CN103066888B - Photovoltaic module with self compensating function - Google Patents

Photovoltaic module with self compensating function Download PDF

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CN103066888B
CN103066888B CN201310025081.6A CN201310025081A CN103066888B CN 103066888 B CN103066888 B CN 103066888B CN 201310025081 A CN201310025081 A CN 201310025081A CN 103066888 B CN103066888 B CN 103066888B
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photovoltaic
chipset
photovoltaic module
circuit
power
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CN103066888A (en
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吴建德
杜进
王智博
徐睿
何湘宁
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

The invention discloses a photovoltaic module with a self compensating function. The photovoltaic module with the self compensating function comprises a plurality of photovoltaic chipsets, wherein a power compensation circuit is connected in a bridging mode between two ends of the plurality of photovoltaic chipsets after the photovoltaic chipsets are connected in series, and the power compensation circuit is connected with a control circuit. According to the photovoltaic module with the self compensating function, energy is extracted from master output of the photovoltaic module and is supplied to the photovoltaic chipsets which are affected by shadows, and then the working point of the photovoltaic chipsets is changed and electric energy output is restored, and therefore whole output power of the photovoltaic module is improved. Due to the fact that a photovoltaic battery is in a power generating state and energy is not consumed, the energy extracted can still be provided with load, and utilization of the energy extracted is not affected.

Description

A kind of photovoltaic module with self-compensating function
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of photovoltaic power generation, be specifically related to a kind of photovoltaic module with self-compensating function.
Background technology
Photovoltaic power generation technology for the energy, obtains mondial extensive concern with clean solar energy.Scholar from fields such as material, building, electric power system, power electronics, controls joins in the research of field of photovoltaic power generation one after another, promotes its development and application.At present, photovoltaic generation has become the second largest generation mode that installed capacity is only second to wind generator system, has broad application prospects.It should be noted that generator unit (the being generally a photovoltaic module) volume due to photovoltaic power generation technology is little, polluting little, noiseless, is optimal distributed power generation mode.Adopt the distributed photovoltaic power generation system of single photovoltaic module can be placed in easily roof or embed wall, correspond to each household other, work in from net or grid-connect mode, for more people provides clean energy resource.The important directions that this mode is photovoltaic generation application and promotes.
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of photovoltaic module in existing distributed photovoltaic power generation system.A photovoltaic module is formed by many photovoltaic cell chips series and parallels, these photovoltaic cell chips monomers first form three photovoltaic chipsets through series/parallel, photovoltaic chipset forms photovoltaic module by series connection again, each photovoltaic chipset bypass diode in parallel.Fig. 2 is the equivalent electric circuit of photovoltaic cell, as everyone knows, the physical characteristic of photovoltaic cell is determined by semi-conducting material, its basic functional principle is photovoltaic effect, namely when the light of certain energy irradiates photovoltaic cell, semi-conducting material absorbs energy, and electron transition occurs, the Carrier Profile state of its within conduction current and concentration change, and produce electromotive force and electric current thus.According to photovoltaic cell physical characteristic and equivalent electric circuit thereof, the Mathematical Modeling of photovoltaic cell can be set up, be shown below:
I SC - I D - V D R p - I PV = 0 I D = I O ( e V D / V T - 1 ) V PVcell=V D-R SI PV
Fig. 3 is photovoltaic battery module output characteristic curve, I sCfor the short circuit current of photovoltaic cell, U oCfor the open circuit voltage of photovoltaic cell, P mP, U mPand I mPbe respectively the power of maximum power of photovoltaic cell point, voltage and current.The output characteristic of photovoltaic cell is determined by environmental factors such as the physical characteristic of material and illumination, temperature, humidity.After characteristic curve is determined, the real work point of photovoltaic cell, then according to the change of load, this curve changes.Fig. 4 is the photovoltaic cell output characteristic curve under different illumination intensity, the characteristic curve of composition graphs 3 can be found out: the output characteristic change that photovoltaic cell produces by illumination Strength Changes clearly, its short circuit current increases with intensity of illumination and increases, and peak power output increases with intensity of illumination and increases.Given this, the research of tracing maximum power of photovoltaic cell problem just becomes the sixty-four dollar question promoting energy conversion efficiency.So-called maximum power point (Maximum Power Point, MPP) namely under certain solar irradiance and ambient temperature, photovoltaic cell operates in peak power output state, and MPPT maximum power point tracking is and makes full use of photovoltaic cell, the equivalent load of real-time adjustment photovoltaic cell, makes photovoltaic cell run the process always worked near maximum power point.
Local shades problem is common in the middle of photovoltaic generation and more unmanageable problem, and it refers to that the illumination of photovoltaic cell part is blocked by other objects in environment, the phenomenon that the intensity of illumination that photovoltaic cell each several part is received is different.Shadow problem has many levels, can be divided into photovoltaic cell chips shadow problem, photovoltaic module shadow problem and photovoltaic array shadow problem.Under the application of small-power distributed photovoltaic power generation system more and more widely situation, the impact of the photovoltaic module shadow problem caused by trees, building, birds and beasts excreta can not be despised; A kind of photovoltaic module shadow problem that Fig. 5 is shown.
The result of local shades problem is exactly that obvious discreteness has appearred in their characteristic because each chipset illumination condition is different, and its I-U characteristic curve and P-U characteristic curve are respectively as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7.Can see, after local shades blocks, there is multiple pole value in I-U and the P-U curve of photovoltaic cell chips group.The impact of local shades on distributed photovoltaic power generation system output characteristic mainly contains two aspects: one is the reduction of global peak power, and two is that the appearance of multi-peak is to the interference controlled.For photovoltaic shadow problem, academia proposes some shadow problem solutions for array class and component level; But the shade of the distributed photovoltaic power generation system of puzzlement unimodule structure blocks as the part photovoltaic cell chips in assembly, traditional power optimization device is because need the system configuration of change photovoltaic cell or electrical connection to use.The photovoltaic cell chips group equalizer circuit that some scholars propose, adopts multistage DC/DC converter to move each group of output to identical value by force, also really can not find the maximum power point of photovoltaic battery module under different local shades condition.
Summary of the invention
For the above-mentioned technical problem existing for prior art, the invention provides a kind of photovoltaic module with self-compensating function, photovoltaic module automatic equalization realize maximum power output under local shades condition can be made.
There is a photovoltaic module for self-compensating function, comprise multiple photovoltaic chipset; After multiple photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends span is connected to power compensating circuit; Described power compensating circuit is connected with control circuit; Wherein:
Described control circuit for the voltage of the output voltage and output current and each photovoltaic chipset that gather photovoltaic module, and utilizes climbing algorithm construction to go out control signal according to these signals;
Described power compensating circuit is used for according to described output voltage and control signal, for photovoltaic chipset affords redress electric current.
Described power compensating circuit comprises a main coupling coil and a switching tube; Wherein, after multiple photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends connect one end of main coupling coil and the output of switching tube respectively, and the input of switching tube is connected with the other end of main coupling coil, the control signal described in the reception of control pole of switching tube.
Preferably, described photovoltaic chipset is made up of a secondary coupling coil, a diode, an electric capacity and multiple photovoltaic chip; After multiple photovoltaic chip-in series, one end is connected with one end of electric capacity with the negative electrode of diode, the other end is connected with one end of secondary coupling coil with the other end of electric capacity, the secondary other end of coupling coil is connected with the anode of diode, described secondary coupling coil and main coupling coil magnetic coupling.This photovoltaic chipset when being subject to shade and blocking, can draw energy by magnetic coupling from power compensating circuit, adjusts self working point, ensures maximum power output.
Described control circuit is built by sample circuit, DSP and drive circuit; Described sample circuit is for the voltage of the output voltage and output current and each photovoltaic chipset that gather photovoltaic module; Described DSP is connected with sample circuit, utilizes climbing algorithm construction to go out control signal for collecting signal according to sample circuit; Described drive circuit is connected with DSP, for exporting after described control signal power amplification.
The number of described main coupling coil and the turn ratio of secondary coupling coil to be n: 1, n be photovoltaic chipset.
Preferably, described photovoltaic chipset is parallel with bypass diode, when local shades occurs, in order to avoid the chipset blocked becomes power consumption from generating, and causing cause thermal damage, the bypass diode of its correspondence will conducting, and this core assembly sheet stops exporting electric energy.
Self-compensating function of the present invention, by always exporting extracting energy from photovoltaic module, is supplemented to the photovoltaic chipset being subject to shade impact, its working point is changed and recovers electric energy to export, thus improves the overall power output of photovoltaic module.Because photovoltaic cell now works in generating state, not consumed energy, the energy therefore extracted still can be provided to load, does not affect the utilization of this part energy.Self-compensating function of the present invention is realized by power compensating circuit, control circuit and multiple photovoltaic chipset; The input of power compensating circuit is connected with total output of photovoltaic module, and according to the number of control circuit control and compensation energy.Photovoltaic chip when meeting with shade and blocking, can draw energy by magnetic coupling from power compensating circuit, adjustment working point.
Wherein power compensating circuit adopts a main coupling coil and a switching tube, from total output-controlled energy extracted for compensating.The output voltage of control circuit detection photovoltaic module and output current, in order to calculate the power output of photovoltaic module, also detect the voltage of each photovoltaic chipset to judge whether local shades occurs simultaneously.When each group of voltage difference is larger, the switching tube of starting power compensating circuit, energy storage in main coupling coil.The photovoltaic chipset that voltage is lower by the magnetic coupling with power compensating circuit, can automatically draw compensation energy.By the duty cycle of switching of by-pass cock pipe, the working point being subject to the photovoltaic chipset that shade blocks can be regulated, make the net power output of photovoltaic module (namely photovoltaic battery panel power output adds that self compensation power conditioning module power output deducts power conditioning module input power) reach maximum.
Feature advantage of the present invention is:
(1) after the some photovoltaic cell chips groups in photovoltaic module are blocked by shade, from total output of photovoltaic module, extract energy be supplied to the chipset be blocked, change its working point, thus improve the power output of photovoltaic module entirety.Because the energy for compensating comes from photovoltaic module self, but not external energy source, so be referred to as self compensation.The benefit of this feature is exactly the energy storing structure eliminating traditional approach, eliminates and finds external energy source and consider energy storage link response speed, performance index, the trouble in useful life.
(2) each photovoltaic cell chips group of photovoltaic module and an output of self compensation power optimization circuit corresponding.Only process the photovoltaic module be blocked when power optimization circuit working, at utmost decrease the energy loss that power back-off link is brought.
(3) capacity usage ratio of distributed photovoltaic power generation system can be improved, thus improve the exploitativeness of distributed photovoltaic power generation system, reduce its cost of electricity-generating.Photovoltaic generation high cost has become restriction photovoltaic and has used on a large scale and one of the principal element popularized, therefore each can to improve the link of its capacity usage ratio extremely important.There is the photovoltaic module of self-compensating function, can cost of electricity-generating be reduced, thus make the extensive use of distributed photovoltaic power generation system and generate electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems to become more feasible.
(4) can extend the useful life of photovoltaic cell, the unbalanced output of energy not only limits the energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cell, reduce further the useful life of uneven part photovoltaic module simultaneously.Because by the photovoltaic module that local shades blocks, when losing efficacy as there is no effective safeguard measure or safeguard measure, electric current may be caused to pour in down a chimney, the adverse effects such as heating damage.And if after adding self compensation measure, the worry of relevant issues can effectively be avoided.
(5) project installation is simple, with low cost, does not change photovoltaic battery module electrical connection originally, use and later maintenance convenient.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of existing distribution type photovoltaic power generation device.
Fig. 2 is the equivalent electric circuit of photovoltaic cell.
Fig. 3 is photovoltaic cell output characteristic curve chart.
Fig. 4 is the photovoltaic cell output characteristic curve chart under different illumination intensity.
Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram of photovoltaic module under local shades condition.
Fig. 6 is existing photovoltaic module photovoltaic module I-U output characteristic curve under local shades condition.
Fig. 7 is existing photovoltaic module photovoltaic module P-U output characteristic curve under local shades condition.
Fig. 8 is the structural framing schematic diagram of photovoltaic module of the present invention.
Fig. 9 is that the circuit of photovoltaic module of the present invention implements schematic diagram.
Figure 10 is the contrast schematic diagram of photovoltaic module of the present invention output characteristic curve under local shades condition.
Embodiment
In order to more specifically describe the present invention, below in conjunction with the drawings and the specific embodiments, technical scheme of the present invention is described in detail.
As shown in FIG. 8 and 9, a kind of photovoltaic module with self-compensating function, comprise three photovoltaic chipsets, photovoltaic chipset is parallel with bypass diode; After three photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends span is connected to power compensating circuit; Power compensating circuit is connected with control circuit; Wherein:
Control circuit is for gathering the output voltage U of photovoltaic module owith output current I oand the voltage of each photovoltaic chipset, and climbing algorithm construction is utilized to go out control signal according to these signals; In present embodiment, control circuit is built by sample circuit, DSP and drive circuit.Sample circuit is for gathering the current and voltage signals of photovoltaic module and being supplied to DSP, and DSP is according to output voltage U owith output current I ocalculate the power output of photovoltaic module, also detect the voltage of each chipset to judge whether local shades occurs simultaneously, and calculate power output and perform climbing algorithm, the duty cycle of switching of by-pass cock pipe, export control signal, utilize drive circuit to after control signal power amplification to control the break-make of power compensating circuit breaker in middle pipe, and then regulate the size of compensation power, make the net power output of photovoltaic module reach maximum.According to the voltage difference of each photovoltaic chipset, climbing algorithm mainly judges whether local shades occurs, whether compensating circuit should work.According to output voltage, the output current of photovoltaic module, calculate a power output, then increase switching tube duty ratio, then the output voltage of sampled light photovoltaic assembly, output current, calculate power output and result in previous calculating compares.If power output increases, then increase switching tube duty ratio further; If power output reduces, then reduce switching tube duty ratio and carry out disturbance again.By such algorithm, finally determine suitable duty ratio, also determine should transmit how many energy under these conditions for the equilibrium between each photovoltaic cell chips group actually, finally find the peak power output of photovoltaic module under current shade and loading condition.
In the present embodiment, DSP adopts TI company model to be the chip of TMS320F28035, and drive circuit adopts ON Semiconductor Corporation's model to be the chip of MC34152.
Power compensating circuit is used for according to output voltage U oand control signal, be that photovoltaic chipset affords redress electric current I by magnetic coupling 1~ I 3.In present embodiment, power compensating circuit comprises an a main coupling coil L and NMOS tube Q; Wherein, after three photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends connect main one end of coupling coil L and the source electrode of NMOS tube Q respectively, and the drain electrode of NMOS tube Q is connected with the other end of main coupling coil L, the control signal of the grid reception control circuit output of NMOS tube Q.
Photovoltaic chipset is made up of a secondary coupling coil H, a diode D, an electric capacity C and multiple photovoltaic chip; After multiple photovoltaic chip-in series, one end is connected with one end of electric capacity C with the negative electrode of diode D, the other end is connected with one end of secondary coupling coil H with the other end of electric capacity C, the other end of secondary coupling coil H is connected with the anode of diode D, secondary coupling coil H and main coupling coil L magnetic coupling; In present embodiment, secondary coupling coil H and main coupling coil L adopts flyback transformer T to realize, this flyback transformer T has a former limit winding (corresponding main coupling coil L) and three vice-side winding (corresponding secondary coupling coil H), and the turn ratio of former limit winding and vice-side winding is 3: 1.
On this basis, even if when in photovoltaic module, each photovoltaic chipset is due to factor characteristic disunities such as partial phantom block, energy automatic equalization can be realized between each photovoltaic chipset, ensure each photovoltaic chipset maximum power output under self environmental condition, thus realize the output of photovoltaic module global maximum power; And while realizing each photovoltaic chipset maximum power output and the overall maximum power output of photovoltaic module, power compensating circuit only processes uneven part in power output, at utmost decreases the energy loss that power conversion link is brought.
Present embodiment self-compensating function by always exporting extracting energy from photovoltaic module, and supplements to the photovoltaic chipset being subject to shade impact, its working point is changed and recovers electric energy to export, thus improves the overall power output of photovoltaic module.Because photovoltaic cell now works in generating state, not consumed energy, the energy therefore extracted still can be provided to load, does not affect the utilization of this part energy.Self-compensating function of the present invention is realized by power compensating circuit, control circuit and multiple photovoltaic chipset; The input of power compensating circuit is connected with total output of photovoltaic module, and according to the number of control circuit control and compensation energy.Photovoltaic chipset when meeting with shade and blocking, can draw energy by magnetic coupling from power compensating circuit, adjustment working point.Wherein power compensating circuit adopts a main coupling coil and a switching tube to build, from total output-controlled energy extracted for compensating, and by magnetic coupling by the photovoltaic chipset of Energy transfer to needs.The output voltage of control circuit detection photovoltaic module and output current, in order to calculate the power output of photovoltaic module, also detect the voltage of each photovoltaic chipset to judge whether local shades occurs simultaneously.When each group of voltage difference is larger, the switching tube of starting power compensating circuit, energy storage in main coupling coil.The photovoltaic chipset that voltage is lower by the magnetic coupling with power compensating circuit, can automatically draw compensation energy.By the duty cycle of switching of by-pass cock pipe, the working point being subject to the photovoltaic chipset that shade blocks can be regulated, make the net power output of photovoltaic module (namely photovoltaic battery panel power output adds that self compensation power conditioning module power output deducts power conditioning module input power) reach maximum.
Conventional photovoltaic assembly meets with the P-U curve after local shades problem as shown in phantom in Figure 10, and the solar radiation power accepted due to each photovoltaic chipset is inconsistent, and multi-peak phenomenon appears in characteristic curve, and maximum power point is B.And adopt the photovoltaic module of present embodiment self-compensating function under identical shadowed condition, can be compensated the photovoltaic chipset be blocked by built-in power compensating circuit, make component internal balancing energy, output characteristic recovers single peak, and curve as shown in solid lines in figure 10.Now, photovoltaic module maximum power point is A point, and tool has a certain upgrade.

Claims (4)

1. there is a photovoltaic module for self-compensating function, comprise multiple photovoltaic chipset; It is characterized in that: after multiple photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends span is connected to power compensating circuit, and described power compensating circuit is connected with control circuit; Wherein:
Described control circuit for the voltage of the output voltage and output current and each photovoltaic chipset that gather photovoltaic module, and utilizes climbing algorithm construction to go out control signal according to these signals;
Described power compensating circuit is used for according to described output voltage and control signal, for photovoltaic chipset affords redress electric current;
Described power compensating circuit comprises a main coupling coil and a switching tube; Wherein, after multiple photovoltaic chipset series connection, two ends connect one end of main coupling coil and the output of switching tube respectively, and the input of switching tube is connected with the other end of main coupling coil, the control signal described in the reception of control pole of switching tube;
Described photovoltaic chipset is made up of a secondary coupling coil, a diode, an electric capacity and multiple photovoltaic chip; After multiple photovoltaic chip-in series, one end is connected with one end of electric capacity with the negative electrode of diode, and the other end is connected with one end of secondary coupling coil with the other end of electric capacity; The secondary other end of coupling coil is connected with the anode of diode, described secondary coupling coil and main coupling coil magnetic coupling.
2. photovoltaic module according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described control circuit is built by sample circuit, DSP and drive circuit; Described sample circuit is for the voltage of the output voltage and output current and each photovoltaic chipset that gather photovoltaic module; Described DSP is connected with sample circuit, utilizes climbing algorithm construction to go out control signal for collecting signal according to sample circuit; Described drive circuit is connected with DSP, for exporting after described control signal power amplification.
3. photovoltaic module according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the number of described main coupling coil and the turn ratio of secondary coupling coil to be n:1, n be photovoltaic chipset.
4. photovoltaic module according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described photovoltaic chipset is parallel with bypass diode.
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US9461581B2 (en) 2013-11-06 2016-10-04 Ablerex Electronics Co., Ltd. Shadowing compensation device for solar cell module
CN105227126A (en) * 2014-06-03 2016-01-06 北京动力源科技股份有限公司 A kind of photovoltaic module power optimizer and there is the photovoltaic generating system of this optimizer
CN104702206A (en) * 2015-04-03 2015-06-10 浙江昱能科技有限公司 Photovoltaic power generation system using bypass type direct current converters
CN107809136A (en) * 2017-09-08 2018-03-16 北京金鸿泰科技有限公司 A kind of method and apparatus for compensating component output current

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