CN103953008B - A kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam - Google Patents

A kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103953008B
CN103953008B CN201410170030.7A CN201410170030A CN103953008B CN 103953008 B CN103953008 B CN 103953008B CN 201410170030 A CN201410170030 A CN 201410170030A CN 103953008 B CN103953008 B CN 103953008B
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dam
upstream
drainage blanket
impervious barrier
under
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CN103953008A (en
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邓书申
张岳安
陈雯
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China Bluestar Changsha Design and Research Institute
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China Bluestar Changsha Design and Research Institute
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Abstract

A kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam, comprise dam body, upstream face impervious barrier, antiseepage teeth groove, draining enrockment rib body, upstream face drainage blanket, upstream face loaded filter, anti-filter teeth groove, slope impervious barrier outside dam, loaded filter under dam, drainage blanket under dam, gutter, collection oozes pipe, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier, dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket, described upstream face impervious barrier is positioned at dam body and draining enrockment rib body, between upstream face drainage blanket, upstream face drainage blanket, draining enrockment rib body is positioned between upstream face impervious barrier and upstream face loaded filter, and draining enrockment rib body is positioned at the below of upstream face drainage blanket, under dam, loaded filter is under dam body and dam between drainage blanket, gutter is arranged in drainage blanket under dam, import and the collection of gutter ooze to manage and are connected, the outlet of gutter is provided with gate valve, collect and ooze pipe and be arranged in draining enrockment rib body.The present invention can utilize local material to build a dam, and cost of building a dam is low, and reliable, easy to maintenance, complete function.

Description

A kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam.
Background technology
At present, China's Tailings Dam quantity reaches more than 12000 seats, volume of cargo in storage more than 100 hundred million tons.Safety of Tailings Dam is related to the safety of downstream resident's lives and properties, the pollution of Land Environment, and the Safety of Tailings Dam accident taken place frequently especially in recent years, brings larger economic loss to country, and the harmony of the casualties impact society that security incident causes is stablized.
Safety of Tailings Dam outstanding problem, safety device drop into also very large.The ratio of Tailings Dam construction investment in whole mine construction investment is raising gradually.How while raising tailing dam safety factor, to reduce construction investment as much as possible, become the important topic that mine development faces.The safety device of Tailings Dam ooze the composition such as system, observation facility primarily of initial dam, fill dam, flood drainage system, row.Wherein the construction investment of initial dam is higher in the ratio of whole Tailings Dam construction investment, and the investment reducing initial dam becomes the key component reducing Tailings Dam construction investment.
In Tailings Dam design, in order to the later stage safety of tailing dam, initial dam dam type generally selects permeable loose rock dam.Permeable loose rock dam are formed primarily of the loaded filter of rockfill and upstream face thereof, topping, because water permeability is good, can reduce the phreatic line in tailing dam body, accelerate mine tailing consolidation, be conducive to the stable of tailing dam.The building stones of building a dam that permeable loose rock dam adopt are generally hard granite, syenite, gabbro, diorite, porphyry, diabase, quartzite, osmanthus matter sandstone, limestone etc. that density is large, are then unsuitable for building a dam for rocks such as shale, marl, breccias.
In engineering practice, often lack satisfactory hard rock near Tailings Dam reservoir area, if use hard rock to build a dam, then high cost of building a dam, runs into this situation, and major part changes dam type into local material and builds a dam, and namely soft-rock damming or Weathered Material are built a dam.Use the humidifying feature of soft rock material obvious in engineering, actual various soft rock material all has a comparatively general feature, namely soft rock material is very strong to the sensitiveness of environmental change, the various soft rock material of on-the-spot just exploitation still have certain intensity, but slightly through the impact of wind and rain, Exposure to Sunlight, its intensity reduces rapidly, and particle aggravation is broken.The general coefficient of softening of soft rock is little, and namely after immersion saturated, loss of strength is comparatively large, sometimes only 20% ~ 30% under remaining dry state, and therefore slaking deformation is larger.Equally, when Weathered Material is built a dam, often intensity is low, and coefficient of softening is little, and in the initial dam Construction Practice of Tailings Dam, adopt soft rock and Weathered Material common intensity of building a dam low, section is large, invests high.
In the work progress of tailings reservoir preliminary dam, washing out the initial dam of building to prevent flood, construction diversion be done; Construction diversion pipe generally selects prefabricated reinforced concrete pipe, steel pipe etc., after mozzle construction, needs to carry out shutoff to mozzle, and shutoff will have certain intensity, can bear mine tailing load when mine tailing is accumulated to final period, after shutoff, this mozzle there is no any effect.
The impact of phreatic line on initial stage dam body shows four aspects: a) change the stress state in dam body, and the Rock And Soil effective stress below phreatic line reduces; B) mechanics index of physics of the following Rock And Soil of phreatic line is reduced; C) overflow position at phreatic line and may produce the seepage failure such as piping, stream soil; D) when dam material is silt, sand, when phreatic line is higher, there is the possibility of earthquake liquefaction in initial dam.Therefore in engineering practice, the phreatic line reduced in dam body is significant to stablizing of dam body as far as possible.
Tailings Dam puts into operation the initial stage, and flood drainage system not yet starts water inlet, and mine tailing deposition beach face is not formed, and permeable loose rock dam generally there will be the muddy phenomenon of of short duration race, runs the muddy time to depend on the height of initial dam, tailings discharging amount and initial stage storage capacity etc.At present, prevent initial dam from running muddy measure for arranging Clay Microstructure within the scope of certain altitude bottom dam upstream face in the early stage, arranging Clay Microstructure can increase construction investment on the one hand, and the row that can weaken tailing dam on the other hand to a certain extent oozes ability.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is, provides the modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam that a kind of investment is lower, reliable, be convenient to maintenance, complete function.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam, comprises dam body, upstream face impervious barrier, antiseepage teeth groove, draining enrockment rib body, upstream face drainage blanket, upstream face loaded filter, anti-filter teeth groove, slope impervious barrier outside dam, loaded filter under dam, drainage blanket under dam, gutter, collection oozes pipe, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier, dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket, described upstream face impervious barrier is positioned at dam body and draining enrockment rib body, between upstream face drainage blanket, the lower end of described upstream face impervious barrier is arranged in antiseepage teeth groove, and described antiseepage teeth groove is positioned under dam below drainage blanket, described upstream face drainage blanket, draining enrockment rib body is positioned between upstream face impervious barrier and upstream face loaded filter, and draining enrockment rib body is positioned at the below of upstream face drainage blanket, the lower end of described upstream face loaded filter is arranged in anti-filter teeth groove, under described dam, loaded filter is under dam body and dam between drainage blanket, described gutter is arranged in drainage blanket under dam, import and the collection of described gutter ooze to manage and are connected, the outlet of described gutter is provided with gate valve, described collection oozes pipe and is arranged in draining enrockment rib body, and described dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier are positioned at dam body, between dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket.
Further, described dam body is built up by local materials such as Weathered Material, soft rock material, barren rock, waste residue, earth materials.
Further, described upstream face impervious barrier, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier are the thick clay liner of the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm-2.0mmHDPE film-50cm, the sand gravel D=2 ~ 10mm of sand-gravel cushion.
Further, under described upstream face loaded filter, dam, loaded filter is the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm-400g/m 2the thick sand-gravel cushion of geotextiles-30cm, the sand gravel D=2 ~ 10mm of sand-gravel cushion.
Further, outside described dam, slope impervious barrier is 10cm prefabricated section bank protection, and middle cement mortar smears seam.
The present invention is by arranging slope impervious barrier outside upstream face impervious barrier, dam, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier, dam body percolating water and dam material are farthest isolated, by arranging loaded filter under dam, reduce the phreatic line height in dam body, dam material major part is made to be in more than phreatic line, mechanics index of physics and effective stress higher, dam stabilization safety factor is higher.Be the situation of soft rock for dam material, this dam type can make soft rock keep dry state as far as possible, and loss of strength ratio will significantly reduce, and adds that soft rock is distinctive and higher rolls dry density, very favourable to the stability of dam body.By utilizing local material such as Weathered Material, soft rock material, barren rock, waste residue, earth material etc. farthest to reduce construction investment, solve the not enough problem of the dam material often run in work progress.
The present invention by arranging draining enrockment rib body, upstream face loaded filter and arrange gutter under dam, and gutter arranges gate valve, can control the pervious function of dam type flexibly.When gate valve is closed, this dam is waterproof dam, and when gate valve is opened, this dam belongs to permeable dike.Significant to Tailings Dam of the water permeability that can control dam body flexibly, because when Tailings Dam initial operating stage, not yet form mine tailing deposition beach, mine tailing is not easily clarified, for roller compaction water-permeable loose rock dam, often occur running muddy phenomenon, now gate valve can be closed, modified mixed dam is waterproof dam, and the initial stage that can prevent runs muddy phenomenon.When tailings pile is to initial dam dam crest, flood drainage system can draining time, mine tailing deposition beach face is formed, tailing water now through tailing filtration is more clear, gate valve can be opened, modified mixed dam becomes permeable dike, reduces the phreatic line height in mine tailing accumulation body, favourable to the stability and safety of dam body.Be not accumulated to initial stage dam crest in mine tailing piling height, flood drainage system cannot before draining, when suffering from the flood of larger frequency, for preventing the unrestrained top of flood, under there is not the prerequisite of erosion damage in guarantee, can the timely draining of unlatching number of moderate control gate valve, booster action is played to the flood control of Tailings Dam initial stage.
After the following key dam body of draining enrockment rib body elevation of top completes, for the Tailings Dam that catchment area is less, under dam, gutter can play the effect of construction diversion, and for the Tailings Dam that catchment area is larger, under dam, gutter can assist other construction diversion measures to play construction diversion effect.
When having surface water, water burst or crevice water, percolating water at the bottom of the contact site or initial dam dam of initial dam and both sides massif, above-mentioned current should be taken measures to cause initial dam downstream, prevent from entering in dam body, softening dam material or lifting dam seepage line, cause potential safety hazard to safety of dam body.When the infiltration current of both sides massif present the state concentrating out stream, by the gutter arranging appropriate section, infiltration current can be caused dam body downstream; When the infiltration current of both sides massif be planar form go out to flow time, drainage blanket can be set between dam material and massif, current be caused at the bottom of dam and discharge; When both sides, massif water percolating capacity is minimum, when dam material is not soft rock, also can not arrange measures for draining leakage.
In sum, the present invention has the following advantages: (1) farthest can adapt to local available dam material, comprises earth material, soft rock material, Weathered Material, barren rock etc., solves the situation that dam material deficiency maybe can not meet design requirement; (2) phreatic line in dam body is very low, and the buckling safety factor of dam body is higher; (3) under initial dam construction period can utilize dam, row oozes system as the part in construction diversion measure; (4) if tailing water water quality has corrosiveness to dam material, use the present invention, farthest can reduce the impact of tailing water confrontation dam material; (5) at Tailings Dam initial operating stage, can by closing gutter, tailing water is clarified, and the initial stage of preventing runs muddy problem; (6) can not to arrange outward for tailing water or Tailings Dam needs the situation of Anti-seeping technology, this dam type both can play antiseepage effect, again can when dam stabilization safety factor is lower, by the draining of opening water discharge pipe, reduce the phreatic line height in accumulation of dam, improve the effect of safety of dam body coefficient; (7) fine to the water permeability compliance of the dam foundation, for the ground that water permeability is stronger, curtain grouting can be set at antiseepage teeth groove place, reduce water permeability, infiltration and Tailings Dam seepage in dam body can be controlled flexibly; (8) because caliber under this dam type dam is general less, once be damaged in running, can carry out shutoff process in time, its damaging influence can control in a certain degree.
The present invention is applicable to dry stockyard initial dam, refuse dump initial dam, refuse landfill dam etc., is specially adapted to meet water softening, argillization, the situation that intensity obviously reduces;
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the vertical section schematic diagram of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is floor map embodiment illustrated in fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is schematic cross section embodiment illustrated in fig. 1;
In figure: 1-dam body, 2-draining enrockment rib body, 3-anti-filter teeth groove, 4-antiseepage teeth groove, 5-gutter, 6-collection to ooze outside loaded filter under pipe, 7-upstream face loaded filter, 8-upstream face impervious barrier, 9-dam, 10-dam drainage blanket, 12-upstream face drainage blanket, 13-gate valve, 14-dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier, 15-dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket under slope impervious barrier, 11-dam.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described.
With reference to accompanying drawing, the present embodiment comprises dam body 1, upstream face impervious barrier 8, antiseepage teeth groove 4, draining enrockment rib body 2, upstream face drainage blanket 12, upstream face loaded filter 7, anti-filter teeth groove 3, slope impervious barrier 10 outside dam, loaded filter 9 under dam, drainage blanket 11 under dam, gutter 5, collection oozes pipe 6, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier 14, dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket 15, described upstream face impervious barrier 8 is positioned at dam body 1 and draining enrockment rib body 2, between upstream face drainage blanket 12, the lower end of described upstream face impervious barrier 8 is arranged in antiseepage teeth groove 4, and described antiseepage teeth groove 4 is positioned under dam below drainage blanket 11, described upstream face drainage blanket 12, draining enrockment rib body 2 is between upstream face impervious barrier 8 and upstream face loaded filter 7, and draining enrockment rib body 2 is positioned at the below of upstream face drainage blanket 12, the lower end of described upstream face loaded filter 7 is arranged in anti-filter teeth groove 3, under described dam, loaded filter 9 is under dam body 1 and dam between drainage blanket 11, described gutter 5 is arranged in drainage blanket 11 under dam, import and the collection of described gutter 5 ooze pipe 6 and are connected, the outlet of described gutter 5 is provided with gate valve 13, described collection oozes pipe 6 and is arranged in draining enrockment rib body 2, and described dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier 14 are positioned at dam body 1, between dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket 15.
The sequence of construction of the present embodiment is generally loaded filter, draining enrockment rib body elevation of top following key dam body, the above key dam body of draining enrockment rib body elevation of top, dam forward part impervious barrier, upstream face drainage blanket, anti-filter teeth groove and upstream face loaded filter under drainage blanket under gutter under the backfill of antiseepage teeth groove, teeth groove partial barrier layer and teeth groove, dam, draining enrockment rib body, draining enrockment rib body downstream part impervious barrier, dam, dam.Impervious barrier, the drainage blanket of constructing in dam embankment process between dam body and massif.
The pipeline buried underground under initial dam, adopt flexible pipe, as steel pipe, pvc pipe etc., caliber is generally within 800mm, and quantity can be determined according to actual conditions, should be evenly arranged, and every bar pipeline is equipped with a gate valve, and what control pipeline goes out stream.
The evaluation method of storehouse inner drainage layer thickness
In formula: for drainage blanket water percolating capacity; for the maximum water percolating capacity of tailing dam of estimation; for drainage blanket thickness; for the average length along axis of dam direction drainage blanket; for mean flow rate in drainage blanket; for the transmission coefficient of drainage blanket; for the ratio of current in drainage blanket falls; for dam body upstream face area; for mine tailing percolating water mean flow rate; for the maximum transmission coefficient in each mine tailing layering; for the hydraulic slope in mine tailing percolating water.
The factor that design of impervious layer should be considered: according to the height of initial dam, selects the antiseepage film of corresponding hydraulic pressure ability to bear; The upper and lower layer of antiseepage film should design clay topping, prevents in work progress, and antiseepage film is damaged, and the thickness of clay topping should according to bearing hydraulic pressure and issuable external force of constructing is determined; Antiseepage film should go deep into bottom of trench and both sides impervious layer by teeth groove, seepage proof curtain; Antiseepage film will be taked strengthening measure in turning, lap-joint, and take anchor measure, prevents from pulling, and ensures the hydraulic pressure holding capacity of joint.
Certain Tailings Dam adopts upper reaches method Tailing dam construction, total height of dam 94.5m, tailing dam height 60m.The dam material that initial dam can be selected is local thin,tough silk English phyllite, and tunnel drivage excavation waste residue, thin,tough silk English phyllite has weathering to a certain degree.Initial dam adopts modified mixed dam, and width at dam crest is 4m, and upstream Slope is than being 1:2.0, and slope, slope, downstream is than being 1:2.0, and initial dam height is 34.5m.
Draining enrockment rib body top width 6m, downstream Slope, than being 1:1, is highly 10m; The composition of upstream face loaded filter, upstream face drainage blanket, upstream face impervious barrier is followed successively by 30cm pitched work, the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm)-400g/m 2the thick sand-gravel cushion of geotextiles-30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm), 2.15m block stone drainage blanket, the thick clay liner of the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm)-2.0mmHDPE film-50cm.Impervious barrier between dam body and both sides massif consists of massif after the dam body materials-50cm clay liner-2mmHDPE thick sand-gravel cushion of film-30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm)-clear base.Arrange infiltration layer bottom dam body and consist of dam body materials, the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm)-400g/m 2dam body base foundation after the thick sand-gravel cushion of geotextiles-30cm (D=2 ~ 10mm), 3m chunk stone drainage blanket-clear base.Outside dam, slope impervious barrier consists of 10cm prefabricated section bank protection, and middle cement mortar smears seam, constructs to dam body block stone drainage blanket top.Drainage in dam body pipe adopts DN300 steel pipe, and pipe thickness is 8mm, and radical is 4, arranges a valve outside every root steel pipe.Before steel pipe, header adopts DN600 steel pipe, and the outer plum blossom boring of steel pipe, holes 18 weekly, spacing of wells 10cm, aperture 2cm, steel pipe outsourcing 400g/m 2geotextiles.
The seepage discharge calculated in tailing dam body is 5L/s, and the design collecting water from runoff of block stone drainage blanket is 23L/s, and Steel Pipe Design displacement is 774L/s.

Claims (5)

1. be applicable to a modified mixed dam for Tailings Dam, comprise dam body, it is characterized in that: be also provided with upstream face impervious barrier, antiseepage teeth groove, draining enrockment rib body, upstream face drainage blanket, upstream face loaded filter, anti-filter teeth groove, slope impervious barrier outside dam, loaded filter under dam, drainage blanket under dam, gutter, collection oozes pipe, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier, dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket, described upstream face impervious barrier is positioned at dam body and draining enrockment rib body, between upstream face drainage blanket, the lower end of described upstream face impervious barrier is arranged in antiseepage teeth groove, and described antiseepage teeth groove is positioned under dam below drainage blanket, described upstream face drainage blanket, draining enrockment rib body is positioned between upstream face impervious barrier and upstream face loaded filter, and draining enrockment rib body is positioned at the below of upstream face drainage blanket, the lower end of described upstream face loaded filter is arranged in anti-filter teeth groove, under described dam, loaded filter is under dam body and dam between drainage blanket, described gutter is arranged in drainage blanket under dam, import and the collection of described gutter ooze to manage and are connected, the outlet of described gutter is provided with gate valve, described collection oozes pipe and is arranged in draining enrockment rib body, and described dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier are positioned at dam body, between dam body and massif contact surface drainage blanket.
2. the modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described dam body is built up by Weathered Material, soft rock material, barren rock or waste residue.
3. the modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: described upstream face impervious barrier, dam body and massif contact surface impervious barrier are the thick clay liner of the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm-2.0mmHDPE film-50cm, the sand gravel D=2 ~ 10mm of sand-gravel cushion.
4. the modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: under described upstream face loaded filter, dam, loaded filter is the thick sand-gravel cushion of 30cm-400g/m 2the thick sand-gravel cushion of geotextiles-30cm, the sand gravel D=2 ~ 10mm of sand-gravel cushion.
5. the modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: outside described dam, slope impervious barrier is 10cm prefabricated section bank protection, and middle cement mortar smears seam.
CN201410170030.7A 2014-04-25 2014-04-25 A kind of modified mixed dam being applicable to Tailings Dam Active CN103953008B (en)

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CN104711953A (en) * 2015-02-10 2015-06-17 太原钢铁(集团)有限公司 Tailing dam built through barren rock
CN109487799B (en) * 2018-10-19 2020-07-07 金堆城钼业股份有限公司 Construction method of tailing pond initial dam inverted filter layer structure

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RU2007510C1 (en) * 1990-08-06 1994-02-15 Калишевский Вадим Николаевич Local material dam
CN201713790U (en) * 2010-06-11 2011-01-19 长沙有色冶金设计研究院 Structure preventing muddy water from leaking out of primary dam of tailing reservoir of mine
CN202117155U (en) * 2011-06-11 2012-01-18 昆明有色冶金设计研究院股份公司 Efficient leakage drainage device for inner slope of initial dam of tailing pond

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