CN103253774B - Improved method for enhancing ammonia nitrogen removal effect of constructed wetland by using wetland harvested bamboo reeds - Google Patents

Improved method for enhancing ammonia nitrogen removal effect of constructed wetland by using wetland harvested bamboo reeds Download PDF

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CN103253774B
CN103253774B CN201310218595.3A CN201310218595A CN103253774B CN 103253774 B CN103253774 B CN 103253774B CN 201310218595 A CN201310218595 A CN 201310218595A CN 103253774 B CN103253774 B CN 103253774B
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wetland
giantreed
biomass charcoal
layer
water
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CN201310218595.3A
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CN103253774A (en
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黄磊
高旭
杜刚
鲁言言
常宝军
郭劲松
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重庆大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention discloses an improved method for enhancing ammonia nitrogen removal effect of a constructed wetland by using wetland harvested bamboo reeds. The constructed wetland comprises a tank body, a water inlet and outlet system, a wetland substrate and wetland plants (bamboo reeds), wherein the bamboo reeds are harvested and then subjected to carbonization treatment (being subjected to irenine pretreatment before carbonization) to obtain a bamboo reed biomass charcoal material; the biomass charcoal material is used as a wetland substrate and filled back into the tank body; the wetland substrate sequentially comprises a bottom layer, a middle layer and a surface layer from bottom to top; and the biomass charcoal material is arranged in the middle layer. The method enhances the NH4<+>-N removal effect in sewage, causes no secondary pollution, can effectively lower the construction and operating cost of the traditional constructed wetland, has the characteristics of stable water treatment effect and the like, and can buffer the impact of water power and pollution load. The invention solves the problem that the harvested wetland plants cause secondary pollution to the environment in case of improper treatment, effectively enhances the NH4<+>-N removal effect of the wetland and realizes the reutilization of the wetland plants.

Description

A kind of wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of improvement is removed the method for ammonia nitrogen
Technical field
The invention belongs to water treatment field, specifically, it relates to a kind of wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of improvement and removes the method for ammonia nitrogen.
Background technology
Artificial swamp is according to the principle of natural wetland purification sewage, take natural wetland technique as main body, associating matrix, microorganism and plant action, a kind of Ecosystem restoration system with advantages such as reduced investment, management are simple, working cost is cheap constructing.Through the development of nearly 40 years, artificial swamp, as a kind of sewage water denitrification technology that has potentiality, obtained widespread use both domestic and external.
Traditional Man wetland adopts gravity flow water intake mode more, the dissolved oxygen in wetland mainly from the water surface and air contact and root system of plant is secreted oxygen effect.A little less than the gentle liquid level oxygen diffusion of Radial Oxygen Loss from Root ability, wetland bed body is inner, the bulk soil of bed in body particularly, dissolved oxygen concentration is on the low side, even in anoxic condition, thereby being restricted of the growth and breeding of nitrobacteria and nitration reaction, the removal effect of ammonia nitrogen is poor, and then affects the denitrification ability of wetland.Therefore,, for improving Nitrogen Removal Effect in Constructed Wetland, the dissolved oxygen state improving in wetland is very necessary.
In the decontamination mechanism of artificial wet land system, waterplant plays an important role, and shows as that effects of purification quality is good, energy consumption is low, simple, economic benefit is high.But for now, harvested wetland plant handling problems is the bottleneck factor of restriction wetland Sustainable development, for a long time, wetland harvesting plant majority, by direct returning to farmland or burning, to environment, also causes the wasting of resources simultaneously.In existing wetland, wetland plant is in the majority with giantreed.
Plants of Constructed Wetlands output is large, wide material sources and cheap, if harvested straw can be carried out to charing and be applied to artificial swamp as wet land filler, can strengthen water retention property, improve porosity and air permeability, promote the removal effect of wetland plant and microbe, alleviate the adsorptive pressure of Wetland Substrate, extend its saturated time limit, can also realize resource and reclaim, solve the processing problem of the rear plant of harvesting.
Summary of the invention
Poor for Traditional Man wetland denitrification effect, dissolved oxygen levels is low, and the handling problems of wetland plant after harvesting, the invention provides a kind of method of utilizing wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land to remove ammonia nitrogen.Present method has strengthened NH in sewage 4 +the removal effect of-N, and non-secondary pollution, can also effectively reduce Traditional Man wetland and build and working cost, has water treatment effect stability, the features such as impact of available buffer to waterpower and pollution load.
The technical solution that the present invention realizes above-mentioned purpose is as follows:
A kind of wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of improvement is removed the method for ammonia nitrogen, this Wetland Type is undercurrent type or surface current artificial wetland, comprise pond body, inlet and outlet system, be seated in the Wetland Substrate in the body of pond and plant the wetland plant giantreed in matrix, the charing after harvesting season harvesting of described giantreed is processed and is obtained giantreed biomass charcoal material, then using giantreed biomass charcoal material in Wetland Substrate is backfilling into pond body; Described Wetland Substrate is divided into three-decker, is followed successively by bottom, middle layer and top layer from bottom to top, and bottom and top layer are rubble, and middle layer is giantreed biomass charcoal material, and described giantreed biomass charcoal material is 30~50% of Wetland Substrate cumulative volume;
Wherein giantreed charing is processed the process obtain giantreed biomass charcoal material and is:
(1) raw material preparation: harvested giantreed stalk is cleaned, prescinded to 4 ~ 5cm dry for standby;
(2) giantreed stalk pre-treatment: the giantreed stalk that (1) step is obtained adds dipping pretreatment in irenine reaction solution, irenine reaction solution is NaOH and H 2o 2the mixed aqueous solution forming, wherein NaOH massfraction is 0.25~2%, H 2o 2massfraction is 0.14~1.01 %, and surplus is water; Pretreatment parameter is: 40~80 ℃ of temperature, and solid-to-liquid ratio (g/mL) 1:30~1:10, treatment time 4h~32h, washes with water to neutral post-drying standby by giantreed stalk after pretreatment;
(3) by the pyrogenically prepared giantreed charcoal of the pretreated giantreed stalk of (2) step anoxybiotic under nitrogen atmosphere, wherein pyrolysis temperature is 400 ~ 800 ℃, and pyrolysis time is 1.5 ~ 2.5h;
(4) it is broken that the giantreed charcoal of being prepared by (3) step is put into pulverizer, sieve, get 80 ~ 40 object giantreed charcoals as sorbing material, with deionized water wash, so that the pH value of giantreed charcoal is reduced to 7.5 ~ 8, puts into afterwards baking oven and dry the giantreed biomass charcoal material described in preparing.
During described (2) step giantreed stalk pre-treatment, the preferred 1-1.5% of NaOH massfraction in irenine reaction solution, H 20 2the preferred 0.3-0.6% of massfraction; The preferred 55-70 ℃ of pretreatment temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio (g/ml) is 1:15-25 preferably, the preferred 15-28h of pretreatment time.
Described underlayer thickness is 8~9cm, and intermediate layer thickness is 6~14cm, and skin depth is 4~5cm, and the ballast grain sizes on bottom and top layer is 1~2cm.
Described pond body is cylindrical, and its diameter is 15~25cm, is highly 20~30cm, Wetland Substrate total height than on the body of pond along low 2-3cm, elevation of water surface is concordant with Wetland Substrate; Body sidewall top, pond arranges water inlet pipe, and bottom arranges water shoot, and water inlet pipe and water shoot bore are 2~5cm.
Compared to existing technology, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1) biomass charcoal can strengthen water retention property, improves porosity and air permeability, and nitration reaction in wetland is had to very strong promoter action, and particularly for the poor horizontal drowned flow artificial wet land of DO transitivity, biomass charcoal can improve its inner DO environment.Compare with Traditional Man wetland, in the present invention, DO level obviously improves (improving 0.2~3.0mg/L), has strengthened the growth and breeding of nitrobacteria and the generation of nitration reaction, thereby has strengthened the removal effect of ammonia nitrogen, and then strengthened the denitrification ability of wetland.
2) ash element of biomass charcoal (as K, Ca and Mg etc.) is compared with horn of plenty, execute into after wetland as soluble nutrient by plant utilization, by the physico-chemical property that provides and store nutritive element and improve matrix, promote the growth of plant.
3) large (800~900 m of giantreed biomass charcoal specific surface area that the present invention uses 2/ g), aperture major part is distributed between 30~50nm, many mesopores, contain the multiple oxy radicals such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, lactone group, phenolic hydroxyl group and carbonyl, be conducive to the absorption of ammonia nitrogen and be suitable as the carrier that microorganism growth is grown, and environmental friendliness, non-secondary pollution, duration of service is long.
4) the present invention utilizes giantreed as constructed wetland plant, adds biomass charcoal in matrix, builds biomass charcoal subsurface constructed wetland, from above-mentioned three aspects, strengthens NH Wetlands on Wastewater 4 +the removal effect of-N, its clearance, up to nearly 90%, is compared average 50% left and right of having improved with Traditional Man wetland.
5) the biomass charcoal material that the present invention uses be take wetland plant and is prepared as raw material, has not only solved the mishandling problem that environment is caused to secondary pollution of wetland plant after harvesting, go back efficient hardening wetland to NH 4 +the removal effect of-N, and realized the recycling of wetland plant.
6) the present invention makes full use of the biomass charcoal material that is suitable for microorganism growth, utilize the mutual promoting action of biomass charcoal material and wetland plant, strengthened the ability of Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetlands, improved wetland plant and the Wetland Substrate contribution rate to sewage disposal, solved the rear mishandling problem that environment is caused to secondary pollution of wetland plant of harvesting, no matter on treatment effect, or in brought economic benefit, all there is obvious advantage.
Accompanying drawing explanation
The artificial wetland structure schematic diagram of Fig. 1-the present invention.
Traditional Man wetland and DO comparison diagram of the present invention in Fig. 2-embodiment.
In Fig. 3-embodiment, Traditional Man wetland and the present invention are to NH 4 +-N removal effect comparison diagram.
Embodiment
Wetland Type of the present invention is undercurrent or surface current artificial wetland, comprise pond body 1, inlet and outlet system, be seated in the Wetland Substrate in the body of pond and plant the wetland plant giantreed 2 in matrix, the charing after harvesting season harvesting of described giantreed is processed and is obtained giantreed biomass charcoal material, then using giantreed biomass charcoal material in Wetland Substrate is backfilling into pond body.Described Wetland Substrate is divided into three-decker, is followed successively by bottom 3, middle layer 4 and top layer 5 from bottom to top, and bottom 3 is rubble with top layer 5, and middle layer 4 is giantreed biomass charcoal material, and described giantreed biomass charcoal material is 30~50% of Wetland Substrate cumulative volume.
Wherein giantreed charing is processed the process obtain giantreed biomass charcoal material and is:
(1) raw material preparation: harvested giantreed stalk is cleaned, prescinded to 4 ~ 5cm dry for standby;
(2) giantreed stalk pre-treatment: the giantreed stalk that (1) step is obtained adds dipping pretreatment in irenine reaction solution, irenine reaction solution is NaOH and H 2o 2the mixed aqueous solution forming, wherein NaOH massfraction is 0.25~2%, H 2o 2massfraction is 0.14~1.01 %, and surplus is water; Pretreatment parameter is: 40~80 ℃ of temperature, and solid-to-liquid ratio (g/mL) 1:30~1:10, treatment time 4h~32h, washes with water to neutral post-drying standby by giantreed stalk after pretreatment;
(3) by the pyrogenically prepared giantreed charcoal of the pretreated giantreed stalk of (2) step anoxybiotic under nitrogen atmosphere, wherein pyrolysis temperature is 400 ~ 800 ℃, and pyrolysis time is 1.5 ~ 2.5h; Preferably pyrolysis temperature is 450 ~ 600 ℃, and pyrolysis time is 1.8 ~ 2.1h; More preferably pyrolysis temperature is 500 ℃, pyrolysis time 2h;
(4) it is broken that the giantreed charcoal of being prepared by (3) step is put into pulverizer, sieve, get 80 ~ 40 object giantreed charcoals as sorbing material, with deionized water wash, so that the pH value of giantreed charcoal is reduced to 7.5 ~ 8, puts into afterwards baking oven and dry the giantreed biomass charcoal material described in preparing.Freshly prepd charcoal is alkalescence, and pH is about 10 ~ 11, and washing is in order to make the pH of charcoal be reduced to 7.5 ~ 8, to prevent that ammonia nitrogen is with ammonia state volatilization effusion.
During described (2) step giantreed stalk pre-treatment, the preferred 1-1.5% of NaOH massfraction in irenine reaction solution, H 20 2the preferred 0.3-0.6% of massfraction; The preferred 55-70 ℃ of pretreatment temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio (g/ml) is 1:15-25 preferably, the preferred 15-28h of pretreatment time.More preferably: NaOH massfraction 1.24% in irenine reaction solution, H 20 2massfraction 0.35%; 64 ℃ of pretreatment temperatures, solid-to-liquid ratio (g/ml) 1:22.2, pretreatment time 26.5h.
Described underlayer thickness is 8~9cm, and intermediate layer thickness is 6~14cm, and skin depth is 4~5cm, and the ballast grain sizes on bottom and top layer is 1~2cm.
If giantreed biomass charcoal material is positioned at top layer, easy floating loss, if and be positioned at bottom and compressed by upper strata rubble, easily by upper strata rubble, crushed again, therefore giantreed biomass charcoal material of the present invention is between two-layer rubble, by two-layer rubble, it is located, and skin depth is more shallow, be 4~5cm, so just can not crush biomass charcoal material.
Described pond body 1 is cylindrical, its diameter is 15~25cm, be highly 20~30cm, Wetland Substrate total height than on the body of pond along low 2-3cm, actual Wetland Substrate packing height is 18~28cm, elevation of water surface concordant with Wetland Substrate (remaining on 18~28cm place), at predefined elevation of water surface, place is provided with altitude valve 6, when higher than this water level, altitude valve 6 is opened draining automatically, makes water level maintain all the time this height.Body sidewall top, pond arranges water inlet pipe 7, and bottom arranges water shoot 8, and water shoot 8 is provided with water check valve 9, and water inlet pipe and water shoot bore are 2~5cm, in order to water inlet and draining.
Described giantreed planting density is 15~25 strains/m 2.Giantreed biomass charcoal of the present invention is alkalescence, and pH value is 7.5~8; Have vesicular structure not of uniform size, surface ratio is more coarse; There are very high specific surface area (800~900 m 2/ g) and total pore volume (0.2~0.3 cm 3/ g); Aperture major part is distributed between 30~50nm, and it is main showing as mesopore, is conducive to the absorption to ammonia nitrogen; Contain the multiple oxy radicals such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, lactone group, phenolic hydroxyl group and carbonyl, these groups are conducive to the adsorption treatment of ammonia nitrogen.In described Wetland Substrate, giantreed biomass charcoal content is up to 30~50% (giantreed biomass charcoals: matrix, volume ratio).
The speed of possible giantreed generation biomass charcoal is not mated with the spending rate of biomass charcoal material, and the quantum of output of biomass charcoal may be excessive, also may the amount of owing.Under normal circumstances, the quantum of output of biomass charcoal is easily excessive, now can store for making up the deficiency of other wet land system quantums of output.If water pollution is serious, biomass charcoal materials consumption is very fast so, the speed that may cause wetland plant on same a slice wet land system to produce biomass charcoal can not be caught up with the spending rate of biomass charcoal material, now can use the biomass charcoal that wetland plant produces to other wet land system.In principle, preparing biomass charcoal material plant used should be same plant with the plant of plantation on it.
Sewage of the present invention enters after artificial wet land system, under the synergy of wetland plant, the matrix that comprises giantreed biomass charcoal and microorganism, by physics, chemistry and biological action, is purified.Sewage is after purifying, and water quality reaches < < urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard > > (GB 18918-2002) one-level B mark.
By contrast experiment, verify effect of the present invention below.
Build two constructed wetland reactor W 1(Traditional Man wetland) and W 2(the present invention), testing apparatus as shown in Figure 1, the size of reactor: diameter 20cm, high 26cm.Body sidewall top, pond and bottom arrange water inlet pipe and water shoot (bore is 2~5cm), in order to water inlet and draining.
Reactor filler is rubble and homemade giantreed biomass charcoal, and the volume ratio that the giantreed biomass charcoal adding accounts for matrix is 0 (W 1) and 39% (W 2).The packing height of filler is 23cm, and reactor median water level remains on 23cm, and in each reactor, initial giantreed quality is about 100g.
Active sludge is taken from Chongqing City realgar sewage work, and active sludge is tamed with the sewage of human configuration after cleaning after filtration, changes water every day once, tames and is inoculated in wetland reactor after one month.
Reactor water inlet is the sewage of human configuration, and water intake mode is intermittent water inflow, and water temperature is 20~30 ℃, and HRT=2d continues two months altogether, makes reactor stable.
After reactor is stable, in one-period, NH in tracking and measuring wetland reactor 4 +the index such as-N and DO, observes its Changing Pattern.To add water and constantly be designated as 0 constantly, 30min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 4h, 8h, 16h, 32h, 48h get wetland reactor water sample, measure its index.
By to W 1and W 2middle NH 4 +the tracing observation of-N and DO, can find and W 1compare W 2can improve 50% NH 4 +-N clearance, and its DO level is obviously higher, is conducive to the operation of wetland.
Finally explanation is, above embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, although the present invention is had been described in detail with reference to preferred embodiment, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that, can modify or be equal to replacement technical scheme of the present invention, and not departing from aim and the scope of technical solution of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. the wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of an improvement is removed the method for ammonia nitrogen, this Wetland Type is undercurrent type or surface current artificial wetland, comprise pond body (1), inlet and outlet system, be seated in the Wetland Substrate in the body of pond and plant the wetland plant giantreed (2) in matrix, it is characterized in that: the charing after harvesting season harvesting of described giantreed is processed and obtained giantreed biomass charcoal material, then using giantreed biomass charcoal material in Wetland Substrate is backfilling into pond body; Described Wetland Substrate is divided into three-decker, be followed successively by bottom (3), middle layer (4) and top layer (5) from bottom to top, bottom and top layer are rubble, and middle layer is giantreed biomass charcoal material, and described giantreed biomass charcoal material is 30~50% of Wetland Substrate cumulative volume;
Wherein giantreed charing is processed the process obtain giantreed biomass charcoal material and is:
(1) raw material preparation: harvested giantreed stalk is cleaned, prescinded to 4 ~ 5cm dry for standby;
(2) giantreed stalk pre-treatment: the giantreed stalk that (1) step is obtained adds dipping pretreatment in irenine reaction solution, irenine reaction solution is NaOH and H 2o 2the mixed aqueous solution forming, wherein NaOH massfraction is 0.25~2%, H 2o 2massfraction is 0.14~1.01 %, and surplus is water; Pretreatment parameter is: 40~80 ℃ of temperature, and solid-to-liquid ratio is in g/mL 1:30~1:10, and treatment time 4h~32h, washes with water to neutral post-drying standby by giantreed stalk after pretreatment;
(3) by the pyrogenically prepared giantreed charcoal of the pretreated giantreed stalk of (2) step anoxybiotic under nitrogen atmosphere, wherein pyrolysis temperature is 400 ~ 800 ℃, and pyrolysis time is 1.5 ~ 2.5h;
(4) it is broken that the giantreed charcoal of being prepared by (3) step is put into pulverizer, sieve, get 80 ~ 40 object giantreed charcoals as sorbing material, with deionized water wash, so that the pH value of giantreed charcoal is reduced to 7.5 ~ 8, puts into afterwards baking oven and dry the giantreed biomass charcoal material described in preparing;
Described pond body (1) is cylindrical, and it is highly 20~30cm, Wetland Substrate total height than on the body of pond along low 2-3cm, elevation of water surface is concordant with Wetland Substrate; Body sidewall top, pond arranges water inlet pipe (7), and bottom arranges water shoot (8), and water inlet pipe and water shoot bore are 2~5cm.
2. the wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of improvement according to claim 1 is removed the method for ammonia nitrogen, it is characterized in that: during described (2) step giantreed stalk pre-treatment, and the preferred 1-1.5% of NaOH massfraction in irenine reaction solution, H 20 2the preferred 0.3-0.6% of massfraction; The preferred 55-70 ℃ of pretreatment temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio is in the preferred 1:15-25 of g/mL, the preferred 15-28h of pretreatment time.
3. the wetland harvesting giantreed strengthened artificial wet land that utilizes of improvement according to claim 1 is removed the method for ammonia nitrogen, it is characterized in that: described underlayer thickness is 8~9cm, intermediate layer thickness is 6~14cm, and skin depth is 4~5cm, and the ballast grain sizes on bottom and top layer is 1~2cm.
CN201310218595.3A 2013-06-04 2013-06-04 Improved method for enhancing ammonia nitrogen removal effect of constructed wetland by using wetland harvested bamboo reeds CN103253774B (en)

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