奇.克里莫夫 The method for monitoring the linear dimension of 3D solid
CN106216815A (en) * 2016-09-21 2016-12-14 兰州理工大学 A kind of object surface three-dimensional shape measurement method based on double screen
CN106216815B (en) * 2016-09-21 2018-07-03 兰州理工大学 A kind of object surface three-dimensional shape measurement method based on double screen
CN107131844A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-09-05 西南交通大学 A kind of electric arc silk filling increasing material manufacturing surface quality automatic testing method
CN108458707A (en) * 2018-01-22 2018-08-28 西南科技大学 Work robot autonomic positioning method and its positioning system under more Suspended pipeline scenes
CN108458707B (en) * 2018-01-22 2020-03-10 西南科技大学 Autonomous positioning method and positioning system of operating robot in multi-pendulous pipeline scene
CN109175747A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-11 湖南大学 A kind of comprehensive method directly observed of metal material penetration fustion welding keyhole profile
CN110193679A (en) * 2019-06-28 2019-09-03 清华大学 A kind of appearance of weld control device and method
CN110193679B (en) * 2019-06-28 2020-05-15 清华大学 Weld forming control device and method based on front visual sensing of molten pool

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Application publication date: 20140903