CN102978468A - Al-Fe-W-RE aluminum alloy, and preparation method and power cable thereof - Google Patents

Al-Fe-W-RE aluminum alloy, and preparation method and power cable thereof Download PDF

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CN102978468A
CN102978468A CN2012104453228A CN201210445322A CN102978468A CN 102978468 A CN102978468 A CN 102978468A CN 2012104453228 A CN2012104453228 A CN 2012104453228A CN 201210445322 A CN201210445322 A CN 201210445322A CN 102978468 A CN102978468 A CN 102978468A
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aluminium alloy
alloy
aluminium
temperature
melt
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CN2012104453228A
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CN102978468B (en
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林泽民
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安徽欣意电缆有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides an Al-Fe-W-RE aluminum alloy, and a preparation method of the Al-Fe-W-RE aluminum alloy. The method comprises the steps that: (a) an aluminum alloy ingot is cast; (b) the aluminum alloy ingot is subjected to a homogenization treatment; and the obtained aluminum alloy ingot is rolled, such that an aluminum alloy rod material is obtained; (c) the aluminum alloy rod material obtained in the step (b) is subjected to a batch-type annealing treatment; and (d) the aluminum alloy rod material obtained in the step (c) is subjected to an aging treatment, such that aluminum alloy is obtained. The invention also provides a power cable. According to the invention, through the selection and control over added elements and the adoption of a reasonable preparation process, the obtained aluminum alloy is provided with good comprehensive performance.

Description

Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable
Technical field
The present invention relates to the alloy technology field, relate in particular to Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable.
Background technology
Aluminium alloy is a most widely used class non-ferrous metal structured material in the industry, is used widely in Aeronautics and Astronautics, automobile, machinofacture, boats and ships and chemical industry.Along with the develop rapidly of science and technology and industrial economy, the demand of aluminium alloy is increasing, and then the research of aluminium alloy also thereupon deeply.The widespread use of aluminium alloy has promoted the development of aluminium alloy in power industry, and the Application Areas of aluminium alloy has been expanded again in the simultaneously development of power industry.
Power cable is the resource of carrying and distributing electric energy, and its basic structure is comprised of core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer four parts.Wherein, core is the current-carrying part of power cable, is used for transmission of electric energy, and it is the major portion of power cable; Insulation layer will be isolated from each other at electric equipment compartment between core and the earth and out of phase core, guarantees power delivery, and it is indispensable integral part in the power cable structure; Protective layer is that the protection power cable is avoided the intrusion of introduced contaminants and moisture, and prevents that external force from directly damaging power cable.Because copper has good electroconductibility, copper is widely used in the core of power cable.But day by day deficient along with the copper resource, and the content of aluminium is very abundant received investigator's concern with aluminium substitution copper, so aluminium alloy becomes the focus of research as cable conductor.
Aluminium alloy power cable substitutes copper cable becomes a kind of trend gradually, and is widely applied.Aluminum-alloy conductor material of the prior art, comparatively excellent at aspects such as electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and mechanical propertys, but aspect anti-fatigue performance or poor, thereby quality problems appear easily, affect the work-ing life of aluminum alloy materials or bring potential safety hazard, therefore, the aluminium alloy power cable over-all properties is still relatively poor.
Summary of the invention
Aluminium alloy that provides a kind of over-all properties to be used for preferably power cable and preparation method thereof is provided the technical problem that the present invention solves.
In view of this, the invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, comprising:
0.01 the Fe of ~ 1.6wt%; 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.002 the Li of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Na of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.002 the K of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ti of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the V of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Cr of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Mn of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ni of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Ga of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.003 the Ge of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Rb of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Nb of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Mo of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Tc of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ru of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.001 the Pd of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ag of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.002 the Cd of ~ 0.13wt%; 0.003 the In of ~ 0.18wt%; 0.001 the Sn of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 the Sb of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Cs of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Ba of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 the Hf of ~ 0.22wt%; 0.002 the Ta of ~ 0.16wt%; 0.001 the W of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.01 the RE of ~ 3.0wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
Preferably, the Fe that comprises 0.25 ~ 0.6wt%.
Preferably, the RE that comprises 0.1 ~ 0.6wt%.
Preferably, the W that comprises 0.005 ~ 0.01wt%.
The invention provides a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, may further comprise the steps:
A) aluminium alloy cast ingot of the following composition of casting: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.002 the Li of ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Na of ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the V of ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Cr of ~ 0.12wt%, the Mn of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the Ni of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Ga of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.003 the Ge of ~ 0.2wt%, the Rb of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Nb of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Mo of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Tc of ~ 0.25wt%, the Ru of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Rh of 0.002 ~ 0.1wt%, 0.001 the Pd of ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Ag of ~ 0.1wt%, the Cd of 0.002 ~ 0.13wt%, the In of 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.001 the Sn of ~ 0.08wt%, 0.001 the Sb of ~ 0.3wt%, the Cs of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ba of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, 0.001 the Hf of ~ 0.22wt%, 0.002 the Ta of ~ 0.16wt%, the W of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus;
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out homogenizing and process, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after homogenizing is processed is rolled, and obtains the aluminium alloy pole stock;
C) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step b) is obtained carries out the intermittent type anneal;
D) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step c) is obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
Preferably, the temperature that described homogenizing is processed is 450 ~ 550 ℃, and the time that described homogenizing is processed is 6 ~ 16h, and the heat-up rate that described homogenizing is processed is 3 ~ 8 ℃/min.
Preferably, described step c) is specially:
The aluminium alloy pole stock that step b) is obtained is heated to 280 ~ 350 ℃, lowers the temperature behind insulation 2 ~ 8h, and temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 ℃, cools off behind insulation 2 ~ 4h.
Preferably, described ageing treatment is to carry out in 5 ~ 15KV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field.
Preferably, the temperature of described ageing treatment is 250 ~ 320 ℃, and the time of described ageing treatment is 4 ~ 20h.
The present invention also provides a kind of power cable, comprises core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, and described core is the described aluminium alloy of such scheme or the prepared aluminium alloy of such scheme.
The invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, the present invention has added micro-iron take aluminium as base, and aluminium can form Al with iron 3Fe, the Al that separates out 3The Fe dispersed granules has suppressed the creep strain of alloy, and part Fe also forms the AlFeRE compound with RE and separates out, and precipitated phase AlFeRE can strengthen the anti-fatigue performance of alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation, and the rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity; The copper that adds forms the θ phase with aluminium, and θ plays solution strengthening and dispersion-strengthened action mutually, has improved tensile strength and the yield strength of aluminium alloy; Vanadium in alloy melt with the elements such as Fe, Cu, RE form al-based compounds be distributed in aluminium base in, have the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy; Hafnium forms tiny dispersion-strengthened phase in alloy, the strengthening effect that reaches a high temperature improves the thermostability of alloy under hot operation; Barium can form Al in melt 14Ba 13, Al 10Ba 12, Al 7Ba 8, AlBa 5Etc. multiple alloy cpd, have the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the high temperature creep property of aluminium alloy; Tantalum can form Al in melt 7Ta 9, Al 7Ta 5, Al 3Ta 4, Al 2Ta 3, AlTa 2Etc. the High-Temperature Strengthening metallic compound; Tungsten forms Al in alloy 12W, Al 6W, Al 4The disperse High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as W are distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, put forward heavy alloyed hot strength; Rare earth element can be concentrated to be distributed on the crystal boundary as surface active element, reduces pulling force between phase and phase, thereby makes grain refining.The present invention is conducive to the raising of aluminium alloy over-all properties by the selection of alloy element and the control of content.
The present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, at first carries out homogenizing by ingot casting and processes, and homogenizing is processed ingot casting is heated evenly, and the weave construction of optimized alloy; Then the aluminium alloy cast ingot of homogenizing being processed is rolled into pole stock and carries out the intermittent type anneal, eliminate the internal stress that produces in the mechanical processing process and to the damage of microtexture, optimize crystalline structure, recover the electrical property of wire rod, optimize mechanical property, make tensile property, flexility and the anti-fatigue performance of material keep preferably coupling; Again the aluminium alloy pole stock after the anneal is carried out ageing treatment in uniform electric field, can make the performance of whole material reach even distribution by ageing treatment, the properties overall target reaches all good couplings.The present invention is by the optimization to the aluminium alloy preparation method, make tensile property, flexility, electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and the anti-fatigue performance aspect of material keep preferably coupling, and the performance that makes whole material reaches even distribution, thereby obtains preferably aluminium alloy of over-all properties.
Embodiment
In order further to understand the present invention, below in conjunction with embodiment the preferred embodiment of the invention is described, but should be appreciated that these describe just as further specifying the features and advantages of the present invention, rather than to the restriction of claim of the present invention.
The embodiment of the invention discloses a kind of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, comprising:
0.01 the Fe of ~ 1.6wt%; 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.002 the Li of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Na of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.002 the K of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ti of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the V of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Cr of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Mn of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ni of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Ga of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.003 the Ge of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Rb of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Nb of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Mo of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Tc of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ru of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.001 the Pd of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ag of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.002 the Cd of ~ 0.13wt%; 0.003 the In of ~ 0.18wt%; 0.001 the Sn of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 ~ 0.2wt% Cs; 0.001 the Sb of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Ba of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 the Hf of ~ 0.22wt%; 0.002 the Ta of ~ 0.16wt%; 0.001 the W of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.01 the RE of ~ 3.0wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
According to the present invention, iron is as the feature microalloy element, because aluminium can form Al with iron 3Fe, the Al that separates out 3The Fe diffusing particle has suppressed the creep strain of alloy, and improves the stability that connects.Fe can improve aluminium base tensile strength, yield strength and resistance toheat, can also put forward heavy alloyed plasticity simultaneously.In the preparation process of aluminium alloy, part Fe is with Al in the alloy 3The form of Fe is separated out, and part Fe and RE form the AlFeRE compound and separate out, and after the high temperature anneal, the solid solution of Fe in aluminium base is less, and then the impact of the electrical property of Fe alloy is very little; The anti-fatigue performance of enhancing alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation but these disperse educts are on good terms, and the rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity.The content of Fe is below 0.01wt% in the alloy, very little to aluminium base performance change, do not have effect, but the content of Fe can not be too high, if surpass 1.6wt%, the weakening of aluminium base electrical property is comparatively obvious, and is influential for the use meeting that is used for electric wire and cable conductor, cable accessory and appliance field aspect, and the following effect of therefore total body burden control 1.6wt% is better.The content of described Fe is 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, is preferably 0.20 ~ 1.0wt%, more preferably 0.25 ~ 0.6wt%, more preferably 0.30 ~ 0.45wt%.
Copper is the basic strengthening element in the aluminium alloy, and it and aluminium form θ (Al 2Cu) phase, and θ has the effect of solution strengthening and dispersion-strengthened mutually, can effectively improve tensile strength and the yield strength of aluminium alloy.If it is not obvious that the content of copper less than 0.001wt%, then improves the mechanical property of aluminium alloy, if content surpasses 0.3wt%, then reduce specific conductivity.In addition, Cu can also improve the aluminum alloy heat performance.The content of described Cu is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.008 ~ 0.28wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.25wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.20wt% most preferably is 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
The present invention has also added the larger magnesium elements of atomic radius in aluminium alloy, magnesium can make lattice produce distortion, causes solution hardening; Magnesium can also improve erosion resistance and the resistance toheat of aluminium alloy simultaneously.But the content of magnesium should not surpass 0.3wt%, and too Gao Zehui causes the reduction of the too much increase of resistance and resistance toheat.The content of described magnesium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt%, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.20wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.15wt%.
According to the present invention, select the high reactivity element cobalt as the alloying trace additives, cobalt can form AlCo, Al in alloy 3Co 2, AlCo 2Etc. multiple dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase; When coexisting, it and iron forms Al in the interdendritic 4(CoFe) etc. complicated strengthening phase hinders dislocation, stops grain sliding, has effectively improved antifatigue and creep-resistant property under Alloy At Room Temperature and the high temperature, thereby improves the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy.The content of described cobalt is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.28wt%, and more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably is 0.055 ~ 0.18wt%.
Beryllium (Be) forms α, β dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase in alloy, can prevent oxidation, the scaling loss and air-breathing of alloying element, puies forward the density of heavy alloyed smelting quality and surface film oxide.Be can also make impurity iron become a shape by needle-like, sand mold casting and model recoil in the time of can preventing from pouring into a mould.Because Be has high affinity to oxygen and nitrogen, so it is efficiently when melt is degassed, thereby it is better to access surface smoothness, and intensity is higher, and the improved premium casting of ductility.On the other hand, add Be in the alloy and can make the Fe intermetallic crystal of fragility be transformed into little equiaxed crystal by large needle-like shape and stratiform shape, improve intensity and the ductility of alloy, and can allow that higher Fe content is arranged in the aluminium alloy.Be can also improve the flowability of aluminium alloy, the flowability of melt is increased, and can put forward heavy alloyed tensile strength and yield strength.According to the present invention, the content of described Be is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.18wt%, more preferably 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
Calcium (Ca) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 4Ca, Al 2Ca 3, AlCa 2Deng metallic compound, high-temperature behavior that can reinforced aluminium alloy strengthens resistance toheat and the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy, and it can not cause on the electrical property of aluminium alloy too large impact below 0.3wt%.The content of described calcium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.004 ~ 0.28wt%, and more preferably 0.011 ~ 0.25wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably is 0.08 ~ 0.15wt%, most preferably is 0.10 ~ 0.12wt%.
The present invention has added micro-zinc in aluminium alloy, zinc forms REAl with Al in melt 2Zn 3, Fe 3Al 2The various metals compounds such as Zn can play the tensile property of improving aluminium alloy, and in the high-temp anti-corrosion performance that to a certain degree can effectively improve aluminium alloy, can also improve the wear resisting property of aluminium alloy.The content of described zinc is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.12wt% most preferably is 0.08 ~ 0.10wt%.
Strontium (Sr) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, can form Al in melt 7Sr 8, Al 4Sr 3, AlSr 2And AlSr 3Etc. multiple alloying element, can play the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve high temperature creep property.Secondly, Sr adds in the aluminium alloy, can prevent aluminium alloy high temperature cracking when casting, occurs unnecessary impact in avoiding casting, and reduces process costs, improves the disposable power that is processed into.The content of described strontium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.28wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.26wt% more preferably, and 0.06 ~ 0.24wt% more preferably, more preferably 0.10 ~ 0.20wt% most preferably is 0.12 ~ 0.15wt%.
Zirconium (Zr) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, and it is by forming tiny dispersion-strengthened phase in alloy, and the strengthening effect that reaches a high temperature improves the thermostability of aluminium alloy under hot operation; On the other hand, Zr and Fe, Cu and Al form complicated alloy cpd, can improve the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy.The content of described zirconium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.20wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.10 ~ 0.12wt%.
Silicon (Si) can promote Al 3Zr separates out, and improves tensile strength; Si can also form the Mg-Si metallic compound with Mg, improves the thermal characteristics of aluminium alloy.But the content of Si should not surpass 0.2%, otherwise can cause electrical property obviously to descend, and cast bar easily produces defective, phenomenon of rupture occurs easily in rolling and strand process processed.The content of described silicon is preferably 0.001 ~ 0.18wt% greater than zero less than or equal to 0.2wt%, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.08 ~ 0.12wt%.
The present invention with boron (B) add aluminium base in, can crystal grain thinning, form tiny disperse educt phase, because have a large amount of this disperse phase in the alloy, growing up of crystal grain also hindered, thereby can significantly improve recrystallization temperature, prolong recrystallize incubation period, reduce recrystallize speed.On the other hand, boron can also improve intensity and the extension property of aluminium alloy, and so that alloy has preferably fatigue resistance.B can also form complex compound with Zr and Al, puies forward heavy alloyed thermal characteristics.The content of described boron is greater than zero less than or equal to 0.8wt%, is preferably 0.001 ~ 0.70wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.65wt% more preferably, and 0.10 ~ 0.5wt% more preferably, more preferably 0.25 ~ 0.45wt% most preferably is 0.30 ~ 0.40wt%.
According to the present invention, added elemental lithium in the aluminium alloy, lithium (Li) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 2Li 3, AlLi 2And AlLi 5Etc. dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase, thus hardness, corrosion resistance nature and the toughness of raising aluminium alloy.The content of described lithium is 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.20wt%, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Sodium (Na) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 2Na 3, AlNa 2, AlNa 5Deng the complex alloys compound, in melt, form the complex alloys compound with Fe, Mg, RE simultaneously, above-mentioned alloy cpd disperse is distributed in the alloy, can crystal grain thinning, thereby raising intensity of aluminum alloy, improve the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy and increase the plasticity of aluminium alloy, strengthen the workability of aluminium alloy.The content of described sodium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.13wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Potassium (K) element forms Al as the trace additives of aluminium alloy in alloy melt 5K 7, Al 3K 4, Al 2K 3, AlK 2Deng the complex alloys compound, described alloy cpd has the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, can improve thermotolerance and the workability of aluminium alloy, strengthens the plasticity of aluminium alloy.The content of described potassium is 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.23wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.20wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.18wt% most preferably is 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
Titanium (Ti) element is as the trace additives of complex compound, in alloy melt, form aluminium base complex compound with multiple elements such as Fe, Mg, Cu, RE, effective crystallization of refinement, improve the crystalline structure structure, and separate out the composite alloy compound at aluminium base crystal boundary, reduce other trace element to the abated effect of aluminium alloy electric performance, and the creep-resistant property of raising aluminium alloy improves the castability of alloy.The content of described titanium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.13wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Vanadium (V) element is as the trace additives of complex compound, in alloy melt with the elements such as Fe, Cu, RE form aluminium base complex compound be distributed in aluminium base in, the effect with High-Temperature Strengthening can improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy.The content of described vanadium is 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.13wt%, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.07wt%.
Chromium (Cr) forms β-GrAl in alloy 7, η-Gr 27 kinds of dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening such as Al phase has refinement cast structure, the ability of heat resistanceheat resistant crackle when the material crystallization; Chromium can also improve the wear resistance of aluminium alloy.The content of described chromium is 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%, more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.08wt%.
The MnAl that manganese (Mn) element and the effect of matrix element aluminium obtain 4Have identical current potential with fine aluminium, can effectively improve erosion resistance and the weldability of alloy; Manganese has the raising recrystallization temperature as the High-Temperature Strengthening phase simultaneously, suppresses the effect of recrystallize alligatoring, can realize the solution strengthening of alloy, the additional reinforcement and the raising resistance toheat.The content of described manganese is 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%, and more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.08wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.05wt%.
Nickel (Ni) element adds element as the feature of complex alloys, can form AlNi in melt 2, Al 3The High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as Ni are disperse phase and are distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, put forward heavy alloyed room temperature intensity and hot strength and volume, dimensional stability, and have the tendency that the compound that makes Fe becomes bulk, namely reduce Fe to the impact of aluminium base electrical property.The content of described nickel is 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.08wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.05wt%.
Gallium (Ga) element adds element as the feature of complex alloys, has to improve the problem of oxidation of aluminium alloy in melting, casting, welding, rolling, forging and pressing and extruding heat-processed.The content of described gallium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.008 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.12wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.08wt%.
Germanium (Ge) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, can form Al in melt 9Ge 7, Al 6Ge 5, Al 5Ge 2, Al 3Ge 4Etc. multiple alloy cpd, form the High-Temperature Strengthening phase, improve the thermally-stabilised and high-temperature creep resistance of alloy operation.The content of described germanium is 0.003 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.18wt%, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Rubidium (Rb) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, can form Al in melt 7Rb 9, Al 5Rb 3, AlRb 2, AlRb 4Deng metallic compound, improve the tensile strength of aluminium alloy, particularly improve the yield strength of aluminium alloy.The content of described rubidium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and 0.005 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.08wt%.
Niobium (Nb) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, can form AlNb in melt 3, AlNb, Al 3The High-Temperature Strengthening metallic compounds such as Nb; Be disperse phase and be distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, put forward heavy alloyed room temperature strength and hot strength.The content of described niobium is 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.12wt%, more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.10wt%, more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.08wt%; Most preferably be 0.03 ~ 0.05wt%.
Molybdenum (Mo) element can form High-Temperature Strengthening phase Al as the characteristic element of complex compound in melt 12Mo ~ AlMo 3Between 13 kinds of metallic compounds, be disperse phase and be distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, improve room temperature strength and the hot strength of aluminium alloy.The content of described molybdenum is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.08wt%.
Technetium (Tc) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, can improve the erosion resistance of alloy in melt, shields simultaneously impurity element, reduces impurity element to the damaging effect of aluminium alloy electric performance.Tc can form Al with Al 5Tc 7, Al 4Tc 3, Al 2Tc 3, AlTc 2Etc. complicated metallic compound, as the High-Temperature Strengthening phase, have the raising recrystallization temperature, suppress the effect of recrystallize alligatoring, realize the solution strengthening to aluminium alloy, the additional reinforcement and the raising resistance toheat.The content of described technetium is 0.001 ~ 0.25wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.23wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.20wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.08 ~ 0.12wt%.
The RuAl that ruthenium (Ru) and matrix effect obtain 4Have identical current potential with fine aluminium, can effectively improve erosion resistance and the weldability of alloy; Ru has the raising recrystallization temperature as the High-Temperature Strengthening phase simultaneously, suppresses the effect of recrystallize alligatoring, can realize the solution strengthening to aluminium alloy, the resistance toheat of replenishing reinforcement and improving aluminium alloy.The content of described ruthenium is 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.13wt%, and more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.05wt%.
High reactivity elemental rhodium (Rh) forms Al as the complex alloys trace additives in alloy 5Rh 2, Al 3Rh 2, AlRh 2Etc. multiple dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase; On the other hand, form Al during the coexistence of itself and iron 4(RhFe) etc. strengthening phase is distributed in the interdendritic, hinders dislocation, stops grain sliding, has effectively improved room temperature and the antifatigue under the high temperature and the creep-resistant property of alloy, thereby has made aluminium alloy possess preferably thermotolerance.The content of described rhodium is 0.002 ~ 0.1wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.08wt%, most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.05wt%.
Palladium (Pd) element adds element as the feature of complex alloys, can form AlPd in melt 2, Al 3Pd, Al 2The multiple High-Temperature Strengthening phase such as Pd, be disperse phase and be distributed in the matrix grain boundaries, can put forward volume, the dimensional stability of heavy alloyed room temperature and hot strength and aluminium alloy, and make the compound of Fe become block tendency, namely reduce Fe to the impact of aluminium base electrical property, and play energy high temperature toughening effect.The content of described palladium is 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%, more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.08wt%, more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.05wt%.
Silver (Ag) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, after in aluminium alloy, adding a small amount of silver element, promote the formation of timeliness transition phase, improved the stability of transition phase, improved the aging hardening behavior of aluminium alloy, made the mechanical property of alloy obtain larger raising.The content of described silver is 0.001 ~ 0.1wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.08wt%, and more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.05wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.03wt%.
Cadmium (Cd) forms REAl with Al in melt 2Cd 3, Fe 3Al 2Cd, Al 3Cd, Al 2Cd 3Deng the various metals compound, can improve the tensile property of aluminium alloy, and in the high-temperature corrosion-resistance performance of to a certain degree effectively improving aluminium alloy, and has a toughening effect, improve the high-speed stretch performance of alloy, avoid the cracking phenomena in the drawing process to occur, improve lumber recovery.The content of described cadmium is 0.002 ~ 0.13wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.10wt%, and more preferably 0.008 ~ 0.08wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.05wt%.
Indium (In) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, forms Al in alloy melt 12In 9, Al 7In 8Deng the Various Complex compound, have and improve the problem of oxidation of alloy in melting, casting, welding, rolling, forging and pressing and extruding heat-processed.The content of described indium is 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.008 ~ 0.12wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.08wt%.
Tin (Sn) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, forms Al in melt 9Sn 7, Al 6Sn 5, Al 5Sn 2, Al 3Sn 4Etc. multiple alloy cpd, form the High-Temperature Strengthening phase, improve thermostability and the high-temperature creep resistance of alloy operation, and can effectively improve the corrosion resistance under Alloy At Room Temperature or the hot conditions.The content of described tin is 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.05wt%, more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.01wt%.
The high melting compound that antimony (Sb) and aluminium form is dispersoid particle in alloy graining process at first separates out, and the crystalline structure of its particle can be used as heterogeneous nucleus, and a large amount of disperse nucleus impel crystal grain fined, put forward heavy alloyed yield strength.Because the aluminum alloy solidification temperature range is wide, the segregation tendency is large, and low-melting nascent rich aluminium α phase dendrite is owing to light specific gravity floats during slow cooling, and dystectic rich iron, magnesium, copper liquid then deposit to the foundry goods bottom and final set.Solidify latter stage, dendrite forms network, and remaining liquid phase flows into dendrite with the feeding solidification shrinkage owing to rising by wetting crystal face, thereby contracting is empty bottom occurring, the problem of shrinkage porosite, affects the plasticity of alloy.And after in aluminium alloy, adding antimony, can form stable multi-element compounds with the aluminium in the alloy, iron, magnesium, copper, such as Al 5Sb 4Fe etc., the density of these compounds is close with aluminium alloy, when alloy graining, they are at first separated out, and form network frame, are suspended in the aluminium alloy, come-up to rich aluminium phase plays inhibition with rich iron, magnesium, copper whereabouts mutually, thereby the defective that the gravity segregation that has suppressed alloy easily causes lower surface to shrink makes alloy have superplasticity, is conducive to be drawn into very thin alloy wire.The content of described antimony is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.28wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.25wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.20wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.15wt%.
Caesium (Cs) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, can form Al in alloy melt 2Cs 3, AlCs 2, AlCs 5Deng the complex alloys compound, can form complex compound with Fe, Mg, RE at melt simultaneously, above-mentioned metallic compound disperse is distributed in the alloy, can play enough crystal grain thinnings, have the raising alloy strength, improve the Alloy Anti fatigue property, increase the effect of the workability of alloy plasticity and enhancing alloy.The content of described caesium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.004 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.01 ~ 0.15wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.03 ~ 0.12wt% most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.10wt%.
Barium (Ba) element adds element as the complex compound feature, can form Al in melt 14Ba 13, Al 10Ba 12, Al 7Ba 8, AlBa 5Etc. multiple alloy cpd, have the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, can improve the high temperature creep property of aluminium alloy, above-mentioned alloy cpd can also form the dispersion-strengthened phase, the physical strength of the alloy of raising.The content of described barium is 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.05wt%, and more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.03wt% most preferably is 0.008 ~ 0.01wt%.
Hafnium (Hf) element adds element as the complex compound feature, in alloy, can form tiny dispersion-strengthened phase, strengthening effect reaches a high temperature, improve the thermostability of alloy under hot operation, and Ha can form the Various Complex alloy cpd with Fe, Cu, Al etc., plays a role for the fatigue resistance of improving alloy and wear resisting property.The content of described hafnium is 0.001 ~ 0.22wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.20wt%, 0.005 ~ 0.18wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.15wt% most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Tantalum (Ta) element adds element as the feature of complex compound, can form Al in melt 7Ta 9, Al 7Ta 5, Al 3Ta 4, Al 2Ta 3, AlTa 2Etc. the High-Temperature Strengthening metallic compound; Above-claimed cpd is disperse phase and is distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, puies forward heavy alloyed room temperature and hot strength, and the microlitic structure of above-claimed cpd can increase the plasticity-of alloy, puies forward heavy alloyed workability.The content of described tantalum is 0.002 ~ 0.16wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.008 ~ 0.12wt% more preferably, and more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt% most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.08wt%.
Tungsten (W) adds element as the feature of complex alloys, forms Al in alloy 12W, Al 6W, Al 4The dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as W, it is distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, can put forward heavy alloyed hot strength.The content of described tungsten is 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.05wt%, more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.01wt%.
The present invention has added rare earth element in aluminium alloy, described rare earth element can be put forward heavy alloyed electroconductibility, because rare earth element energy crystal grain thinning, and form stable compound and from crystal, separate out with elements such as Fe, Cu in the alloy, reduce electrolytical liquidus temperature, ion movement velocity under the effect of electric field is accelerated, reduced concentration overpotential, thereby make the resistivity decreased of aluminium alloy.On the other hand, rare earth element is larger than aluminium with the avidity of the elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, form multiple compounds, thereby rare earth is degasification in the alloy, denitrogenation, slag making, neutralization trace low melting point impurity and the clearing machine that changes impurity state, can play preferably refining effect, so that alloy becomes purer, thereby resistivity is greatly improved, electric conductivity can reach 60%IACS.On the other hand, rare earth element can form the dense oxidation film structure, plays fabulous effect for carrying heavy alloyed oxidisability and electrochemical corrosion resistant, has improved the work-ing life of aluminium alloy.In addition, rare earth is surface active element, can concentrate to be distributed on the crystal boundary face, reduces pulling force between phase and phase, and the merit that forms the critical size nucleus is reduced, and nuclei of crystallization quantity increases, thereby makes grain refining.Secondly, after ageing treatment in melting, high temperature annealing and the uniform electric field, Fe forms complicated ferro-aluminum rare earth metal with RE in Al, improved the antifatigue limit and the yield strength of alloy, increases alloy result of use and work-ing life in actual applications.
Described rare earth elements RE is one or more in lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), scandium (Sc) and the yttrium (Y), is preferably among Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm and the Lu one or more.Wherein, rare earth Pm forms Al in alloy 11Pm 3~ AlPm 2Deng 6 kinds of active metallic compounds; Rare-earth Sm forms Al in alloy 11Sm 4, Al 3Sm, Al 2Sm, AlSm, AlSm 3The isoreactivity metallic compound; Rare earth Eu forms EuAl in alloy 4, EuAl 2, EuAl isoreactivity metallic compound; Rare-earth Gd forms Al in alloy 4Gd ~ Al 17Gd 2Deng 7 kinds of infusibility metallic compounds; Rare earth Tb forms Al in alloy 3Tb, Al 2Tb, AlTb, AlTb 2, AlTb 3Deng the infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth Dy forms Al in alloy 5Dy ~ Al 17Dy 2Deng 8 kinds of infusibility active metallic compounds; Rare earth Ho forms Al in alloy 5Ho 3, Al 3Ho, AlHo 2, AlHo 3Deng the infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth Tm forms Al in alloy 3Tm 2, Al 3Tm, AlTm, AlTm 3Deng the infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth Lu forms Al in alloy 7Lu 3, Al 5Lu 3, Al 2Lu 3, AlLu 2, AlLu 3Deng the infusibility active metallic compound.Above-mentioned dystectic active metallic compound disperse is distributed in intergranular and the interdendritic that is netted or skeleton shape, and with the matrix mortise, played and strengthened and the effect of stable crystal boundary.Simultaneously, also can in and the elements such as element of Fe, Cu in the molten metal, form dystectic compound or they evenly distributed in the whole crystalline structure in interdendritic, eliminated dendritic structure, to improve the over-all properties of alloy material.The content of described rare earth element is 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, is preferably 0.03 ~ 2.5wt%, and more preferably 0.05 ~ 1.5wt% most preferably is 0.1 ~ 0.6wt%.
According to the present invention, for the base aluminum in the aluminium alloy, can adopt the fine aluminium of industrial Al99.70, the aluminium alloy that the present invention is prepared has the advantages such as raw material supply abundance, cost is low, buying is convenient; Simultaneously aluminium base refined aluminium or high-purity grade of aluminium of can also adopting is as matrix alloy, and this is aluminium base to have higher quality than conventional aluminium sill, and the product that is processed into has more advantage at electrical property and mechanical properties.
The invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, described aluminium alloy has added micro-iron take aluminium as base, and aluminium can form Al with iron 3Fe, the Al that separates out 3The Fe dispersed granules has suppressed the creep strain of alloy, and part Fe also forms the AlFeRE compound with RE and separates out, and precipitated phase AlFeRE can strengthen the anti-fatigue performance of alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation, and the rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity; Copper forms the θ phase with aluminium, has played preferably effect for the tensile strength and the yield strength that improve aluminium alloy; Vanadium in alloy melt with the elements such as Fe, Cu, RE form al-based compounds be distributed in aluminium base in, have the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy; Barium can form Al in melt 14Ba 13, Al 10Ba 12, Al 7Ba 8, AlBa 5Etc. multiple alloy cpd, have the High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the high temperature creep property of aluminium alloy; Hafnium forms tiny dispersion-strengthened phase in alloy, the strengthening effect that reaches a high temperature improves the thermostability of alloy under hot operation; Tungsten forms Al in alloy 12W, Al 6W, Al 4The disperse High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as W are distributed in the matrix crystal boundary, put forward heavy alloyed hot strength; Rare earth element is surface active element, can concentrate to be distributed on the crystal boundary face, reduces pulling force between phase and phase, thereby makes grain refining.The present invention is by adding Determination of multiple metal elements and to the control of constituent content, being conducive to the raising of aluminium alloy over-all properties.
The present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy, may further comprise the steps:
A) raw material of following composition is cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.002 the K of ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Ti of ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Mn of ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Ni of ~ 0.15wt%, the Ga of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ge of 0.003 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Rb of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Nb of ~ 0.15wt%, the Mo of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Tc of 0.001 ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Ru of ~ 0.15wt%, 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.1wt%, the Pd of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the Ag of 0.001 ~ 0.1wt%, 0.002 the Cd of ~ 0.13wt%, 0.003 the In of ~ 0.18wt%, the Sn of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, the Sb of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Cs of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ba of ~ 0.08wt%, the Hf of 0.001 ~ 0.22wt%, the Ta of 0.002 ~ 0.16wt%, 0.001 the W of ~ 0.08wt%, 0.01 the RE of ~ 3.0wt% is greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus;
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out homogenizing and process, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after homogenizing is processed is rolled, and obtains the aluminium alloy pole stock;
C) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step b) is obtained carries out the intermittent type anneal;
D) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step c) is obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
According to the present invention, step a) is casting process, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, for various elements are fully melted, evenly distribute, as preferred version, above-mentioned casting technique specifically comprises: aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, in closed environment, be heated to 720 ~ 800 ℃ and insulation, after the aluminium ingot fusing, add again Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Ge, Rb, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta and W or Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Al-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, after stirring, add rare earth elements RE, obtain alloy melt; Described alloy melt is added refining agent, carry out furnace refining, insulation 20 ~ 40min obtains aluminium alloy; Described aluminium alloy through degasification, slagging-off, is entered casting machine and casts, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot.Because aluminium is difficult for scaling loss, and add-on is more, therefore first aluminium is added smelting furnace, then add other metallic element.Alloying element of the present invention preferably adopts said sequence to add, and loss does not occur after making various element meltings, and various elements can fully melt simultaneously, evenly distribute.
The treatment stage that step b) being homogenizing, the temperature that described homogenizing is processed is preferably 450 ~ 550 ℃, and more preferably 480 ℃ ~ 520 ℃, the time that described homogenizing is processed is preferably 2 ~ 8h, more preferably 3 ~ 6h.Aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out homogenizing process, can guarantee ingot casting in the process of rolling pole stock, its intensity and ductility have preferably coupling, thereby avoid adopting traditional way to cause the destruction of material microstructure and further affect processing characteristics.In order to guarantee that ingot casting is heated evenly, the weave construction of optimized alloy is avoided alloy in the course of processing owing to heat up or the too fast generation that causes the internal structure defective of lowering the temperature, and the heat-up rate that described homogenizing is processed is preferably 3 ~ 8 ℃/min, more preferably 5 ℃/min.Aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out after homogenizing processes, then that aluminium alloy cast ingot is rolling, obtain the aluminium alloy pole stock.
Subsequently the aluminium alloy pole stock is heat-treated, at first the aluminium alloy pole stock is carried out the anneal at intermittence in annealing furnace.Described intermittence, anneal was specially: described aluminium alloy pole stock is heated to 280 ~ 350 ℃, lowers the temperature behind insulation 2 ~ 8h, temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 ℃, cools off behind insulation 2 ~ 4h.At high temperature oxidation occurs and cause material to weaken at electrical property and surface corrosion-resistant erosion aspect of performance for fear of aluminum alloy materials, described anneal is preferably carried out under inert atmosphere.The present invention adopts intermittent type substep anneal, and cooling down progressively, this kind processing mode can be eliminated the internal stress that produces in the mechanical processing process and to the damage of microtexture, optimize crystalline structure, recover the electrical property of wire rod, optimize mechanical property, make tensile property, flexility and the anti-fatigue performance aspect of material keep preferably coupling.
After the aluminium alloy pole stock is carried out anneal, then the aluminium alloy pole stock after the anneal is carried out ageing treatment.Described ageing treatment is to carry out in 5 ~ 15KV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field preferably.The temperature of described ageing treatment is preferably 250 ~ 320 ℃, and more preferably 280 ~ 300 ℃, the time of described ageing treatment is preferably 4 ~ 20h, and more preferably 8 ~ 15h most preferably is 10 ~ 13h.Ageing treatment is carried out on basis in the anneal technology, can further remedy heat conduction inequality in the anneal process, causes the characteristics of the inside and outside performance profile inequality of material or local defect.Can make the performance of whole material reach even distribution by ageing treatment, the properties overall target reaches all good couplings.So anneal and ageing treatment, both effective combinations have been played vital effect for the optimization of material monolithic performance, and Neither of the two can be dispensed.The present invention preferably carries out ageing treatment in high-intensity uniform electric field, first aspect has changed arrangement, coupling and the migration of atom, and second aspect has improved the solid solution degree of alloying element, has brought out the homogeneous nucleation of T1 phase, has improved the yield strength of alloy; After the sample that homogenizing is processed carried out ageing treatment, the precipitated phase even dispersion distributed, and the mechanical property of alloy improves greatly; The third aspect, what changed the fine crystals tissue separates out form and quantity, make the orientations such as form, size, distribution occur in the material solid-state phase changes to be controlled, thereby the tissue of control material finally obtains good mechanical property and electric property.
The present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of aluminium alloy, at first carrying out homogenizing by ingot casting processes, then the aluminium alloy cast ingot of homogenizing being processed is rolled into pole stock and puts into annealing furnace again, carry out anneal, in uniform electric field, carry out again ageing treatment, make tensile property, flexility, electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and the anti-fatigue performance aspect of material keep preferably coupling, and make the performance of whole material reach even distribution, thereby obtain preferably aluminium alloy of over-all properties.Aluminum alloy materials of the present invention is by adding multiple alloying element and adopting heat treatment technics, improved greatly the resistance toheat of fine aluminium, so that this aluminum alloy materials long-time running temperature is at 237 ℃, creep is less, tensile strength keeps 92% survival rate, ensured that mechanical property changes less under hot operation, anti-fatigue performance has also obtained good raising simultaneously, the repeatedly bending number of times of aluminium alloy reaches 38 times, can avoid like this loss in various degree that occurs in installation process as conductor thread core; And pass through heat treatment technics so that the snappiness of alloy is fairly good, cable is installed bending radius at 4.5 times more than the outside diameter of cable, greatly improved the ductility of aluminium alloy, unit elongation surpasses 35%, the damage phenomenon can not appear easily owing to the pulling force effect, and processing characteristics is very good, is applicable to be drawn into the monofilament that filament diameter differs in size more than 0.1mm.
The present invention also provides a kind of power cable, described power cable comprises core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, described core is aluminium alloy, described aluminium alloy contains the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.002 the K of ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Ti of ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Mn of ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Ni of ~ 0.15wt%, the Ga of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ge of 0.003 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Rb of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Nb of ~ 0.15wt%, the Mo of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Tc of 0.001 ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Ru of ~ 0.15wt%, 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.2wt%, the Pd of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the Ag of 0.001 ~ 0.1wt%, 0.002 the Cd of ~ 0.13wt%, 0.003 the In of ~ 0.18wt%, the Sn of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, the Sb of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Cs of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ba of ~ 0.08wt%, the Hf of 0.001 ~ 0.22wt%, the Ta of 0.002 ~ 0.16wt%, 0.001 the W of ~ 0.08wt%, 0.01 the RE of ~ 3.0wt%, greater than zero Si less than or equal to 0.2wt%, greater than zero less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus; The preparation method of described aluminium alloy is by the method preparation according to such scheme.Preparation method the present invention of described power cable does not have special restriction, for mode well known to those skilled in the art gets final product.
With the core of the aluminium alloy in the such scheme of the present invention as power cable, can make power cable have preferably over-all properties, experimental result shows: the aluminium alloy electric conductivity of the present invention's preparation is greater than 60%, tensile strength is greater than 137MPa, elongation at break is greater than 35%, and the long-time running heat resisting temperature can reach 237 ℃, and the intensity survival rate can reach 92% after the heat-resisting test run(s), 90 degree repeatedly bend number of times and reach 38 times, and the mass loss of 400h corrosion resistance nature is less than 0.8g/m 2Hr, minimum bending radius is greater than 4.5 times of outside diameters of cable, and the monofilament minimum diameter is greater than 0.1m.
In order further to understand the present invention, below in conjunction with embodiment aluminium alloy provided by the invention and preparation method thereof is elaborated, protection scope of the present invention is not limited by the following examples.
Embodiment 1
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 720 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 650 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 5 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 450 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 6h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 280 ℃ of insulation 2h, annealing temperature is down to 150 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 5kV/cm, aging temp is 250 ℃, and aging time is 4h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 2
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 740 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Ge, Rb, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta and W, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 720 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 3 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 550 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 16h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 360 ℃ of insulation 8h, annealing temperature is down to 200 ℃ of insulation 2h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 15kV/cm, aging temp is 320 ℃, and aging time is 20h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 3
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 760 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Ge, Rb, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta and W, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 680 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 8 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 500 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 10h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 300 ℃ of insulation 4h, annealing temperature is down to 160 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 10kV/cm, aging temp is 260 ℃, and aging time is 10h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 4
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 780 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 750 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 5 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 480 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 8h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 350 ℃ of insulation 4h, annealing temperature is down to 170 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 12kV/cm, aging temp is 260 ℃, and aging time is 14h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 5
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 800 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 700 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 6 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 490 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 18h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 320 ℃ of insulation 6h, annealing temperature is down to 190 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 12kV/cm, aging temp is 310 ℃, and aging time is 16h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 6
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 730 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 800 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 7 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 460 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 14h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 350 ℃ of insulation 7h, annealing temperature is down to 190 ℃ of insulation 4h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 11kV/cm, aging temp is 305 ℃, and aging time is 18h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 7
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 750 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Ge, Rb, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta and W, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 720 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 4 ℃/min heats up, and temperature to 470 ℃ is rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 12h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 ℃ of insulation 5h, annealing temperature is down to 170 ℃ of insulation 4h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 12.5kV/cm, aging temp is 315 ℃, and aging time is 17h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 8
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 790 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Ge, Rb, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta and W, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 750 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 5 ℃/min heats up, and 510 ℃ of temperature are rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 13h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 310 ℃ of insulation 5h, annealing temperature is down to 170 ℃ of insulation 4h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 8kV/cm, aging temp is 285 ℃, and aging time is 14h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 9
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 760 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 25min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 690 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 5 ℃/min heats up, and 480 ℃ of temperature are rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 14h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 ℃ of insulation 4h, annealing temperature is down to 190 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 11kV/cm, aging temp is 295 ℃, and aging time is 15h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Embodiment 10
(1) aluminium ingot is dropped in the smelting furnace, heating makes it fusing and 740 ℃ of lower insulations, melting process is finished in sealed environment; Add first Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Ni, Al-Ga, Al-Ge, Al-Rb, Al-Nb, Al-Mo, Al-Tc, Al-Ru, Al-Rh, Al-Pd, Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Al-In, Al-Sn, Al-Sb, Al-Cs, Al-Ba, Al-Hf, Al-Ta and Al-W master alloy, add again rare earth RE after stirring and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining; Add refining agent in alloy melt, and stir, leave standstill insulation 30min again, the melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after the refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 800 ℃, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, and after degasification, slagging-off are processed, enters casting machine and casts again, obtains aluminium alloy cast ingot, ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed that the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) is obtained carries out 5 ℃/min heats up, and 530 ℃ of temperature are rolled into pole stock behind the insulation 15h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) is obtained carries out anneal under inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 ℃ of insulation 7h, annealing temperature is down to 160 ℃ of insulation 3h again, is cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock that step (3) is obtained carries out ageing treatment in strength of electric field is the uniform electric field of 13kV/cm, aging temp is 275 ℃, and aging time is 19h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy of according to the method described above preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Comparative Examples 1
Choose the standard aluminium ingot of 99.7% purity, its impurity silica removal, iron, the outer content of copper are no more than 0.02wt%; Described aluminium ingot is put into molten aluminium stove melt, add zirconium, the copper of 0.25wt%, the iron of 0.70wt% and the yttrium of 0.25wt% of 0.15wt%, the alloying temperature is 750 ℃; Through homogenizing stirring, refining degasification, slag making, slagging-off, the aluminum alloy melt refining temperature is 725 ℃, with solid insulating covering agent aluminium coating aluminium alloy surface, leaves standstill 60min, carries out the stokehold chemical composition analysis, and monitoring, adjustment are with control element content; Aluminium liquid is carried out continuous casting, obtain the aluminium alloy cast bar; The aluminium alloy cast bar is rolled into aluminium alloy rod, and it is 500 ℃ that the aluminium alloy cast bar advances to roll temperature, and the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod is 250 ℃; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out backguy process, pull wire speed is 20 meter per seconds, repeatedly after the backguy, is drawn into required high-strength heat-resisting aluminum-alloy circle line; Described aluminum alloy round line is carried out modified thermal treatment, and temperature is 200 ℃, and the time is 120min, with the cooling of the aluminum alloy round line after the thermal treatment, obtains heat-resisting aluminium alloy circle line.The aluminum alloy round line of preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Comparative Examples 2
Select eight tons of aluminium ingots, its foreign matter content (except silicon, iron, the copper) is no more than 0.02wt%, put into the circular aluminum melting furnace fusing, add simultaneously the zirconium of 0.10wt%, the copper of 0.02wt%, the iron of 0.35wt%, the silicon of 0.20wt% and the rare earth of 0.35wt%, the alloying temperature is 730 ℃; Through homogenizing stirring, refining degasification, slag making, slagging-off, the aluminum alloy melt refining temperature is 725 ℃, with solid insulating covering agent aluminium coating aluminium alloy surface, leaves standstill 40min, carries out the stokehold chemical composition analysis, and monitoring, adjustment are with control element content; Aluminium liquid is carried out continuous casting, obtain the aluminium alloy cast bar; The aluminium alloy cast bar is rolled into aluminium alloy rod, and it is 500 ℃ that the aluminium alloy cast bar advances to roll temperature, and the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod is 250 ℃; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out backguy process, pull wire speed is 10 meter per seconds, repeatedly after the backguy, is drawn into required high-strength heat-resisting aluminum-alloy circle line; Described aluminum alloy round line is carried out modified thermal treatment, and temperature is 200 ℃, and the time is 200min, with the cooling of the aluminum alloy round line after the thermal treatment, obtains heat-resisting aluminium alloy circle line.The aluminum alloy round line of preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
Comparative Examples 3
In shaft furnace, add purity greater than the aluminium ingot of 99.70wt%, be warming up to 750 ℃, make the aluminium ingot fusing, temperature is increased to 750 ℃, Y, the Er of 0.23wt% of Sc, 0.33wt% of Ca, 0.13wt% of Zr, 0.29wt% of Mg, 0.13wt% of Cu, 0.15wt% that adds successively Fe, the 0.11wt% of 0.86wt%, it is dissolved fully, and regulate alloying constituent to setting range, alloying element all is the form adding with aluminium intermediate alloy; At 760 ℃ of insulation 30min, add again the refining agent of 0.15wt%, remove the gred, degasification, and then be cast into aluminum alloy casting; Aluminum alloy casting is imported milling train, and the temperature that imports milling train is 450 ℃, and it is 300 ℃ that the importing milling train becomes the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out the cold drawn aluminum alloy line that is processed into 3.0mm, be drawn into aluminum alloy line with 7 and carry out strandedly, be prepared into conductor thread core; Described aluminium alloy conductor is carried out anneal, and annealing temperature is 370 ℃, and the time is 12h, stops the body of heater heating, and the more Sino-Japan right cooling of annealing furnace is taken out from stove behind the 24h, obtains aluminium alloy conductor.The aluminium alloy conductor of preparation is carried out performance test, and the result is referring to table 2.
The component list (wt%) of the aluminium alloy of table 1 embodiment preparation
The component list (continued) of the aluminium alloy of table 1 embodiment preparation (wt%)
The component list (continued) of the aluminium alloy of table 1 embodiment preparation (wt%)
The component list (continued) of the aluminium alloy of table 1 embodiment preparation (wt%)
The performance test data table of the aluminium alloy of table 2 embodiment and Comparative Examples preparation
The performance test data table (continued) of the aluminium alloy of table 2 embodiment and Comparative Examples preparation
By relatively can finding out of table 2, aluminum alloy materials of the present invention has obvious advantage from over-all properties, particularly the long-time running heat resisting temperature can reach 237 ℃, and the intensity survival rate can reach 92% after the heat-resisting test run(s), 90 degree repeatedly bend number of times and reach 38 times, minimum bending radius is greater than 4.5 times of outside diameters of cable, and 400h anti-corrosion test mass loss is less than 0.8g/m 2Hr, the monofilament minimum machining diameter is greater than 0.1mm.
The explanation of above embodiment just is used for helping to understand method of the present invention and core concept thereof.Should be pointed out that for those skilled in the art, under the prerequisite that does not break away from the principle of the invention, can also carry out some improvement and modification to the present invention, these improvement and modification also fall in the protection domain of claim of the present invention.
To the above-mentioned explanation of the disclosed embodiments, make this area professional and technical personnel can realize or use the present invention.Multiple modification to these embodiment will be apparent concerning those skilled in the art, and General Principle as defined herein can in the situation that does not break away from the spirit or scope of the present invention, realize in other embodiments.Therefore, the present invention will can not be restricted to these embodiment shown in this article, but will meet the widest scope consistent with principle disclosed herein and features of novelty.

Claims (10)

1. Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy comprises:
0.01 the Fe of ~ 1.6wt%; 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.002 the Li of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Na of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.002 the K of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ti of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the V of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Cr of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Mn of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ni of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Ga of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.003 the Ge of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Rb of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Nb of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.001 the Mo of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Tc of ~ 0.25wt%; 0.001 the Ru of ~ 0.15wt%; 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.001 the Pd of ~ 0.12wt%; 0.001 the Ag of ~ 0.1wt%; 0.002 the Cd of ~ 0.13wt%; 0.003 the In of ~ 0.18wt%; 0.001 the Sn of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 the Sb of ~ 0.3wt%; 0.001 the Cs of ~ 0.2wt%; 0.001 the Ba of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.001 the Hf of ~ 0.22wt%; 0.002 the Ta of ~ 0.16wt%; 0.001 the W of ~ 0.08wt%; 0.01 the RE of ~ 3.0wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
2. aluminium alloy according to claim 1 is characterized in that, comprises the Fe of 0.25 ~ 0.6wt%.
3. aluminium alloy according to claim 1 is characterized in that, comprises the RE of 0.1 ~ 0.6wt%.
4. aluminium alloy according to claim 1 is characterized in that, comprises the W of 0.005 ~ 0.01wt%.
5. the preparation method of an Al-Fe-W-RE aluminium alloy is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
A) aluminium alloy cast ingot of the following composition of casting: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, 0.001 the Cu of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Mg of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Co of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Be of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Ca of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zn of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the Sr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.001 the Zr of ~ 0.3wt%, 0.002 the Li of ~ 0.25wt%, 0.001 the Na of ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, 0.001 the V of ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Cr of ~ 0.12wt%, the Mn of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the Ni of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Ga of ~ 0.2wt%, 0.003 the Ge of ~ 0.2wt%, the Rb of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Nb of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.002 the Rh of ~ 0.1wt%, 0.001 the Mo of ~ 0.2wt%, the Tc of 0.001 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ru of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, 0.001 the Pd of ~ 0.12wt%, 0.001 the Ag of ~ 0.1wt%, the Cd of 0.002 ~ 0.13wt%, the In of 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, 0.001 the Sn of ~ 0.08wt%, 0.001 the Sb of ~ 0.3wt%, the Cs of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ba of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, 0.001 the Hf of ~ 0.22wt%, 0.002 the Ta of ~ 0.16wt%, the W of 0.001 ~ 0.08wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, greater than zero and less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, greater than zero and less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus;
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out homogenizing and process, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after homogenizing is processed is rolled, and obtains the aluminium alloy pole stock;
C) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step b) is obtained carries out the intermittent type anneal;
D) the aluminium alloy pole stock that step c) is obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
6. preparation method according to claim 5 is characterized in that, the temperature that described homogenizing is processed is 450 ~ 550 ℃, and the time that described homogenizing is processed is 6 ~ 16h, and the heat-up rate that described homogenizing is processed is 3 ~ 8 ℃/min.
7. preparation method according to claim 5 is characterized in that, described step c) is specially:
The aluminium alloy pole stock that step b) is obtained is heated to 280 ~ 350 ℃, lowers the temperature behind insulation 2 ~ 8h, and temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 ℃, cools off behind insulation 2 ~ 4h.
8. preparation method according to claim 5 is characterized in that, described ageing treatment is to carry out in 5 ~ 15KV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field.
9. preparation method according to claim 5 is characterized in that, the temperature of described ageing treatment is 250 ~ 320 ℃, and the time of described ageing treatment is 4 ~ 20h.
10. a power cable comprises core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, it is characterized in that, described core is the described aluminium alloy of claim 1 ~ 4 any one or the prepared aluminium alloy of claim 5 ~ 9 any one.
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