CN103063534B - Testing device for simulation and real-time detection of erosion of thermal barrier coatings of turbine blades - Google Patents

Testing device for simulation and real-time detection of erosion of thermal barrier coatings of turbine blades Download PDF

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CN103063534B
CN103063534B CN201310009271.9A CN201310009271A CN103063534B CN 103063534 B CN103063534 B CN 103063534B CN 201310009271 A CN201310009271 A CN 201310009271A CN 103063534 B CN103063534 B CN 103063534B
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erosion
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temperature
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CN103063534A (en
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杨丽
齐莎莎
周益春
蔡灿英
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Xiangtan University
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Xiangtan University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a testing device for simulation and real-time detection of erosion of thermal barrier coatings of turbine blades, belonging to the field of simulation devices in a special service environment. The testing device comprises an erosion particle feeding system, a test testing platform (1), a temperature test system, an acoustic emission nondestructive testing system, a control platform and the like. An erect fixed shaft (101) is arranged on the test testing platform (1) and is connected with a horizontal supporting shaft. The testing device can be used for simulating the erosion service environment in which hard particles in a high-performance aero-engine repeatedly impact thermal barrier coatings of turbine blades due to the driving of airflow. By controlling the parameters such as erosion speed, angle, size and the like of erosion particles, the process that the coatings are eroded by different hard particles in the service process is realized and the real-time test and analysis of data, such as the temperature, the surface topography evolution, the interfacial oxidation of a sample and the like can be synchronously realized. The device can provide an important test platform for effectively assessing the erosion failure process and the failure mechanism of coatings of turbine blades in the special service environment.

Description

The test unit of a kind of simulation and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade
Technical field
The present invention relates to the test unit of a kind of simulation and the erosion of real-time testing high-temperature component, in particular to be a kind of Service Environment simulating aeromotor thermal barrier coating turbo blade high temperature, erosion, and realize the test unit of multiple erosion failure parameter real-time testing, belong to the analogue means field of special Service Environment.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the development of aeromotor, the key parameter thrust-weight ratio of engine improves constantly, and the working temperature of engine hot parts is more and more higher, and during to Fourth Generation Fighters, gas turbine inlet temperature has reached 1700 ° of C.This has higher requirement to engine thermal end pieces high-temperature alloy material.The operating limit temperature of current advanced monocrystal nickel-base high-temperature alloy is 1150 ° of C, is obviously used alone the demand that high-temperature alloy material can not meet advanced aero engine.Nineteen fifty-three U.S. NASA center proposes thermal barrier coating (thermal barrier coatings, be called for short TBCs) concept, alloy substrate surface is coated in, to reduce alloy surface temperature thus the thermal efficiency of raising engine by high temperature resistant, high heat insulation stupalith.Adopt TBCs technology to be increase substantially the most practicable method of aeromotor working temperature at present, therefore, the U.S., Europe and China aeromotor propelling in the works, all one of TBCs technology gordian technique being classified as High Performance Aeroengine.But, huge physics, heat, mechanical property difference is there is between each layer due to composition TBCs system, add extremely complicated geometric configuration, micromechanism, and the singularity of this working environment of aviation, various destruction is there is and even lost efficacy in TBCs in unforeseen situation, reduce serviceable life and the reliability of high-temperature component, thus bring the most fatal threat to aviation.
Due to the Service Environment of aeromotor complexity, will inevitably be subject to the shock repeatedly of engine chamber band hard particles air-flow when TBCs is on active service, thus occurred that coating thickness is thinning, crackle forms the phenomenon of even peeling off, namely erosion attack occurs.The source of these hard particles mainly contains two classes, and one is produce in engine, or the carbon granule formed in combustion, or is the particle because engine combustion inwall, turbo blade etc. are formed by erosion; Another kind of is external object from being inhaled into gas turbine, as metallicss such as the grains of sand, dust, aluminium.And along with the development of science and technology, the erosion-corrosion environment that TBCs is more and more higher facing to service temperature, hard particles becomes increasingly complex.Therefore, in numerous factor causing TBCs to lose efficacy, erosion is listed in second key factor affecting TBCs and lost efficacy, and more and more receives the concern of domestic and international researcher.Even in the research of a lot of TBCs material design and fabrication process optimization, the heat-proof quality of TBCs and anti-erosion property are listed in the standard evaluating TBCs performance.In order to improve the anti-erosion property of TBCs, researchers have carried out a series of exploration.As U.S. NASA center, Germany energy research center, the people such as famous scholar Nicholls, Wellman, Fleck, Pature, Chen Xi, to the erosion property of various TBCs and and material composition, preparation technology relation conduct extensive research, point out that the erosion property of TBCs is decided by design of material and the preparation technology thereof of TBCs to a great extent, and analyze the erosion attack feature of plasma spraying, physical vapour deposition (PVD) TBCs on this basis.These work improve the understanding of people to the behavior of TBCs erosion attack greatly.China realizes TBCs and is applied in department in aeromotor---and industry Shenyang Ltd of aeromotor at dawn group of Air China points out, the maximum bottleneck that current China realizes TBCs safety applications is just the erosion attack of TBCs, and during test run, TBCs also has little time to occur oxidation just because erosion creates a large amount of crackles, occurs thinningly even occurring large-area coming off.But we are also not comprehensive to the understanding of TBCs erosion attack behavior at present, more can not find the design of material, the optimum preparation condition scheme that improve TBCs erosion property.More regrettably, also not realizing China of TBCs safety applications completely, the research work of TBCs erosion aspect is not also almost carried out.More do not know what contacting between erosion property and design of material, both preparation technologies be, can by what physical quantity, contact between the two be described again?
Solve this key issue, the erosion mechanismi of TBCs will be understood, namely understand that TBCs is under the high temperature gas flow repeated action of band hard particles, and the destruction of what form, what degree occurs, and find out the relation between they and particle, ceramic layer character.Therefore, a large amount of erosion tests is needed just can to obtain reliable result.In the face of these thorny erosions test difficult problem, be engaged in the ground experiment of correlative study person mainly through ground simulation Service Environment at present both at home and abroad, as thermal shock test, high-temperature tunnel experiment, engine testsand whole machine experiment etc.These methods can simulate the working environment of a part in aeromotor, but very labor intensive, material resources, and and the key message of sample when cannot obtain or lack test in real time, to be difficult to learn between TBCs with erosion particle concrete associates.Therefore by design correlation test device and simulation test, how cost-effectively high-temperature component erosion failure behaviour to be characterized, by be space worker must directly faced by real engineering problem.Abroad relate to and similarly with erosion device only have a few devices such as the high-speed fuel gas analogue means of NASA, certain combustion apparatus of Cranfield university of Britain, and the domestic test unit relating to turbo blade erosion property aspect in simulation and test aeromotor does not also have, more do not realize the simulation of thermal barrier coating turbo blade high temperature erosion-corrosion environment.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problem, the invention provides the test unit of a kind of simulation and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade.Device can realize the erosion Service Environment of turbo blade in aeromotor under normal temperature or high temperature, and be loaded with multiple real-time detecting system in a device, realize the real-time detection of the multiple Damage Parameter such as temperature field, strain field, surface topography, damage development, interface topography when thermal barrier coating is tested at different conditions, for the understanding to thermal barrier coating failure mechanism, reliability assessment and optimal design provide good basis.
Described experimental test platform is: on experimental test platform, centre position is provided with one specimen disk is fixed on the front of back shaft for clamping fixture and the specimen disk of sample, supports to draw up to be manufactured with angle index, and specimen disk can around axis rotation; The baffle plate that the quartz glass punched in the device region at turbo blade sample place is made is fenced up, can prevent erosion particle to fly out the cleaning problem and environmental pollution that cause under air-flow drives, and prevent noise pollution and hot-fluid to the injury of laboratory technician to a certain extent; Namely be distribution experiment operation platform below baffle plate, on the left of baffle plate, gun fixture is set; Be move horizontally guide rail under gun fixture, moving guide rail is supported by inner position plate and outside fix plate; Baffle plate is opened aperture stretch into by the waveguide rod of acoustic emission device, one or more thermocouple fixing device is set in the side of fixture, CCD camera head and infrared measurement of temperature camera are set outside baffle plate; Various real-time detecting system is set in the below of distribution experiment operation platform, comprises non-contact 3-D deformation test system, acoustic emission nondestructive detection system, temperature test acquisition system; Above whole experimental test platform, particle recovery system is housed, disposes the dust on sample testing platform and erosion particle in time.
Described sample holding device can simulate the service state of turbo blade, namely blade and with any impact angle during particle effect: sample is fixed on specimen disk, and specimen disk is connected with back shaft, and can rotate around back shaft; Sample is fixed on specimen disk along the radial direction of specimen disk, and specimen disk and back shaft are carved with angle index respectively, can realize the angle that sample and vertical axes present 0-360 °;
Described Service Environment simulation system comprises 1 special heat gun, heated perimeter be room temperature to 1700 ° of C, fix with gun fixture, moved by Serve Motor Control spray gun; Cooling circulating water is connected with by arranging cooling duct in described gun fixture.Spray gun inside is provided with particle pipeline and blast tube, be connected with erosion particle charging system and gas storage device respectively, speed be the erosion particle of 0-250 m/s diameter between 10-500 μm under the drive of pressure gas high-speed punching to gun slot, heat rapidly under the high-temperature fuel gas produced under propane and oxygen effect, then to act on gun slot axial direction in turbo blade sample at any angle.
Temperature acquisition system in described real-time detection module is thermopair two kinds.Comprise thermopair, temperature indicator, infrared thermometer, temperature acquisition software, thermopair and infrared thermometer are connected with the temperature indicator on controlling test platform respectively.Described thermopair and infrared thermometer all adopt the platinum rhodium thermocouple of Type B 1600 ° of C, and the surface of mensuration sample, internal channel, refrigerating gas export 6 temperature, realize the temperature test of effect of heat insulation and assigned address.
Non-contact 3-D deformation test system in described real-time detection module is ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system, whole system is integrated in device experiment test cabinet, its CCD camera is placed on the outside of baffle plate, apparatus control system directly calls and drives ARAMIS non-contact 3-D to be out of shape the Survey Software of on-line measurement system, carries out real-time testing and analysis in order to the strain field distribution to sample, Stress Field Distribution and displacement field distribution situation.
Acoustic emission nondestructive detection system in described real-time detection module is that sensitivity is 10 -8the PCI-2 type acoustic emission nondestructive detection system of cm magnitude, whole system is integrated in the flat cabinet of device experiment test, its sensor, waveguide rod device are connected with sample by the aperture of baffle plate, apparatus control system directly calls and drives the Survey Software of PCI-2 type acoustic emission nondestructive detection system, realize under elevated temperature thermal cycles condition, to the germinating of sample internal dynamic in situ detection crackle, expansion and crackle location.
Described high-speed CCD photography system is AVT Manta G-504 type high speed video system, and 5,000,000 pixels, maximum capture rate is 9 fps/s.Whole system is integrated in whole system and is integrated in device experiment test cabinet, its CCD camera is placed on the outside of sample chamber, the software systems of device are directly called and are driven the Survey Software of AVT Manta G-504 high speed video system, in order to carry out captured in real-time to the surface topography of sample (6).
Described cooling system comprises two aspects: one is the air cooling to sample, and the refrigerating gas in air compressor enters through the bottom inlet of cooling duct entrance by sample internal cooling channel, through sample internal channel, is exported discharge by the refrigerating gas at top; Two is the water-cooleds to gas spray gun, and in cooling water tank, current are circulated between spray gun and cooling water tank at two through cooling duct entrance by the control of flow valve.
Described experiment control system comprises the control module and display module that detect in real time: mechanical drive all on control module and Control experiment test platform, experiment parameter collection and the control of adjustment and all Survey Software of real-time detecting system and the collection of experimental data; Namely display module shows experimental datas all on experiment parameters all on experimental test platform and real-time detecting system and figure.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
(1) the high-temperature fuel gas spray gun loading system of test unit of the present invention makes thermal source with propane flame, and intensification and rate of temperature fall soon, can reach the working temperature of high-temperature material in aeromotor.With air compressor, the impurity particle such as aluminium, the grains of sand is squeezed to pistol-port place fast by an erosion charging system, by high-temperature fuel gas heating, reaction, generates the air-flow of band hard particles, the Service Environment of simulation thermal barrier coating of turbine blade erosion.Control the distance of spray gun to specimen surface by mechanical driving device again, can regulate heating region and heating-up temperature easily, the feature of loading system is: the temperature range of heating is wide, can realize the heating from room temperature to 1700 ° of C scopes; The velocity range of particle erosion is wide, can realize the erosion of 0-250 m/s scope.Simple to operate, testing equipment easily realizes, and experimentation cost is low, and is convenient to realize coordinating to test together with other testing tool.Sample is fixed on specimen disk, and specimen disk is connected with back shaft, and can rotate around back shaft; Sample is fixed on specimen disk along the radial direction of specimen disk, and specimen disk and back shaft are carved with angle index respectively, can realize the angle that sample and vertical axes present 0-360 °;
(2) sample holding device of test unit of the present invention comprises stationary shaft, back shaft, and is fixed on the adjustable specimen disk of angle on back shaft, is directly fixed on the turbo blade on specimen disk or tabular clip groove composition.
In simulation aeromotor during the experiment of turbo blade, the circumferential plane of specimen disk is carved with the sample groove of tabular, cylindric, actual turbo blade base shape, various difformity, the thermal barrier coating sample of size or blade can be loaded.By the angle of indicating graduation on adjustment specimen disk scale and back shaft, can realize the angle between thermal barrier coating sample and vertical axes, angular range 0-360 ° adjustable.Namely can complete various simple shape thermal barrier coating sample, various different test condition as the experiment of impact angle, the various factors such as analysis temperature, particle angle, speed, geometric configuration are on the impact of the erosion mechanismi of thermal barrier coating.
(3) in test unit of the present invention, integrated real-time detecting system comprises the ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system of German GOM company production, adopt the PCI-2 type acoustic emission detection system that American Physical acoustics company produces, be used for measuring the 3 D deformation of thermal barrier coating sample respectively, the germinating of crackle and expansion.The technical parameter that wherein 3 D deformation on-line measurement system is main has: measured specimen surface temperature can up to 2000 ° of C; Ccd video camera resolution is 2448 × 2050 pixels; Real time data processing, its sample frequency is 15-29 Hz; Strain measurement scope: 0.01% ~ 500%; Measurement maximal value from face strain is 140 mm.The important technological parameters of acoustic emission detection system is: 18 built-in A/D converters and the suitableeer one of processor are used for short arc, the setting of low threshold value (17 dB), maximum signal amplitudes 100 dB, dynamic range >85dB, 4 high passes and 6 low passes; PCI-2 is equipped with acoustic emission data stream measuring device, acoustic emission waveform constantly can be turned to hard disk, speed can reach 10 M/second; PCI-2 plate is equipped with 2 optional parameter passages, this passage has the A/D converter of 16, and speed is 10000/second, parallel multiple FPGA processor and ASICIC chip.The important technological parameters of high-speed CCD photography system is: maximum capture rate is 9 fps/s, and resolution is 2452 × 2054 pixels.
(4) test unit of the present invention has 2 kinds of dissimilar cooling devices, and a kind of is cooling system to high-temperature clamp, and the mode passing to chilled water cools; Another kind cools the sample of band cooling duct, and the mode passing to cooling-air cools.Such as to be with the hollow turbine vane sample of thermal barrier coating, processing process is done to turbo blade bottom, internal thread is set, connect cooling duct, logical cooling-air carries out Internal Cooling Passage to turbo blade, ensure that leaflet inner faces temperature remains on the temperature of setting, and then realize forming a thermograde from ceramic surface to leaflet inner faces.Cooling gas flow is by flow valve control and measurement.By external thermopair, can 6 temperature datas such as survey record specimen surface, sample inside, cooling draught, the effect of heat insulation of effective evaluation coating.
(5) various real-time detecting system is integrated in the experimental test cabinet of device by test unit of the present invention, the various data real-time testing of thermal barrier coating of turbine blade under the Service Environment of erosion and analysis can be detected more accurately, surface temperature as samples, the differentiation of surface topography image etc., for the erosion failure procedure under Efficient Evaluation turbine blade coating under arms environment and failure mechanism provide important reference frame.
In sum, test unit of the present invention has following outstanding feature: the Service Environment simulating aeromotor thermal barrier coating turbo blade high temperature erosion: the atmospheric pressure that can be controlled air compressor by controlled pressure meter and flow valve, thus controls the speed of erosion particle; By adjusting sample fixture disk and turning axle, regulate arbitrarily the angle of erosion; Size, the density of erosion particle is changed by the particle kind changed in storage bin; The temperature of erosion is changed by controlling high-temperature fuel gas input system; And detect the various data real-time testing of thermal barrier coating of turbine blade under the Service Environment of erosion and analysis by multiple real-time testing tool.Therefore, this device be correct understanding thermal barrier coating of turbine blade erosion mechanismi, optimize its design and provide important experiment porch and reference frame.Domestic at present not yet have this test unit of patent report.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is overall logic structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural drawing of experimental test platform of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is one-piece construction figure of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is by pyrometry sample and annexation figure of the present invention.
Number in the figure: 1-experimental testing station; 101-stationary shaft; 102-back shaft; 103-specimen holder disk; 104-fixture fixing device; 105-baffle plate; 106-particle recovery system; 107-distribution experiment operation platform; 108-inner position plate; 109-outside fix plate; 110-moving guide rail; 111-gun fixture; 112-thermopair; 113-thermocouple fixing device; 114-infrared thermometer; 115-ccd video camera; 2-high temperature erosion system; 201-thermal-flame spray gun; 202-erosion particle input system; 203-pressure meter; 204-combustion gas input system; 205-oxygen input system; 206-pressurized air; 207-propane; 208-oxygen; 3-real-time detection apparatus rest area; 310-non-contact 3-D deformation test system; 320-acoustic emission nondestructive detection system; 330-temperature test acquisition system; 340-high-speed CCD photography system; 4-cooling system; 401-air compressor; 402-cooling water tank; 403-flow valve; 404-cooling duct entrance; 405-hollow rotary shaft cooling duct entrance; 5-controlling test platform; 601-waveguide rod; 602-electrode, 603-thermopair; 604-cold air outlet; The import of 605-cold air.
Embodiment
The invention provides the test unit of a kind of simulation and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, illustrate that the present invention will be further described with embodiment below by accompanying drawing.
Fig. 1 is overall logic structural representation of the present invention, and as shown in Figure 1, the structure of this test unit comprises: experimental test platform, high temperature erosion system, in real time detection module, cooling system and experiment control system.
As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, Fig. 2 is the structural drawing of experimental test platform of the present invention, and Fig. 3 is one-piece construction figure of the present invention; Experimental test platform structure is: on experimental test platform, centre position is provided with one for clamping fixture and the specimen disk of sample, and specimen disk is fixed on the front of back shaft; The quartz glass punched in the device region at turbo blade sample place is made baffle plate fence up, can prevent erosion particle to fly out the cleaning problem and environmental pollution that cause under air-flow drives, and prevent noise pollution and hot-fluid to the injury of laboratory technician to a certain extent; Namely be distribution experiment operation platform below baffle plate, on the left of baffle plate, gun fixture is set; Be move horizontally guide rail under gun fixture, moving guide rail is supported by inner position plate and outside fix plate; Baffle plate is opened aperture stretch into by the waveguide rod of acoustic emission device, one or more thermocouple fixing device is set in the side of fixture, CCD camera head and infrared measurement of temperature camera are set outside baffle plate; Various real-time detecting system is set in the below of distribution experiment operation platform, comprises non-contact 3-D deformation test system, acoustic emission nondestructive detection system, temperature test acquisition system; Above whole experimental test platform, particle recovery system is housed, disposes the dust on sample testing platform and erosion particle in time.
Sample holding device can simulate state when turbo blade is on active service, namely various shape blade and with any impact angle during particle effect: the sample groove circumferential plane of specimen disk being carved with tabular, cylindric, actual turbo blade base shape, various difformity, the thermal barrier coating sample of size or blade can be loaded; By the angle of indicating graduation on adjustment specimen disk scale and back shaft, can realize the angle between thermal barrier coating sample and vertical axes, angular range 0-360 ° adjustable.
High-temperature fuel gas heat gun, heated perimeter be room temperature to 1700 ° of C, fix with gun fixture, moved by Serve Motor Control spray gun; Cooling circulating water is connected with by arranging cooling duct in described gun fixture.Spray gun inside is provided with particle pipeline and blast tube, be connected with erosion particle charging system and gas storage device respectively, speed be the erosion particle of 0-250 m/s diameter between 10-500 μm under the drive of pressure gas high-speed punching to gun slot, heat rapidly under the high-temperature fuel gas produced under propane and oxygen effect, then to act on gun slot axial direction in turbo blade sample at any angle.
Fig. 4 is by pyrometry sample and annexation figure of the present invention.As shown in Figure 4, during thermal barrier coating turbo blade erosion experiment, described thermopair adopts the platinum rhodium thermocouple of Type B 1600 DEG C, and the surface of mensuration turbo blade sample, internal channel, refrigerating gas export 6 temperature, realize the temperature test of effect of heat insulation and assigned address.6 thermopairs put the inner side in baffle plate respectively by the thermocouple fixing device that 6 move freely.Cooling-air, by cooling duct entrance, is entered by sample cooling sole entrance, and discharge through sample cooling top exit, system is by flow valve controlled cooling model air mass flow and test traffic; Ccd video camera is connected with non-contact 3-D deformation test system; Sample 6 surface is provided with two electrodes, is connected respectively with ac impedance frequency spectrum monitoring system; Two waveguides are welded at sample two ends, and waveguide is connected with acoustic emission nondestructive detection system.
Described cooling system comprises two aspects: one is the air cooling to sample, and the refrigerating gas in air compressor is entered by the internal cooling channel entrance bottom sample, through sample internal channel, is exported discharge by the refrigerating gas at top; Two is the water-cooleds to gas spray gun, and in cooling water tank, current are circulated between spray gun and cooling water tank at two through cooling duct entrance by the control of flow valve.
Non-contact 3-D deformation test system is ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system, completes and carries out real-time testing and analysis to the strain field distribution of sample, Stress Field Distribution and displacement field distribution situation in high temperature environments.
Acoustic emission nondestructive detection system is the PCI-2 type acoustic emission nondestructive detection system of sensitivity in 10-8cm magnitude, realizes under the various service condition of thermal barrier coating sample, to the germinating of sample internal dynamic in situ detection crackle, expansion and crackle location.
High speed CCD camera is the AVT Manta G-504 type high speed video system of 5,000,000 pixels, in order to carry out captured in real-time to the surface topography of sample.
Described test unit is used to the step that thermal barrier coating turbo blade carries out normal temperature erosion simulation test and real-time testing to be:
The first step, prepares sample: adopt plasma spray coating process, at certain model hollow turbine vane surface spraying thermal barrier coating heat-barrier material.Its system composition is: buffer layer material is NiCrAIY alloy, and its thickness is about 100 μm, ceramic powder material be mix pure cobalt powder containing 8%Y 2o 3zirconium dioxide, ceramic layer thickness is about 300 μm.Specimen surface is made to be formed with the speckle field of higher reflective function, using the characteristic speckle field as ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system.
Second step, erosion particle: select the particle of even size, certain diameter (as Al 2o 3) as erosion particle, be placed in storage bin.
3rd step, with spot-welding equipment, one end of waveguide rod is welded in the metallic substrates of the band thermal barrier coating that the first step completes, the other end is connected to acoustic emission nondestructive detection system, then the turbo blade sample of band thermal barrier coating is fixed on specimen disk, regulate disk angle index and back shaft angle index, fixing angle between sample and vertical axes.
4th step, starts ARAMIS non-contact 3-D deformation test system.Regulate CCD camera, determine the region of paid close attention to sample to be tested, and carry out staking-out work in early stage.Run strain testing software, setting ARAMIS testing software filming frequency is 1/5 seconds, and on-line testing preserves data pattern automatically.
5th step, starts AVT Manta G-504 high-speed CCD photography system.Regulate CCD camera (117), determine the region of paid close attention to sample to be tested.Open testing software, setting AVT Manta G-504 testing software filming frequency is 1/5 seconds, and on-line testing preserves data pattern automatically.
6th step, starts particle charging system, adjusting gas flow, controls the erosion speed of erosion particle, as 200 m/s.
7th step, simultaneously working train family experiment and various nondestructive detection system, the turbo blade sample 3 D deformation field change of real-time testing and recording strip thermal barrier coating, 3-D displacement field change, the differentiation of ceramic coating surface pattern, the event number of acoustic emission monitor(ing) and coating shedding situation etc.
Described test unit is used to the step that thermal barrier coating turbo blade carries out high temperature erosion simulation test and real-time testing to be:
The first step, prepares sample: adopt plasma spray coating process, at certain model hollow turbine vane surface spraying thermal barrier coating heat-barrier material.Its system composition is: buffer layer material is NiCrAIY alloy, and its thickness is about 100 μm, ceramic powder material be mix pure cobalt powder containing 8%Y 2o 3zirconium dioxide, ceramic layer thickness is about 300 μm.Specimen surface is made to be formed with the speckle field of higher reflective function, using the characteristic speckle field as ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system.
Second step, erosion particle: select the particle of even size, certain diameter (as Al 2o 3) as erosion particle, be placed in storage bin.
3rd step, the service state of simulation turbo blade: one end of waveguide rod is welded in the turbo blade metallic substrates of the band thermal barrier coating that the first step completes with spot-welding equipment, the other end is connected to acoustic emission nondestructive detection system, then the turbo blade sample of band thermal barrier coating is fixed on specimen disk, regulate disk angle index and back shaft angle index, fixing angle between sample and vertical axes.Then 4 thermopairs are fixed on turbo blade ceramic coating surface, 1 thermopair is fixed on the cooling sole entrance vicinity of turbine blade cooling passage, 1 thermopair is fixed on blade cooling passage cooling top exit vicinity.Often prop up thermopair and be connected respectively to temperature test acquisition system, and judge whether each instrument normally works.
4th step, starts ARAMIS non-contact 3-D deformation test system.Regulate CCD camera, determine the region of paid close attention to sample to be tested, and carry out staking-out work in early stage.Run strain testing software, setting ARAMIS testing software filming frequency is 1/5 seconds, and on-line testing preserves data pattern automatically.
5th step, starts AVT Manta G-504 high-speed CCD photography system.Regulate CCD camera (117), determine the region of paid close attention to sample to be tested.Open testing software, setting AVT Manta G-504 testing software filming frequency is 1/5 seconds, and on-line testing preserves data pattern automatically.
6th step, opens the cooling water switch of specimen disk and gun fixture.Open the refrigerating gas gauge tap of turbo blade inner passage, make refrigerating gas enter in blade from turbo blade bottom coohng passage, discharged by top through hole, make ceramic coating surface form high-temperature gradient to metallic substrates inside surface.
7th step, start propane nonstorage calorifier, start particle charging system, regulating gas airshed, fuel gas temperature after 8 ~ 10 seconds of lighting a fire is stabilized in 1000 ° of C.By controlling mechanical drive switch, carry out two-sided Fast Heating to turbine blade surface, heating rate about 100 ° of C/s, make surface temperature be stabilized in required temperature, as 1000 ° of about C; Adjusting gas flow, controls the erosion speed of erosion particle, as 200 m/s.
8th step, simultaneously working train family experiment and various nondestructive detection system, the change of temperature field of the turbo blade sample of real-time testing and recording strip thermal barrier coating, the change of 3 D deformation field, 3-D displacement field change, the differentiation of ceramic coating surface pattern, the event number of acoustic emission monitor(ing) and coating shedding situation etc.
In experiment, the experiment parameters such as particle impact angle, particle rapidity, particle diameter, particle types (fusing point is different), erosion temperature can be changed, analyze thermal barrier coating erosion failure mechanism and associating between failure degree with these parameters, find out the key parameter affecting erosion and lost efficacy.
The present invention can simulate the Service Environment of aeromotor thermal barrier coating turbo blade high temperature erosion: the atmospheric pressure that can be controlled air compressor by controlled pressure meter and flow valve, thus controls the speed of erosion particle; By adjusting sample fixture disk and turning axle, regulate arbitrarily the angle of erosion; Size, the density of erosion particle is changed by the particle kind changed in storage bin; The temperature of erosion is changed by controlling high-temperature fuel gas input system; And detect the various data real-time testing of thermal barrier coating of turbine blade under the Service Environment of erosion and analysis by multiple real-time testing tool.The present invention be correct understanding thermal barrier coating of turbine blade erosion mechanismi, optimize its design and provide important experiment porch and reference frame.

Claims (6)

1. the test unit of a simulation and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, high temperature erosion system, real-time detecting system, cooling system, experiment control system that this device comprises experimental test platform and is connected with this experimental test platform respectively;
Described experimental test platform comprises sample holding device (101-104), baffle plate (105), the distribution experiment operation platform (107) of simulation thermal barrier coating turbo blade;
High temperature erosion system comprises high-temperature fuel gas spray gun (201,204,205,207,208), erosion particle charging system (202,203,206);
Real-time detecting system comprises non-contact 3-D deformation test system (310), acoustic emission nondestructive detection system (320), temperature test acquisition system (330), high-speed CCD photography system (340);
Cooling system comprises the air cooling (401,403,405) of thermal barrier coating sample and the water-cooling circulating system (402,404) of whole analogue means;
Experiment control system is control and the display module (5) of experiment and real-time detecting system;
Install a vertical stationary shaft (101) in the upper centre position of experimental test platform (1), stationary shaft is connected with the back shaft (102) of horizontal direction; Specimen holder disk (103) and fixture fixing device (104) for clamping sample (6) are fixed on the front of back shaft (102); Back shaft is manufactured with angle index, and specimen disk can around axis rotation; The baffle plate (105) made by the quartz glass punched in the device region at sample place fences up; Namely be distribution experiment operation platform (107) below baffle plate (105);
The left side of baffle plate (105) arranges gun fixture (111), move horizontally guide rail (110) under gun fixture (111), spray gun inside is provided with particle pipeline and blast tube, respectively with erosion particle input system (202) and gas storage device (204, 205) connect, the speed of erosion particle is 0-250m/s, the diameter 10-500 μm of erosion particle, during work erosion particle under the drive of pressure gas high-speed punching to gun slot, heat rapidly under the high-temperature fuel gas produced under propane and oxygen effect, then to act on gun slot axial direction in turbo blade sample at any angle,
Moving guide rail (110) is supported by inner position plate (108) and outside fix plate (109); Baffle plate (106) is opened aperture and stretches into baffle plate (105) by the waveguide rod of acoustic emission device (320); In the side of fixture (103), one or more thermocouple fixing device (113) is set; CCD camera head (115) and infrared measurement of temperature camera (114) are set outside baffle plate (105); Real-time detecting system is set in the below of distribution experiment operation platform (107), comprises non-contact 3-D deformation test system (310), acoustic emission nondestructive detection system (320), temperature test acquisition system (330); Particle recovery system (106) is housed directly over baffle plate (105).
2. the test unit of a kind of simulation according to claim 1 and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, the state of described experimental test platform (1) simulation thermal barrier coating turbo blade when aircraft is on active service, experimental test platform (1) there is baffle plate (105), prevent flying out under air-flow drives of erosion particle; Particle recovery system (106) is housed above described experimental test platform, the dust on sample testing platform and erosion particle can be disposed in time; Then there is the rest area of real-time detection apparatus below, and on baffle plate (105), have test electrode, sensor that aperture connects various real-time detecting system.
3. the test unit of a kind of simulation according to claim 1 and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, described high temperature erosion system comprises 1 thermal-flame spray gun (201), heated perimeter is that room temperature is to 1700 DEG C, fix with gun fixture (111), moved by Serve Motor Control spray gun; Cooling circulating water is connected with by arranging cooling duct in described gun fixture (111).
4. the test unit of a kind of simulation according to claim 1 and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, described real-time detecting system (3) comprises non-contact 3-D deformation test system (310), acoustic emission nondestructive detection system (320), temperature test acquisition system (330), high-speed CCD photography system (340);
1) described non-contact 3-D deformation test system (310) is ARAMIS non-contact 3-D distortion on-line measurement system, whole system is integrated in the real-time detection apparatus rest area (3) of device distribution experiment operation platform (107) below, and its CCD camera is placed on the outside of baffle plate (106);
2) described acoustic emission nondestructive detection system (320) is for sensitivity is 10 -8the PCI-2 type acoustic emission nondestructive detection system of cm magnitude, whole system is integrated in the real-time detection apparatus rest area (3) of device distribution experiment operation platform (107) below, and its sensor, waveguide rod device are connected with sample (6) by the aperture of baffle plate;
3) described temperature test acquisition system (330) comprises thermopair (112), temperature acquisition software, infrared thermometer (114);
4) described thermopair (112) adopts the platinum rhodium thermocouple of Type B 1600 DEG C, measures the surface of sample (6), internal channel, refrigerating gas export 6 temperature, realize the temperature test of effect of heat insulation and assigned address during experiment;
5) described high-speed CCD photography system (340) is AVT Manta G-504 high speed video system, whole system is integrated in the real-time detection apparatus rest area (3) of device distribution experiment operation platform (107) below, and its CCD camera is placed on the outside of baffle plate (106).
5. the test unit of a kind of simulation according to claim 1 and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, described cooling system comprises two aspects: one is the air cooling to sample (6), the bottom inlet of refrigerating gas in air compressor (401) through hollow support axle cooling duct entrance (405) by sample (6) internal cooling channel enters, through sample internal channel, exported by the refrigerating gas at top and discharge; Two is the water-cooleds to gas spray gun, and in cooling water tank (402), current are circulated between spray gun and cooling water tank at two through cooling duct entrance (404) by the control of flow valve (403).
6. the test unit of a kind of simulation according to claim 1 and the erosion of real-time testing thermal barrier coating of turbine blade, it is characterized in that, described experiment control system comprises the control module and display module that detect in real time: control module and Control experiment test platform (1) go up all mechanical drive, experiment parameter collection and the control of adjustment and real-time detecting system (3) all Survey Software and the collection of experimental data; Namely display module shows the upper all experiment parameters of experimental test platform (1) and real-time detecting system (3) above all experimental datas and figure.
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