KR102013475B1 - System for characterizing manual welding operations - Google Patents

System for characterizing manual welding operations Download PDF

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Publication number
KR102013475B1
KR102013475B1 KR1020157003281A KR20157003281A KR102013475B1 KR 102013475 B1 KR102013475 B1 KR 102013475B1 KR 1020157003281 A KR1020157003281 A KR 1020157003281A KR 20157003281 A KR20157003281 A KR 20157003281A KR 102013475 B1 KR102013475 B1 KR 102013475B1
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South Korea
Prior art keywords
tool
system
welding
point
orientation
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KR1020157003281A
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Korean (ko)
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KR20150048715A (en
Inventor
크리스토퍼 씨 콘래디
폴 씨 불웨어
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링컨 글로벌, 인크.
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Application filed by 링컨 글로벌, 인크. filed Critical 링컨 글로벌, 인크.
Priority to PCT/US2012/045776 priority Critical patent/WO2014007830A1/en
Priority to US13/543,240 priority
Priority to US13/543,240 priority patent/US9221117B2/en
Publication of KR20150048715A publication Critical patent/KR20150048715A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B25/00Models for purposes not provided for in G09B23/00, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes
    • G09B25/02Models for purposes not provided for in G09B23/00, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes of industrial processes; of machinery
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B19/00Teaching not covered by other main groups of this subclass
    • G09B19/24Use of tools

Abstract

A system is disclosed that provides a welder with valuable training including components that characterize welding practice and generate, capture, and process data. The data generation component further comprises a jig, a workpiece, at least one calibration device each having at least two point markers integral, and a welding tool. The data capture component further includes an imaging system for capturing an image of the point marker, wherein the data processing component is used to receive information from the data capture component and perform various position and orientation calculations.

Description

Specialization system of manual welding operation {SYSTEM FOR CHARACTERIZING MANUAL WELDING OPERATIONS}

Cross Reference of Related Applications

This patent application was filed on July 8, 2009, and entitled "Method and System for Monitoring and Characterizing the Creation of a Manual Weld," US Patent Application No. 12 / 499,687, filed December 13, 2010. Some of the serial applications of US Patent Application No. 12 / 966,570, filed and entitled "Welding Training System", the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, as if fully set forth herein.

Field of technology

The present invention is directed to welding trainees by capturing, processing, and presenting data generated by welding trainees in a system for specifying manual welding operations, and more particularly, in real time manual welding in real time. A system for providing useful information.

A system for monitoring and characterizing manual welding operations is known from US 2011/0006047 A1.
The manufacturing industry's desire for efficient and economical welding training has been a widely documented topic over the past decade because the perception of serious shortages of skilled welders is surprisingly evident in today's factories, shipyards, and construction sites. Combined with the slow pace of traditional instructor-based welder training, early retiring workers were the impetus for the development of more effective training skills. Along with the rapid injection of arc welding fundamentals, innovations are required to accelerate the training of dexterity specific to welding. The characterization and training system disclosed herein addresses this essential need for improved welder training and enables the monitoring of manual welding processes to ensure that the process is within the acceptable limits needed to meet industry quality requirements. . To date, most of the welding processes are performed manually, and there are no real commercially available tools on site to track the performance of these manual processes. Thus, there is a continuing need for an effective system for training welders to properly perform various types of welding under various conditions.

The following provides specific exemplary embodiments of the present invention. This summary is not an extensive overview and is not intended to identify and describe the scope or essential aspects or elements of the invention.

According to one aspect of the present invention, a system is provided for specifying manual and / or semi-automatic welding operations and practices. The system includes a data generation component, a data capture component, and a data processing component. The data generation component may comprise a fixture in which geometrical characteristics are predetermined; A workpiece adapted to be mounted on a jig, wherein the workpiece includes at least one joint to be welded, the vector extending along the joint to be welded to define a work path; At least one calibration device, each calibration device further comprising at least two point markers, wherein the geometric relationship between the point marker and the work path is predetermined; And a welding tool used to form a weld in the joint to be welded, the welding tool defining tool points and tool vectors, the welding tool further comprising a target attached to the welding tool, the target being mounted in a predetermined pattern; Further comprises three point markers, wherein the predetermined pattern of point markers comprises a welding tool that is used to form a rigid body. The data capture component includes an imaging system for capturing an image of a point marker. The data processing component is used to receive information from the data capture component, and then the position and orientation of the working path with respect to the three-dimensional space seen by the imaging system; The position of the tool point relative to the rigid body and the orientation of the tool vector; And the position of the tool point relative to the work path and the orientation of the tool vector.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is also provided a system for specifying manual and / or semi-automatic welding operations and practices. The system includes a data generation component, a data capture component, and a data processing component. The data generation component comprises: a jig whose geometrical characteristics are predetermined; A workpiece adapted to be mounted on a jig, wherein the workpiece includes at least one joint to be welded, the vector extending along the joint to be welded to define a work path; At least one calibration device, each calibration device further comprising at least two point markers, wherein the geometric relationship between the point marker and the work path is predetermined; And a welding tool used to form a weld in the joint to be welded, the welding tool defining tool points and tool vectors, the welding tool further comprising a target attached to the welding tool, the target being mounted in a predetermined pattern; Further includes three point markers, wherein the predetermined pattern of the point markers also includes a welding tool that is used to form the rigid body. The data capture component also includes an imaging system for capturing an image of the point marker, the imaging system further comprising a plurality of digital cameras. At least one band-pass filter is incorporated into the optical sequence of each of the plurality of digital cameras to allow only light from wavelengths reflected or emitted from the point marker to improve the image signal to noise ratio. The data processing component is used to receive information from the data capture component, and then the position and orientation of the working path with respect to the three-dimensional space seen by the imaging system; The position of the tool point relative to the rigid body and the orientation of the tool vector; And the position of the tool point relative to the work path and the orientation of the tool vector.

Further features and aspects of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading and understanding the following detailed description of exemplary embodiments. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, further embodiments of the invention are possible without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, the drawings and associated descriptions are to be regarded as illustrative and not restrictive.

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, schematically illustrate one or more exemplary embodiments of the invention, and together with the overall description set forth above and the detailed description provided below, serve to explain the principles of the invention. Do it.
1 is a flow diagram illustrating the flow of information through data processing and visualization components of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
2 is an isometric view of a portable or semi-portable system for the specification of a manual welding operation, in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
3 is an isometric view of a flat assembly of the system of FIG. 2.
4 is an isometric view of a horizontal assembly of the system of FIG. 2.
5 is an isometric view of a vertical assembly of the system of FIG.
FIG. 6 illustrates the placement of two point markers on the flat assembly of FIG. 2.
7 illustrates an example workpiece work path.
8 illustrates the placement of two active or passive point markers on an example workpiece for determining a workpiece work path.
9 is a flowchart detailing the process steps involved in an exemplary embodiment of a first calibration component of the present invention.
10 illustrates a welding tool of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention showing the placement of point markers used to form rigid bodies.
11 illustrates a welding tool of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention showing the placement of a point marker used to form a tool vector and a rigid body.
12 is a flowchart detailing the process steps involved in an exemplary embodiment of a second calibration component of the present invention.

Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. Reference numerals are used to refer to various elements and structures throughout the description. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to simplify the description thereof. Although the following detailed description includes many details for purposes of illustration, those skilled in the art will recognize that many changes and substitutions to the details below are within the scope of the present invention. Accordingly, the following examples of the present invention are described without loss of any generality and without limitation to the claimed invention.

The present invention relates to an advanced system for observing and characterizing manual welding practice and work. This system is particularly useful for welding instructions and welder training, which provides a suitable tool for measuring manual welding techniques and comparing them with established procedures. The training application of the present invention includes: (i) verifying the applicant's skill level, (ii) evaluating the trainee's progress over time, and (iii) providing real time teaching to reduce training time and costs , And (iv) periodically retesting the welder's skill level with an elementable result. Process monitoring and quality control applications may include: (i) real time identification of deviations from desirable conditions, (ii) recording and tracking procedure compliance over time, and (iii) statistical process control purposes (eg, thermal Capturing in-process data for input measurements, and (iv) identifying welders in need of further training. The system of the present invention provides unique advantages that enable the determination of compliance with various approved welding procedures.

The present invention, in various exemplary embodiments, measures torch motion and collects process data during welding practice using a single or multiple camera tracking system based on point cloud image analysis. The present invention is not necessarily limited but can be applied to a wide range of processes including GMAW, FCAW, SMAW, GTAW, and cleavage. The invention can be extended to a wide range of workpiece shapes, including large sizes, various joint types, pipes, plates, and complex shapes. Parameters measured include one angle, angle of travel, tool standoff, speed of travel, bead placement, weave, voltage, current, wire feed speed, and arc length. Training components of the present invention may be pre-specified for a particular welding procedure or may be customized by an instructor. Data is automatically stored and recorded, post-weld analysis scores performance, and progress is tracked over time. The system can be used throughout the entire welding training program and can include both in helmet and on-screen feedback. Hereinafter, with reference to the drawings, one or more specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail.

As shown in FIG. 1, in an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the data generation component 100, the data capture component 200, and the data processing (and visualization) components of the weld characterization system 10 ( The basic information flow through 300 includes six basic steps: (1) image capture 110, (2) image processing 112, (3) arc welding data 210, such as known or desired welding parameters. Input, (4) data processing (212), (5) data storage (214), and (6) data display (310). Image capture step 110 includes capturing an image of target 98 (usually comprising at least two point markers placed in a fixed geometric relationship with respect to each other) by one or more commercial high speed version cameras, The output aspect typically involves generating an image file at 100 frames or more per second. The input aspect of image processing step 112 includes frame-by-frame point cloud analysis of a rigid body comprising three or more point markers (ie, a calibrated target). Recognizing a known rigid body, the position and orientation are calculated for the camera origin and the "trained" rigid body orientation. Capturing an image and comparing it with two or more cameras enables a substantially accurate determination of the position and orientation of the rigid body in three-dimensional space. Images are typically processed at rates of 10 or more times per second. The output aspect of the image processing step 112 includes the generation of x, y, and z axis position data and roll, pitch, and yaw orientation data, as well as a data array comprising time stamps and software flags. do. The text file can be streamed or transmitted at a desired frequency. The input aspect of the data processing step 212 typically includes the original position and orientation data requested at a predetermined rate, and the output aspect includes converting this raw data into useful welding parameters with algorithms specific to the selected process and joint type. do. The input aspect of data storage step 214 stores the welding trial data as a * .dat file, the output aspect stores the data for review and tracking, later stores the data for review on a monitor, and / or This involves later reviewing the student's progress. Student progress may include total practice time, total arc time, total arc start, and individual parameter specific achievements over time. The input aspect of the data display step 310 includes welding trial data further comprising one angle, moving angle, tool standoff, moving speed, bead placement, weave, voltage, current, wire feed rate, and arc length, Output aspects include data that can be reviewed in a monitor, in-heml display, head-up display, or a combination thereof, and the parameters are plotted on a time-based axis and trained by recording upper and lower thresholds or the motion of skilled welders. Are compared for preferred modifications such as The current and voltage can be measured along with the speed of travel to determine the heat input and the welding process parameters can be used to estimate the arc length. The position data can be converted into a weld start position, weld stop position, weld length, weld sequence, weld progress, or a combination thereof, and current and voltage can be measured along with the travel speed to determine heat input.

2-5 provide an exemplary view of a weld characterization system 10 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 2, the portable training stand 20 includes a substantially flat base 22, a rigid vertical support column 24, a camera or imaging device support 26, for contacting a floor or other horizontal substrate, And a rack and pinion assembly 31 for adjusting the height of the imaging device support 26. In most embodiments, the welding characterization system 10 is intended to be portable or at least be moved from one place to another, so that the overall footprint of the base 22 allows for maximum flexibility in terms of installation and use. Relatively small to let. As shown in FIGS. 2-6, weld characterization system 10 may be used to train a practice that includes a workpiece that is flat, horizontally or vertically oriented. In the exemplary embodiment shown in the figures, the training stand 20 is shown as a unitary or integrated structure capable of supporting other components of the system. In other embodiments, the stand 20 is absent and the various components of the system are supported by any kind as long as suitable structures or support means are available. Thus, within the context of the present invention, "stand" 20 is defined as any single structure, or alternatively multiple structures, capable of supporting the components of the weld specification system 10.

2 and 3, a particular welding practice utilizes a flat assembly 30 slidably attached to a vertical support column 24 by a collar 34, the collar upwards on the support column 24. Or slide down. The collar 34 is also supported on the column 24 by the rack and pinion 31, which rack and pinion has a shaft for moving the rack and pinion assembly 31 up or down on the support column 24. 32). The flat assembly 30 includes a training platform 38 supported by one or more brackets (not shown in the figure). In some embodiments, shield 42 is attached to training platform 38 to protect the surface of support column 24 from thermal damage. The training platform 38 further includes at least one clamp 44 for securing the welding position-specific fixture / jig 46 to the surface of the training platform. The structural shape or general characteristics of the welding position specific jig 46 can be changed based on the type of welding process that is the subject of a particular welding practice, and in FIGS. 2 and 3, the jig 46 is used for fillet welding practice. It is composed. 2 and 3, the first structural component 48 and the second structural component 50 of the welding position specific jig 46 are set at right angles to each other. The location specific jig 46 may include one or more pegs 47 to allow proper placement of the welding coupon on the jig. The characteristics of any welding coupon (workpiece) 54 used in the system 10 can be changed based on the type of manual welding process that is the subject of a particular training practice, and is illustrated in the example shown in FIGS. 7 and 8. In an embodiment, the first portion 56 and the second portion 58 of the welding coupon 54 are set at right angles to each other. 4 and 5, certain other welding practices use a horizontal assembly 30 (see FIG. 3) or a vertical assembly 30 (see FIG. 5). In FIG. 4, the horizontal assembly 30 supports the butt jig 46 that holds the workpiece 54 in a suitable position for butt weld practice. In FIG. 5, the vertical assembly 30 supports a vertical fixture 46 that holds the workpiece in a suitable position for lap weld practice.

The data processing component 300 of the present invention typically includes at least one computer for receiving and analyzing information captured by the data capture component 200, wherein the data capture component itself is housed within the protective housing. At least one digital camera. During operation of the weld characterization system 10, the computer typically runs software that includes training therapy modules, image processing and rigid body analysis modules, and data processing modules. The training regimen module includes various welding types and a set of acceptable welding process parameters associated with creating each welding type. Any number of known or AWS weld joint types and allowable parameters associated with these weld joint types may be included in the training therapy module, which is accessed and configured by the course instructor prior to the start of the training exercises. The welding process and / or type selected by the instructor determines which welding process specific fixtures, orthodontic devices, and welding coupons are to be used for any given training practice. The object recognition module is used to train the system to recognize a known rigid target 98 (including two or more point markers) and then use the target 98 to weld when the actual manual welding is completed by the trainee. Calculate position and orientation data for the gun 90. The data processing module compares the information of the training regimen module with the information processed by the object recognition module and outputs the comparison data to a display device such as a monitor or a head-up display. The monitor allows the trainee to visualize the processed data in real time, and the visualized data is used to provide the trainee with useful feedback regarding the nature and quality of the weld. The visual interface of the weld characterization system 10 may include various features related to information entry, login, setup, calibration, practice, analysis, and progress tracking. Assay screens are typically found in training therapy modules, including, but not limited to, work angle, travel angle, tool standoff, travel speed, bead placement, weave, voltage, current, wire feed speed, and arc length. Display the parameters. Many display variations are possible in the present invention.

In most cases (if not all), the weld characterization system 10 will undergo a series of calibration steps / processes prior to use. Some of the aspects of system calibration are typically performed by the manufacturer of the system 10 prior to shipping to the customer and other aspects of the system calibration are typically performed by the user of the weld specification system 10 before any welding training practice. . System calibration typically involves two related and necessary calibration processes: (i) determining the three-dimensional position and orientation of the work path to be created on the workpiece for each joint / position combination to be used in various welding training exercises; And (ii) calculating a relationship between the plurality of reflective (passive) or light emitting (active) point markers disposed on the target 98 and at least two major points represented by the point markers disposed on the welding tool 9. This involves determining the three dimensional position and orientation of the welding tool.

The first calibration aspect of the present invention typically involves calibration of the welding operation with respect to the global coordinate system, ie the other structural components of the weld characterization system 10 and the three-dimensional space they occupy. Before tracking / specifying manual welding practice, the global coordinates of each desired operating path (ie, vector) on any given workpiece are determined. In most embodiments, this determination is a factory run calibration process that includes a corresponding configuration file stored on data processing component 200. To obtain the desired vector, a calibration device comprising an active or passive marker can be inserted on at least two positioning markers in each of three possible platform positions (ie, flat, horizontal and vertical positions). 6 to 8 illustrate this calibration step in one possible platform position. The joint specific fixture 46 includes a first structural component 48 (horizontal) and a second structural component 50 (vertical), respectively. The welding coupon or work piece 54 includes a first portion 56 (horizontal) and a second portion 58 (vertical), respectively. The workpiece operating path 59 extends from point X to point Y, which is shown in dashed lines in FIG. 7. Positioning point markers 530, 532 are arranged as shown in FIG. 6 (and FIG. 8) and the position of each marker is obtained using data capture component 100, which data capture component is an embodiment. Use Optitrack Tracking Tools (NaturalPoint) or a similar commercially available or registered hardware / software system that provides six degrees of freedom for tracking motion in real time with three-dimensional markers. Such techniques typically use reflective and / or luminescent point markers arranged in a pattern intended to produce a point cloud interpreted as "rigid" by system imaging hardware and system software, although other suitable methodologies are compatible with the present invention. Can be.

In the calibration process represented by the flow chart of FIG. 9, the table 38 is fixed at position i (0,1,2) in step 280, and in step 282 the calibration device is placed on the positioning pin and , At step 284 all marker positions are captured, at 286 the coordinates for the locator position are calculated, at 288 the coordinates for the fillet work path are calculated and stored at 290, and the lab work path. The coordinates for are calculated at step 292 and stored at 294, and the coordinates for the groove work path are calculated at step 296 and stored at 298. All coordinates are calculated for the three dimensional space that can be seen by the data capture component 200.

In one embodiment of the invention, the position and orientation of the workpiece is determined by two or more passive or active point markers for the calibration device disposed at a known translational and rotational offset relative to the jig that maintains the workpiece at a known translational and rotational offset. Calibrated through application. In another embodiment of the present invention, the position and orientation of the workpiece is corrected through the application of two or more passive or active point markers to the jig that maintain the workpiece at a known translational and rotational offset. In another embodiment, the workpiece is non-linear, and the position and orientation of the workpiece can be mapped using a calibration tool with two or more passive or active point markers and stored for later use. The position and orientation of the workpiece work path can receive a predetermined translational and rotational offset from its original calibration plane based on the sequential steps in the overall work.

Important tool operating parameters such as position, orientation, velocity, acceleration, and spatial relationship to the workpiece work path can be determined from the analysis of the various tool paths and the continuous tool position and orientation over time. Tool operating parameters can be compared with predetermined desired values to determine deviations from known and preferred procedures. Tool operating parameters may also be combined with other manufacturing process parameters to determine deviations from the desired procedure, which deviations assess progress towards skill objectives to assess skill levels, to provide feedback for training Can be used for quality control purposes or for quality control purposes. The motion parameters recorded for the workpiece work path can be synthesized from a number of tasks for statistical process control purposes. Deviations from preferred procedures can be aggregated from a number of tasks for statistical process control purposes. Critical tool operating parameters and tool position and orientation relative to the workpiece work path can also be recorded to establish a signal of the skilled worker's motion used as a baseline to assess compliance with the desired procedure.

The second calibration aspect typically involves calibration of the welding tool 90 with respect to the target 98. The “welding” tool 90 is typically a welding torch or gun or SMAW electrode holder, but can also be any number of other implementations, including soldering irons, cutting torches, forming tools, material removal tools, paint tools, or wrenches. . 10 and 11, the welding gun / tool 90 includes a tool point 91, a nozzle 92, a body 94, a trigger 96, and a target 98. A tool calibration device 93 comprising two integrated active or passive point markers at points A and B (see FIG. 11) is attached to or inserted into the nozzle 92. Rigid point clouds (ie, “rigids”) are constructed by attaching active or passive point markers 502, 504, 506 (and additional point markers) to the top surface of the target 98 (other locations are possible). do. Target 98 may include a power input if the point marker used is active and requires a power source. The data capture component 200 uses Optitrack Tracking Tools (NaturalPoint) or similar hardware / software to place the rigid bodies and point markers 522 (A) and 520 (B) indicating the position of the tool vector. These positions can be extracted from the software of the system 10 and the relationship between the point markers A and B and the rigid body can be calculated.

In the calibration process shown by the flow chart of FIG. 12, the welding nozzle 92 and the contact tube are removed in step 250, the calibration device is inserted into the body 94 in step 252, and the welding tool 90 Placed within the working envelope and the rigid body 500 (indicated as “S” in FIG. 11) and the point markers A, B are captured by the data capture component 100, A and S and B and S Relationship is calculated at step 256, relationship data for As is stored at 258, and relationship data for Bs is stored at 260.

In an embodiment of the invention, the calibration of the tool point and the tool vector is performed by applying two or more passive or active point markers to the calibration device at points along the tool vector at known offsets to the tool point. In another embodiment, the calibration of the tool point and tool vector is performed by inserting the tool into a calibration block of known position and orientation relative to the workpiece. With respect to the rigid body formed by the point markers (eg, 502, 504, 506), in one embodiment, the passive or active point markers are multifaceted in such a way that a wide range of rotation and orientation changes can be adjusted within the field of view of the imaging system. It is fixed to the tool. In another embodiment, the passive or active point marker is fixed to the tool in a spherical manner such that a wide range of rotational and orientation changes can be adjusted within the field of view of the imaging system. In another embodiment, the passive or active point marker is fixed to a ring shaped tool such that a wide range of rotation and orientation changes can be adjusted within the field of view of the imaging system.

Numerous additional useful features may be incorporated into the present invention. For example, for image filtering, a band-pass or high-pass filter may allow only light from wavelengths reflected or emitted from a point marker to improve image signal-to-noise ratio so that a plurality of digital Each camera is integrated in the optical sequence. Unnecessary data can be rejected by analyzing only image information obtained from that dynamic region with a limited offset from a known rigid body neighborhood. This corresponding dynamic zone is integrated or otherwise predefined within each digital camera field of view (ie, programmed from a box or zone of width (x) and height (y) and centered at a known location on the target 98). Is processed only from this predetermined zone. The zone changes when the rigid body moves, and is therefore based on the position of the rigid body known in advance. This approach allows the imaging system to see only the pixels within that dynamic zone when searching for point markers while ignoring or blocking pixels in larger image frames that are not included within that dynamic zone.

Although the present invention has been illustrated by the description of its exemplary embodiments, and specific details of the embodiments have been described, it is not the intention of the applicant to limit or in any way limit the appended claims to those details. Additional advantages and modifications will readily appear to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the invention is not limited to any of the specific details, representative devices and methods, and / or illustrative examples shown and described in its broadest aspect. Accordingly, departures may be made from such details without departing from the spirit or scope of Applicants' overall inventive concept.

Claims (24)

  1. As a system for specifying welding operations,
    (a) a data generation component,
    (i) fixtures whose geometrical properties are predetermined;
    (ii) a workpiece adapted to be mounted on the jig, wherein the workpiece includes at least one joint to be welded, wherein a vector extending along the joint to be welded defines a work path;
    (iii) at least one calibration device, each calibration device further comprising at least two point markers, wherein the geometric relationship between the point marker and the work path is predetermined; And
    (iv) a welding tool used to form a weld in a joint to be welded, the welding tool defining a tool point and a tool vector, the welding tool further comprising a target attached to the welding tool, the target being targeted in a predetermined pattern. And a plurality of point markers mounted on the substrate, wherein the predetermined pattern of point markers is used to form a rigid body.
    A data generation component comprising a;
    (b) a data capture component comprising an imaging system for capturing an image of a point marker; And
    (c) data processing components;
    Wherein the data processing component is used to receive information from the data capture component, and then
    (i) the position and orientation of the work path relative to the three-dimensional space as seen by the imaging system
    (ii) the position of the tool point relative to the rigid body and the orientation of the tool vector; And
    (iii) the position of the tool point with respect to the work path and the orientation of the tool vector
    To calculate,
    Calibration of the tool point and tool vector of the welding tool is performed using two or more point markers integrated into a removable calibration device, the point marker of the calibration device having a predetermined offset relative to the tool point of the welding tool. A system of characterization of a welding operation that is disposed along.
  2. The optical sequence of claim 1, wherein the imaging system further comprises a plurality of digital cameras, the optical sequence of each of the plurality of digital cameras to improve the image signal to noise ratio by only allowing light from wavelengths reflected or emitted from the point markers. Wherein at least one filter is integrated into the welding operation specification system.
  3. The system of claim 2, wherein the imaging system further comprises at least one corresponding dynamic zone that can be viewed by a plurality of digital cameras, the dynamic zone being determined by the use of a predetermined location for the rigid body. Wherein the image information is collected and processed only from within the dynamic zone of interest.
  4. The device of claim 1, wherein the position and orientation of the work path is calibrated using at least two point markers integrated into a calibration device disposed at a predetermined translational and rotational offset relative to the jig, wherein the jig is adapted to the workpiece relative to the work path. A system of characterization of a welding operation that maintains at a predetermined translational and rotational offset.
  5. 2. The characterization of a welding operation according to claim 1, wherein the position and orientation of the working path is corrected using at least two point markers placed on a jig that maintains the workpiece at a predetermined translational and rotational offset relative to the working path. system.
  6. The work path of claim 1, wherein the work path is nonlinear and the location and orientation of the work path in three-dimensional space can be mapped using a calibration device comprising at least two point markers, the work path being multiple on the calibration device. A system of characterization of a welding operation that affects the placement of the calibration device at different points.
  7. The system of claim 1, wherein the position and orientation of the work path receives a predetermined translational and rotational offset from its original calibration plane based on a predetermined ordering step included in the overall system work.
  8. delete
  9. The system of claim 1, wherein the calibration of the tool point of the welding tool is performed by inserting the tip of the welding tool into the calibration device, and the position and orientation of the tip of the welding tool relative to the workpiece is predetermined. .
  10. The system of claim 1, wherein the point markers forming the rigid body are secured to the welding tool in a multi-sided configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotational and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  11. The system of claim 1, wherein the point markers forming the rigid body are secured to the welding tool in a spherical configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotation and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  12. The system of claim 1, wherein the passive or active point markers are secured to the welding tool in a ring configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotational and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  13. The system of claim 1, wherein the characterization system of the welding operation calculates a value for at least one of tool position, orientation, velocity, and acceleration with respect to the work path, which value is then pre-determined to determine a deviation from a predetermined procedure. The deviation is compared to the determined value, wherein the deviation is used for at least one of evaluating skill levels, providing feedback for training, evaluating progress towards skill objectives, and quality control purposes. Specification system.
  14. As a specification system of manual welding work,
    (a) a data generation component,
    (i) fixtures whose geometrical properties are predetermined;
    (ii) a workpiece adapted to be mounted on the jig, wherein the workpiece includes at least one joint to be welded, wherein a vector extending along the joint to be welded defines a work path;
    (iii) at least one calibration device, each calibration device further comprising at least two point markers, wherein the geometric relationship between the point marker and the work path is predetermined; And
    (iv) a welding tool used to form a weld in a joint to be welded, the welding tool defining a tool point and a tool vector, the welding tool further comprising a target attached to the welding tool, the target being targeted in a predetermined pattern. And a plurality of point markers mounted on the substrate, wherein the predetermined pattern of point markers is used to form a rigid body.
    A data generation component comprising a;
    (b) a data capture component comprising an imaging system for capturing an image of a point marker, the imaging system further comprising a plurality of digital cameras, allowing only light from wavelengths reflected or emitted from the point marker A data capture component, wherein at least one filter is integrated into the optical sequence of each of the plurality of digital cameras to improve the image signal to noise ratio; And
    (c) data processing components;
    Wherein the data processing component is used to receive information from the data capture component, and then
    (i) the position and orientation of the work path relative to the three-dimensional space as seen by the imaging system
    (ii) the position of the tool point relative to the rigid body and the orientation of the tool vector; And
    (iii) the position of the tool point with respect to the work path and the orientation of the tool vector
    To calculate,
    Calibration of the tool point and tool vector of the welding tool is performed using two or more point markers integrated into a removable calibration device, the point marker of the calibration device having a predetermined offset relative to the tool point of the welding tool. The system of specification of a manual welding operation that is arranged along.
  15. 15. The device of claim 14, wherein the position and orientation of the work path is calibrated using at least two point markers integrated into the calibration device disposed at a predetermined translational and rotational offset relative to the jig, wherein the jig is adapted to the workpiece relative to the work path. A system of characterization of manual welding operations that maintains at a predetermined translational and rotational offset.
  16. The method of claim 14, wherein the position and orientation of the work path is calibrated using at least two point markers disposed on a jig that maintains the workpiece at a predetermined translational and rotational offset relative to the work path. Characterization system.
  17. 15. The device of claim 14, wherein the work path is nonlinear and the location and orientation of the work path in three-dimensional space can be mapped using a calibration device that includes at least two point markers, the work path being multiple on the calibration device. A system of characterization of a manual welding operation that affects the placement of the calibration device at different points.
  18. 15. The system of claim 14, wherein the position and orientation of the work path receives a predetermined translational and rotational offset from its original calibration plane based on a predetermined ordering step included in the overall system work. .
  19. delete
  20. 15. The specification of a manual welding operation according to claim 14, wherein the calibration of the tool point of the welding tool is performed by inserting the tip of the welding tool into the calibration device and the position and orientation of the tip of the welding tool relative to the workpiece is predetermined. system.
  21. 15. The system of claim 14, wherein the point markers forming the rigid body are secured to the welding tool in a multi-sided configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotation and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  22. 15. The system of claim 14, wherein the point markers that form the rigid body are secured to the welding tool in a spherical configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotation and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  23. The system of claim 14, wherein the point markers are secured to the welding tool in a ring configuration that adjusts the wide range of rotational and orientation changes of the welding tool in use.
  24. The system of claim 14, wherein the characterization system of the manual welding operation calculates a value for at least one of tool position, orientation, velocity, and acceleration with respect to the work path, wherein the value is then used to determine a deviation from a predetermined procedure. Compared to a predetermined value, the deviation being used for at least one of evaluating skill levels, providing feedback for training, evaluating progress towards skill objectives, and quality control purposes Specialization system of welding work.
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CN107293191A (en) 2017-10-24

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