CN102434166A - Device and method for testing influence of tunnel excavation on existing close-distance parallel tunnels - Google Patents

Device and method for testing influence of tunnel excavation on existing close-distance parallel tunnels Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102434166A
CN102434166A CN2011103777140A CN201110377714A CN102434166A CN 102434166 A CN102434166 A CN 102434166A CN 2011103777140 A CN2011103777140 A CN 2011103777140A CN 201110377714 A CN201110377714 A CN 201110377714A CN 102434166 A CN102434166 A CN 102434166A
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tunnel
existing
displacement meter
casing
simulation
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CN2011103777140A
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李学峰
杜守继
张德煊
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a device and a method for testing influence of tunnel excavation on existing close-distance parallel tunnels. The device comprises a model box, panels at two ends of the model box are replaceable, and a plurality of orifices can be processed on the panels according to the requirements of a test and respectively correspond to the positions of existing tunnel orifices and the positions of a plurality of designed newly-excavated tunnel orifices so as to simulate iron sheet pipes of the existing tunnels, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipes of newly-excavated tunnels, a movable type loading platform frame, a loading jack, a pipe wall displacement meter for measuring pipe wall displacement, an earth surface displacement meter for measuring characters of earth surface displacement, a strain gauge for recording pipe wall strain, a static-state strain meter and a computer. The testing device can simulate influence of round-section tunnel excavation and construction on the existing close-distance parallel tunnels under different stratum conditions at different close connecting distances and evaluate earth surface sedimentation caused by parallel excavation of a plurality of tunnels beside the existing tunnels, and test data are accurate and reliable.

Description

Tunnel excavation is to the experimental rig and the method for existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence
Technical field
The present invention relates to construction of tunnel, particularly a kind of tunnel excavation is to the experimental rig and the method for existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence.
Background technology
The underground space development of big and medium-sized cities with utilize in the process, play an important role for extenuating the subterranean tunnel engineering that traffic above-ground pressure builds.Sometimes because of the restriction that receives construction environment or in order to improve the utilization rate of construction of tunnel, must in the zonule, build multi-functional underground traffic network, this makes subterranean tunnel closely construct to become one of difficult problem that the engineer must solve.Because of the tunnel excavation construction can cause the stresses re-distribution of the tunnel perimeter soil body, and then cause the stress state of the existing tunnel structure in the certain zone of new built tunnel to change on every side, have a strong impact on the safe handling of existing tunnel structure.For newly-built tunnel excavation is reduced to minimum degree to the influence in existing closely tunnel; The research method of employing science is familiar with closely the constructing tunnel mechanism that influences each other, and proposes reasonably to judge and evaluation criterion is the matter of utmost importance that engineer and researcher will solve.In various research methods, physical experiments is with its economy, and science and more can reflect the advantage of actual engineering characteristic is widely used in the tunnel and closely constructs in the interactional correlative study
Chinese scholars has been carried out a series of model testings to the relevant issues of tunnel excavation.There are some related patent U.S. Patent No. technology open through literature search; Like Chinese patent publication number CN 201352179Y; Patent name: a kind of shield tunnel construction model combined test apparatus; This device provides a kind of method of simulating single shield tunnel construction process, and can test out the stressing conditions of tunnel structure.But this device can't reflect two closely Parallel Tunnel construction problems that influence each other, and the experimental rig complex structure, involves great expense.For another example, Chinese patent number, CN 101858222A; Patent name: the method for wearing existing structure of the subway controlled deformation under a kind of new built tunnel zero distance; This method applies jack between existing subway tunnel structure base plate and new built tunnel side wall, utilize the tau-effect of tunnel excavation, and apply top power in advance; Make the consolidation settlement of new built tunnel foundation soil body, thereby reduce later stage soil body sedimentation to realize the purpose of the existing structure of the subway distortion of control.This method effect is obvious, simple, but construction environment is had relatively high expectations.
In view of the interactional complexity of constructing tunnel closely, press for a kind of experimental rig that can simulate and estimate new tunnel excavation to existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence of development.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention just is to provide a kind of cost low, and precision is high, experimental rig simple to operate, and being used to study tunnel excavation influences mechanism and qualitative evaluation to existing closely Parallel Tunnel.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention just provides a kind of simulation and estimates experimental rig and the method for tunnel excavation to existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence.Can simulate different buried depth easily, different arrangements, different spacing, under the Different Strata condition closely constructing tunnel influence each other and the distortion situation of test existing tunnel structure; Can reflect well that tunnel excavation is to existing tunnel effect on structure process and influence degree; The distortion on the face of land in the reflection tunnel excavation process in real time; Test data accurately and reliably, and is and easy to operate, for studying closely the constructing tunnel mechanism that influences each other reliable test platform is provided.
Technical solution of the present invention is:
A kind of tunnel excavation is to the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence, and characteristics are that its formation comprises:
Model casing; Be a kind of half-headed horizontal rectangular box, two end plates of this model casing are removable, and these end plates are processed with a plurality of apertures according to the needs of test; The position, new tunneling aperture of difference corresponding existing tunnel aperture and a plurality of designs, model casing supply the sand filling;
The conduit peschel of simulation existing tunnel and the pvc pipe of the new tunneling of simulation;
The portable stand that loads; A loading jack is fixed on the described loading stand; This movable type loading stand is connected with described model casing through four threaded rods and confirms the distance between the two, and each excavates the maximum depth distance that goes on foot the range decision of described jack;
Measure foil gauge, statical strain indicator and the computer of the tube wall displacement meter of tube wall displacement, the surface displacement meter of measuring the surface displacement characteristic, the strain of measurement tube wall; Described tube wall displacement meter is installed in the conduit peschel of described existing tunnel, connects fixing through connecting rod and the magnetic core device that is positioned on the bearing; Described foil gauge is sticked on the outer wall of the conduit peschel of described existing tunnel; Described surface displacement meter be arranged on the sand surface of filling in the described model casing and be positioned at the new tunneling of simulation directly over; Described tube wall displacement meter, surface displacement meter and described foil gauge link to each other with described statical strain indicator through data wire, and the output of this statical strain indicator links to each other with described computer.
The outside of described model casing reinforces with six road channel-section steels.
Described end plates are poly (methyl methacrylate) plate.
Utilize the test method of above-mentioned tunnel excavation, comprise the following steps: the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence
1. the sand layering for preparing is packed in the described model casing; In described model casing, bury the conduit peschel of simulating existing tunnel underground corresponding to the position, existing tunnel aperture of described end plates; And paste described foil gauge at conduit peschel design section place; Continue layering filling sand then, reach the buried depth of design until described conduit peschel;
The tube wall displacement meter that 2. will be installed on the connecting rod is laid in the design attitude in the conduit peschel, is fixed on the bearing through the magnetic core device, itself fixes to ensure the tube wall displacement meter described in the process of the test
3. in described model casing the new tunneling of sand surface simulation directly over described surface displacement meter is set;
4. described tube wall displacement meter, surface displacement meter and foil gauge are linked to each other with described statical strain indicator with data wire, and the output of this strain gauge is linked to each other with described input end and computer;
5. connect together described portable loading stand and model casing with threaded rod, aim at position, an aperture of new tunneling, described jack is fixed on described portable the loading on the stand;
6. described jack is got back to zero pushing tow position; Regulate the position of threaded rod upper cap nut and adjust and fix the described portable position that loads stand; The pvc pipe that the new tunneling of described simulation is used is parallel to the conduit peschel of described simulation existing tunnel, and it is placed between the aperture and described jack of new tunneling;
7. handwheel on the jack turns clockwise; The aperture of described pvc pipe from new tunneling at the uniform velocity pushed the soil body in the described model casing; Equal the maximum pushing tow distance of described jack up to advance distance; So far accomplish the simulation in excavation step, described foil gauge, surface displacement meter and tube wall displacement meter are sent to described statical strain indicator with survey data through data wire simultaneously, and the described Computer Storage that this strain gauge the transmits relevant data line data of going forward side by side is handled;
8. described repetition above-mentioned steps 6.~7., simulation tunnel step excavation process is at last by described computer output data result.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) the present invention uses a kind of simple pushing method to realize that the simulation tunnel excavation is to existing closely Parallel Tunnel effect on structure.Can reflect tunnel excavation to the influence of existing Parallel Tunnel and around the situation of change of soil layer and surface displacement.
(2) the invention property ground uses horizontal jack that the pushing tow load is provided, and has realized in the model casing external load, and successful has avoided charger self to the soil body and existing tunnel effect on structure.And loading procedure is simple to operate, and loading position can be adjusted as required at any time, but the loading velocity real-time change.
(3) will be designed with different spacing, the poly (methyl methacrylate) plate of different orifice arrangement is fixed on the model casing, makes an experiment respectively, can realize arrangement, and these two key factors of spacing are to interactional test simulation and evaluation between Parallel Tunnel.
(4) closely constructing tunnel causes that the distortion of existing Parallel Tunnel and displacement can real time record also be stored in the computer automatically, make things convenient for post-processed.
(5) this experimental rig has the excellent function autgmentability, can be according to specific requirement, and simulation face of land preloading, various engineering activities such as excavation unloading and dynamic loading are to the existing tunnel effect on structure.Through partially sealed processing, also can realize causing test simulation and the evaluation of SEA LEVEL VARIATION to the existing tunnel effect on structure because of tunnel excavation.
In a word; Experimental rig of the present invention can the simulation tunnel structure in the Different Strata condition; Under different arrangements and spacing and the different construction activities to the existing tunnel effect on structure; And test out the stressing conditions of tunnel structure, for the research city closely the parallel subway constructing tunnel influence each other reliable experimental study method and evaluation criterion be provided, for engineering design and construction provides valuable reference frame.
Description of drawings
In Fig. 1 embodiment of the invention used experimental rig along the tunnel normal cross-section sketch map longitudinally
In Fig. 2 embodiment of the invention closely the Parallel Tunnel aperture arrange sketch map
Fig. 3 existing tunnel displacement tester sketch map
Fig. 4 one embodiment of the invention existing tunnel displacement structure monitoring section arrangement diagram
Fig. 5 embodiment (edpth of tunnel is 2D, and D is a tunnel diameter) existing tunnel haunch horizontal movement figure
Fig. 6 embodiment (edpth of tunnel is 2D, and D is a tunnel diameter) existing tunnel vault vertical displacement figure
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment the present invention is further specified, but should not limit protection scope of the present invention with this.
See also Fig. 1,2,3 earlier, visible by figure, tunnel excavation of the present invention is to the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence, and its formation comprises:
(1) model casing 1
The model casing 1 of excavation soil layer simulation is assembled into a rectangle model casing by three block plates and two poly (methyl methacrylate) plates; The model casing periphery is provided with the channel-section steel gusset plate; The steel plate and the poly (methyl methacrylate) plate of model casing are become one; Bear the various external loads that apply in soil pressure and the process of the test, soil body end face is the scope of freedom in the model casing, can apply various load combinations according to specific requirement.Perforate on two poly (methyl methacrylate) plates of model casing is nearby being reserved position, a plurality of new built tunnel aperture 3 in the parallel position place so that pre-buried and along existing tunnel crosswise fixed tunnel structure with existing tunnel aperture 2.Through changing the poly (methyl methacrylate) plate of different orifice arrangement, realize the experimental study of Parallel Tunnel under different arrangements.Through changing the thickness of existing tunnel vault overlying soil, realize the experimental study of Parallel Tunnel under different buried depth;
(2) load the stand part
With portable stand 5 that loads of channel-section steel welding, can will load jack 6 and be fixed on the described loading stand 5 according to the position in aperture on the poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 3, and can move in real time and load stand according to the tunnel excavation needs in step.Link together through threaded rod 10 and the model casing 1 that test soil is housed loading stand 5; Provide stable counter-force to support; Each excavates the maximum depth distance in step the range decision of jack 6, and the experimental study of length apart from the continuous digging process in tunnel realized in the position that loads stand 5 through adjustment.
(3) tunnel deformation part of detecting
Paste foil gauge 9 on the outer wall of existing tunnel 2; Existing tunnel 2 inner structural wall design section places lay displacement meter 7 and measure the tube wall displacement; And on the face of land direction vertical with the excavation face arranges that displacement meter 8 measures surface displacements, surface displacement characteristic when writing down the parallel excavation in many holes.Described foil gauge 9, the output of displacement meter 7 and displacement meter 8 all links to each other with statical strain indicator 14, and the output of this strain gauge 14 links to each other with computer 15, realizes the test data real-time Transmission.
The course of work of the present invention and operating principle are:
With conduit peschel simulation existing tunnel structure; Existing tunnel structure Y is parallel to ground; Be embedded in the existing tunnel structure at the place, reservation aperture of model casing; About this existing tunnel 2, nearby excavate new built tunnel 3 (design attitude place) then, a pvc pipe is at the uniform velocity advanced direction of propulsion and existing tunnel (conduit peschel) parallel longitudinal from aperture 3 in model casing 1 through being fixed on the horizontal jack 6 that loads on the stand 5.Soil body part in the progradation around the existing tunnel 2 flows in the described PVC plastic pipe, and a part of soil body acts on to moving all around because of being squeezed, and causes soil disturbance, and then causes that the structure of existing tunnel 2 produces distortion, influences the tunnel safety use.Through the position of conversion jack 6 and the position of pushing tow plastic pipe, realize that tunnel excavation is to the influence of existing closely Parallel Tunnel under the research different spacing; Through changing the thickness of existing tunnel vault overlying soil, realize that the Parallel Tunnel construction is to the influence of existing tunnel under the simulation different buried depth.
Shown in Fig. 1~3, the present invention simulates the closely interactional combined test apparatus of shield tunnel construction, and its formation is:
Soil layer simulation and counter-force charger are processed into a rectangular model soil body case 1 by three block plates and two poly (methyl methacrylate) plates, and arranged outside six roads of the soil body case channel-section steel of putting more energy into is to guarantee the unlikely generation distortion in process of the test of soil body case.Four apertures of processing on two poly (methyl methacrylate) plates of soil body case, respectively corresponding existing tunnel structure 2 and with this existing tunnel different spacing position under new built tunnel 3; The pvc pipe 4 that is used for simulation tunnel excavation usefulness; Apply the loading stand 5 that advances load; Load the horizontal jack 6 of usefulness; Measure the displacement meter 7 of tube wall displacement; Measure the displacement meter 8 of surface deformable; The foil gauge 9 of record tube wall strain; With model casing with load the threaded rod 10 that stand connects together; The connecting rod 11 of tube wall displacement meter is installed; Fixedly the magnetic core device 12 of tube wall displacement meter and bearing 13; Write down and change the statical strain indicator 14 of various survey data; Real-time storage experimental data computer 15.
The operating procedure of embodiment is following:
(1) the sand layering for preparing is loaded in the model casing 1; And bury the conduit peschel 2 of simulation existing tunnel structure underground in the position, reservation aperture of model casing; And paste foil gauge 9 at the design section place, and continue layering filling sand then, reach the buried depth of design until the conduit peschel 2 of existing tunnel.
(2) will be installed in tube wall displacement meter 7 on the connecting rod 11 and be placed in the design attitude place in the conduit peschel 2, and it is fixed on the bearing 13 through magnetic core device 12, but like this in the guarantee test process tube wall displacement meter 7 itself fix.
(3) arrange surface displacement meter 8 on edge, the face of land with the vertically vertical direction of new tunneling
(4) with foil gauge 9, surface displacement meter 8, tube wall displacement meter 7 usefulness data wires link to each other with the measurement passage of statical strain indicator 14, and statical strain indicator 14 is linked to each other with computer 15.
(5) couple together loading stand 5 and model casing 1 with threaded rod 10,, jack 6 is fixed on the loading stand 5 according to 3 positions, aperture of new built tunnel;
(6) position that loads stand is adjusted and fixed in the position of regulating threaded rod 10 upper cap nuts, and the pvc pipe that will simulate excavation usefulness then is placed in the aperture of new built tunnel 3 and the space between the jack 6;
(7) turn clockwise handwheel on the jack 6; With the soil body of pvc pipe 4 in 3 positions, newly-built Tunnel Design aperture at the uniform velocity push model casing 1; Equal the maximum pushing tow distance of jack up to advance distance; So far accomplish the simulation in an excavation step; Simultaneously described foil gauge 9, surface displacement meter 8 and tube wall displacement meter 7 send the survey data of record to described statical strain indicator 14 through the data wire line, and this strain gauge 14 send the described computer 15 storages line data of going forward side by side to handle relevant data;
(8) repeating step 6-7, simulation tunnel step excavation process.In 5 excavation steps of simulation among this embodiment, promptly pvc pipe advances 65cm altogether, in practical application, and can be according to the actual forward distance of test needs decision pvc pipe.
Among the embodiment, tunnel excavation to the existing tunnel structure influence shown in Fig. 5~6.Can find out; Tunnel excavation has confidential relation to existing tunnel effect on structure degree and tunnel spacing; When clear distance is in 1D between two tunnels; Tunnel excavation is more outstanding to the existing tunnel effect on structure, and when two tunnel spacings during greater than 2D, tunnel excavation is then smaller to existing closely Parallel Tunnel effect on structure.
In with the process that advances pvc pipe simulation tunnel excavation; Tunnel excavation can be to cutting of sand generation on every side and squeezing action; Wherein a part of sand can flow in the pvc pipe, some sand because of be squeezed the effect meeting to around motion, and then cause that the existing tunnel structure produces distortion and tube wall displacement; This distortion and displacement can measure and store in the computer through be arranged in structural foil gauge of existing tunnel and displacement meter in real time, are convenient to the follow-up data analyzing and processing.It is thus clear that the experimental rig that the present technique invention provides and the test method of employing can be good at reacting the influence that tunnel excavation causes the existing tunnel structure.

Claims (4)

1. a tunnel excavation is characterised in that to the experimental rig that existing closely Parallel Tunnel influences its formation comprises:
Model casing (1); It is a kind of half-headed horizontal rectangular box; End plates of this model casing (1) are removable; These end plates are processed with a plurality of apertures according to the needs of simulation, new tunneling (3) position, aperture of difference corresponding existing tunnel (2) aperture and a plurality of designs, and model casing (1) supplies the sand filling;
The PVC plastic pipe of the conduit peschel (4) of simulation existing tunnel (2) and the new tunneling of simulation (3);
The portable stand (5) that loads; A loading jack (6) is fixed on the described loading stand (5); This movable type loading stand (5) is connected with described model casing (1) through four threaded rods (10) and confirms the distance between the two, and each excavates the maximum depth distance that goes on foot the range decision of described jack (6);
Measure foil gauge (9), statical strain indicator (14) and the computer (15) of the tube wall displacement meter (7) of tube wall displacement, the surface displacement meter (8) of measuring surface displacement, the strain of measurement tube wall; Described tube wall displacement meter (7) is laid in the conduit peschel (4) of described existing tunnel (2), is connected fixing with magnetic core device (12) on being positioned at bearing (13) through connecting rod (11); Described foil gauge (9) is sticked on the outer wall of the conduit peschel (4) of described existing tunnel (2); Described surface displacement meter (8) be arranged in the sand surface of filling in the described model casing (1) and be positioned at the new tunneling of simulation (3) directly over; Described tube wall displacement meter (7), surface displacement meter (8) and described foil gauge (9) link to each other with described statical strain indicator (14) with data wire, and the output of this strain gauge (14) links to each other with described computer (15).
2. tunnel excavation according to claim 1 is characterized in that to the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence the outside of described model casing (1) reinforces with six road channel-section steels.
3. tunnel excavation according to claim 1 is characterized in that to the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence described end plates are poly (methyl methacrylate) plate.
4. utilize the test method of the described tunnel excavation of claim 1, it is characterized in that this method comprises the following steps: the experimental rig of existing closely Parallel Tunnel influence
1. the sand layering for preparing is packed in the described model casing (1); In described model casing (1), bury the conduit peschel (4) of simulation existing tunnel (2) underground; And paste described foil gauge (9) at conduit peschel (4) design section place; Continue layering filling sand then, reach the buried depth of design until described conduit peschel (4);
The tube wall displacement meter (7) that 2. will be installed on the connecting rod (11) is laid in the design attitude in the conduit peschel (4), is fixed on the bearing (13) through magnetic core device (12), itself fixes to ensure the tube wall displacement meter (7) described in the process of the test;
3. in described model casing (1) the new tunneling of sand surface simulation (3) directly over described surface displacement meter (8) is set;
4. described tube wall displacement meter (7), surface displacement meter (8) and foil gauge (9) are linked to each other with described statical strain indicator case (14) with data wire, and the output of this statical strain indicator (14) is linked to each other with the input of described computer (15);
5. use threaded rod (10) to link together described portable loading stand (5) and model casing (1), aim at (3) positions, aperture of new tunneling, described jack (6) is fixed on described portable the loading on the stand (5);
6. described jack (6) is got back to zero pushing tow position; Regulate the position of threaded rod (10) upper cap nut and adjust and fix the described portable position that loads stand (5), the conduit peschel (4) that the pvc pipe that the new tunneling of described simulation is used is parallel to described simulation existing tunnel (2) is placed between the aperture (3) and described jack (6) of new tunneling;
7. handwheel on the jack (6) turns clockwise; The aperture (3) of described pvc pipe from new tunneling at the uniform velocity pushed in the described model casing (1); Equal the maximum pushing tow distance of described jack (6) up to advance distance; So far accomplish the simulation in an excavation step; Simultaneously described foil gauge (9), surface displacement meter (8) and tube wall displacement meter (7) send data measured to described statical strain indicator (14) through data wire, and this statical strain indicator (14) send described computer (15) the storage line data processing of going forward side by side with relevant data;
8. described repetition above-mentioned steps 6.~7., simulation tunnel step excavation process is at last by described computer (15) output data result.
CN2011103777140A 2011-11-24 2011-11-24 Device and method for testing influence of tunnel excavation on existing close-distance parallel tunnels Pending CN102434166A (en)

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CN103000068B (en) * 2012-08-28 2014-11-12 浙江工业大学 Tunnel construction process simulating test method
CN103115788A (en) * 2012-11-20 2013-05-22 上海理工大学 Indoor model experience device with existing tunnel affected by double subway construction
CN103115788B (en) * 2012-11-20 2016-03-23 上海理工大学 The indoor model test device that existing tunnel affects by two-wire subway work
CN103198218B (en) * 2013-04-01 2016-03-30 中铁工程设计咨询集团有限公司 Closely connect tunnel to the methods of risk assessment of high-speed railway subgrade and device
CN103198218A (en) * 2013-04-01 2013-07-10 中铁工程设计咨询集团有限公司 Method and device for assessing risks of close-spaced tunnels on high-speed railway roadbed
CN103996348A (en) * 2014-06-05 2014-08-20 上海理工大学 Laboratory model test device for testing influence on operating tunnel from vertically-overlapped tunnel construction
CN104316337B (en) * 2014-09-26 2016-11-23 浙江工业大学 A kind of shield machine performance testing device
CN105865922A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-08-17 天津大学 Double-track tunnel excavating face loading and unloading simulation test system
CN105865922B (en) * 2016-05-20 2018-08-07 天津大学 Double track tunnel excavates face and unloading model is added to test system
CN105957435A (en) * 2016-07-06 2016-09-21 上海盾构设计试验研究中心有限公司 Test device and method for simulating plastic drainage plate cutting by soft soil shield tunneling
CN106081943A (en) * 2016-07-07 2016-11-09 陈魏魏 The engineering crane that tunneling uses
CN106289829A (en) * 2016-07-25 2017-01-04 同济大学 A kind of small-sized TBM Tunnel Gushing model test model casing
CN106289829B (en) * 2016-07-25 2018-10-26 同济大学 A kind of small-sized TBM Tunnel Gushings model test model casing
CN110593895A (en) * 2019-09-20 2019-12-20 郑州大学 Unilateral uninstallation lower model tunnel section of jurisdiction warp measuring device
CN113267364A (en) * 2021-07-14 2021-08-17 四川藏区高速公路有限责任公司 Model simulation test device for tunnel under-passing existing tunnel

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