CN102505965B - Method for identifying rock mass failure instability early warning - Google Patents

Method for identifying rock mass failure instability early warning Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102505965B
CN102505965B CN 201110357858 CN201110357858A CN102505965B CN 102505965 B CN102505965 B CN 102505965B CN 201110357858 CN201110357858 CN 201110357858 CN 201110357858 A CN201110357858 A CN 201110357858A CN 102505965 B CN102505965 B CN 102505965B
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rock mass
early warning
stress
monitoring
tangent modulus
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CN 201110357858
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102505965A (en
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王春来
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中国矿业大学(北京)
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of mine safety, relating to a method for identifying rock mass failure instability early warning by utilizing stress displacement monitoring. The method is characterized by comprising the following steps of: determining a monitoring area in an excavated rock mass and numbering, monitoring stress and deformation changes of the rock mass by utilizing a borehole stressmeter and a multipoint position extensometer and monitoring in real time, converting a tangent modulus value of the rock mass, mastering a change trend of the tangent modulus value of the rock mass, and judging whether the rock mass failure instability early warning is carried out or not. The method disclosed by the invention is simple in construction, low in cost, good in effect, has better reliability and early warning accuracy, has the capabilities of shortening the time of the rock failure instability early warning, improving the safety environment of construction and avoiding the losses of labors and devices, and is suitable for the fields of mines, tunnels, side slopes, hydropower station chambers and the like formed by excavating the rock mass.

Description

A kind of method of rock mass failure instability early warning identification
Technical field
The invention belongs to the mine safety field, relate to a kind of method of utilizing the stress displacement monitoring to realize rock mass failure instability early warning identification, be applicable to the mine, power station chamber, side slope, tunnel of rock excavation etc.
Background technology
Along with the day by day exhaustion of earth's surface superficial part mineral resources, the mining degree of depth constantly increases, and the rock mass failure instability early warning seems more and more important.The rock mass failure instability early warning be a kind of rock mass in digging process, and in mineral building or the nugget recovery process, along with the propelling of stope, grasp rock mass stress, change in displacement situation, thereby reach underground pressure management, realize the purpose of disaster alarm.
In the ore body exploitation process, reinforcement stress, displacement monitoring are important process grasping the rock mass situation of change.State's internal stress displacement monitoring, the general using readout instrument obtains data from the Stress and displacement monitor, and the minority monitoring network utilizes the monitoring point strain gauge that data are inputted computer, carries out early warning when the method for analysis adopts the stress increment data to gather increase, sudden change more.Because rock mass causes secondary stress field redistribution behind excavation, cause the stress increment value mutation, when rock mass is in elastic stage, rock mass generation moderate finite deformation can't produce the large-scale damage unstability, and traditional analytical method does not consider that rock mass changes at the stress and strain in stress deformation process Elastic stage.So, utilize the sudden change of strain gauge monitored data to judge that rock mass failure instability easily produces wrong early warning conclusion, these factors have greatly affected the effect of rock mass failure instability early warning, and its application is restricted.
In view of the deficiency of above-mentioned Instability of Rock Body method for early warning, need a kind of new early warning recognition methods, both method was simple, distinguishing speed is fast, effective, can judge accurately that again rock mass failure instability carries out early warning, also has preferably applicability simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
The present invention be directed to rock mass failure instability early warning weak effect in the engineerings such as mine safety, road and rail traffic tunnel and water conservancy and hydropower chamber, easily produce the wrong problems such as early warning conclusion, proposed to adopt stress displacement monitoring data to realize a kind of method of rock mass failure instability early warning, not only method is simple, and has greatly improved the accuracy of rock mass failure instability early warning.
A kind of method of rock mass failure instability early warning identification is characterized in that:
(1) according to the radial dimension of multiple position extensometer, implement boring in the vertical direction of excavation face, diameter is generally 45mm~76mm, and boring length is excavation bulk radius r 0More than 3 times, length is designated as L, the shift value of generation is Δ l, unit is mm, the darkest monitoring point for displacement should be in initial stress area, anchor point quantity is 3-5 approximately, is used for grasping the stressed strain variation situation of rock mass;
(2) borehole stressmeter monitor stress direction should be consistent with multiple position extensometer displacement monitoring direction, at first setting tool and sensor are coupled together, mounting rod inserts in the central recess of sensor, determine the Sensor monitoring stress direction, the data cable port of sensor is connected upper readout instrument, display frequency.Then, the setting tool of left hand grip outside does not rotate it, turns clockwise erecting tools with the right hand, gives initial stress of sensor, until that the force value that shows reaches is a certain amount of (than the low 5Hz of original frequency~10Hz time), stops to twist erecting tools; Mounting rod is extracted out, again setting tool is withdrawed from boring, installation of sensors is complete; After frequency stabilization (approximately ten minutes), the frequency of record sensor this moment is as original frequency, and the input instrument returns to zero; But operate later on the stress increment value Δ σ of instrument direct representation rock mass;
What (3) propose utilizes displacement monitoring increment size Δ l and the darkest anchor point length L conversion strain increment value Δ ε that holes, and then, utilizes stress increment value Δ σ and strain increment Δ ε conversion tangent modulus E t, method is Δ σ=σ i wherein -σ I-1, Δ l=l i-l I-1, Δϵ = Δl L ;
(4) early warning identifying is as follows:
1) implements boring according to designing requirement;
2) utilize mounting rod that multiple position extensometer is installed, the darkest anchor point is in the protolith state;
3) utilize mounting rod that borehole stressmeter is installed, requiring borehole stressmeter to measure stress direction is the multiple position extensometer direction of displacement;
4) according to designing displacement and stress monitoring network connection computer, formation can be carried out the network of stress displacement monitoring in real time;
5) by monitoring network, the periodic monitoring data are analyzed its result, stress increment value Δ σ=σ iI-1, the strain increment value Δϵ = Δl L = l i - l i - 1 L , Conversion tangent modulus value E t = Δl Δϵ ;
6) according to the stressed constitutive relation of rock mass, after the rock mass damaged enters the yield region, the phenomenon that tangent modulus descends appears.Carry out the tangent modulus data analysis and process, obtain the slope of tangent modulus value Find out the point that k reduces, be rock mass failure instability early warning recognition methods;
Adopt the tangent modulus slope to reduce the method for early warning rock mass failure instability, with traditional method for early warning different manifestations following several aspect:
(1) the inventive method has high-reliability, traditional rock mass failure instability recognition methods, when only considering the stress increment situation of change, occurring stress behind the rock excavation increases suddenly, stresses re-distribution occurs after existing extensive rock mass to produce less displacement, belong to the rock mass original crack densification stage, rock mass can not produce unstable phenomenon; Only consider the displacement increment situation of change, rock mass is after progressively excavating, and stress increases gradually, produce macroscopical displacement, the excavation variation causes stress transfer, can not produce lasting rock mass failure instability, the result causes early warning mistake, reliability low, judges that the rock mass failure instability convincingness is inadequate.The present invention has not only considered the stress increment variation, also considered the strain increment variation, simultaneously, utilize rock mass loading process constitutive relation to enter the particularity that the yield region tangent modulus descends, realize the rock mass failure instability early warning, the low situation of the early warning credible result degree of having avoided influence factor to cause has less improved the early warning reliability greatly, supports for the early warning of engineering rock mass damage unstability provides effect technique;
(2) the inventive method has practicality, uses strain increment and stress increment data, the conversion tangent modulus, grasp simultaneously the tangent modulus variation tendency, utilize the reduction of tangent modulus to realize the rock mass failure instability early warning, the method is easy, practical, easily is widely applied;
(3) in traditional rock mass failure instability early warning, a few methods is considered that stress increment and strain increment change and is come early warning, when simple consideration stress increment or strain increment, only consider that the data of rock mass force and deformation suddenly change early warning, the variation relation of having ignored rock mass strain and stress in the stressed constitutive relation Elastic stage, the present invention has considered that not only the stress and strain increment changes, considered simultaneously elastic modulus change, increase the accuracy of early warning, brought the life and property loss early warning that huge meaning is arranged to rock mass failure unstability.
(4) the present invention is applicable to the rock body quality of mine dynamic disaster early warning that unstability occurs of breaking, and such as rock burst, roof fall, gushing water and slope and land slide etc., also is applicable to the large-sized rock mass engineering stability, such as disaster alarms such as power station chamber, side slope, tunnel and dam bodys.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is stressometer of the present invention and displacement meter field conduct figure.
Fig. 2 is monitoring network schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is early warning schematic diagram of the present invention.
Among the figure: the 1-borehole stressmeter; 2-borehole stressmeter data collecting instrument; The 3-multiple position extensometer; 4-multiple position extensometer data collecting instrument; The 5-computer; The 6-internet; The 7-multiple users; The 8-communication cable.
Borehole stressmeter 1 is transferred to borehole stressmeter data collecting instrument 2 by communication cable 8 with stress signal; Multiple position extensometer is transferred to multiple position extensometer data collecting instrument 4 by communication cable 8 with stress signal; Borehole stressmeter data collecting instrument 2 and multiple position extensometer data collecting instrument 4 are transferred to multiple users with signal separately by computer 5, internet 6 by communication cable 8 again.Each terminal use utilizes Fig. 2 monitored data, realizes the rock mass unstability early warning of breaking according to Fig. 3 early warning principle.
Illustrate: the field monitoring apparatus installation is implemented according to Fig. 1, and whole monitoring network should be implemented according to Fig. 2,, realize the rock mass unstability early warning of breaking according to Fig. 3 early warning principle.
The specific embodiment
The break following process of unstability early warning new method of this implementation rock mass is carried out:
(1) determine rock mass monitoring and warning zone, the main monitor prewarning area divided and is numbered, numbering corresponding the data variation of stress increment, displacement increment, in order to obtain a clearly monitoring network;
(2) carry out stress monitoring and displacement monitoring drilling construction according to design, should be arranged in easy generation at the bottom of the stress drilling hole and destroy the unstability rock mass, can not be positioned at protolith state rock mass; The darkest anchor point of multiple position extensometer boring should be in the protolith state;
Should be in 3 times when (3) borehole stressmeter being installed in excavation bulk radius, be used for grasping the rock mass stress state; The darkest anchor point of multiple position extensometer should be in former petrographic province, and all the other anchor points are uniformly distributed in the boring, is used for grasping the rock mass deformation state;
(4) parameters, the periodic monitoring data are analyzed stress increment and strain increment, get the tangent modulus value according to above-mentioned Solving Equations, draw tangent modulus slope variation trend;
(5) carry out the rock mass failure instability early warning according to the tangent modulus slope variation, when the tangent modulus slope for increasing or when constant, rock mass is in densification or elastic stage, can not produce rock mass failure instability; When the tangent modulus slope reduced, rock mass entered the yield region, and the germinating, expansion, the connection that begin to produce secondary crackle cause destroying unstability.So, the tangent modulus slope of rock mass is reduced the early warning of identification rock mass failure instability.

Claims (1)

1. the method for rock mass failure instability early warning identification is characterized in that, described method is to utilize that rock excavation is stressed to reduce the generation that comes the early warning rock mass failure instability by the tangent modulus slope behind the elastic stage; Concrete steps are as follows
(1) according to the radial dimension of multiple position extensometer, implement boring in the vertical direction of excavation face, diameter is 45mm ~ 76mm, and boring length is excavation bulk radius r 0More than 3 times, length is designated as L, the shift value of generation is Δ l, the Jun of unit is ㎜, the darkest monitoring point for displacement should be in initial stress area, anchor point quantity is 3-5, is used for grasping the stressed strain variation situation of rock mass;
(2) borehole stressmeter monitor stress direction should be consistent with multiple position extensometer displacement monitoring direction, at first setting tool and sensor are coupled together, mounting rod inserts in the central recess of sensor, determine the Sensor monitoring stress direction, the data cable port of sensor is connected upper readout instrument, display frequency; Then, the setting tool of holding on the other hand the outside does not rotate it, turns clockwise mounting rod with another hand, gives initial stress of sensor, until the force value that shows reaches when hanging down the 5Hz ~ 10Hz left and right sides than original frequency, stops to twist mounting rod; Mounting rod is extracted out, again setting tool is withdrawed from boring, installation of sensors is complete; After frequency stabilization, the frequency of record sensor this moment is as original frequency, and the input instrument returns to zero; But operate later on the stress increment value Δ σ of instrument direct representation rock mass;
(3) utilize displacement monitoring increment size Δ l and the darkest anchor point length L of the boring length L conversion strain increment value Δ ε that namely holes, then, utilize stress increment value Δ σ and strain increment Δ ε conversion tangent modulus E t, method is , Δ σ=σ wherein iI-1, Δ l=l i-l I-1,
(4) early warning identifying is as follows:
1) implements boring according to designing requirement;
2) utilize mounting rod that multiple position extensometer is installed, the darkest anchor point is in the protolith state;
3) utilize mounting rod that borehole stressmeter is installed, requiring borehole stressmeter to measure stress direction is the multiple position extensometer direction of displacement;
4) according to designing displacement and stress monitoring network connection computer, formation can be carried out the network of stress displacement monitoring in real time;
5) by monitoring network, the periodic monitoring data are analyzed its result, stress increment value Δ σ=σ iI-1, the strain increment value , conversion tangent modulus value
According to the stressed constitutive relation of rock mass, after the rock mass damaged enters the yield region, the phenomenon that tangent modulus descends appears; Carry out the tangent modulus data analysis and process, obtain the slope of tangent modulus value , find out the point that k reduces; The rock mass failure instability early warning is carried out in variation according to the tangent modulus slope k, when the tangent modulus slope k for increasing or when constant, rock mass is in densification or elastic stage, can not produce rock mass failure instability; When the tangent modulus slope k reduced, rock mass entered the yield region, and the germinating, expansion, the connection that begin to produce secondary crackle cause destroying unstability; So, the tangent modulus slope k of rock mass is reduced point as the early warning point that destroys unstability.
CN 201110357858 2011-11-11 2011-11-11 Method for identifying rock mass failure instability early warning CN102505965B (en)

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CN107842394B (en) * 2017-10-23 2019-03-26 青岛理工大学 The Dynamic Elastic Module detection method of Large Span Underground chamber exploitation roof stability
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