CN102328081A - Method for rapidly forming three-dimensional metal parts by high-power lasers - Google Patents

Method for rapidly forming three-dimensional metal parts by high-power lasers Download PDF

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CN102328081A
CN102328081A CN201110288332A CN201110288332A CN102328081A CN 102328081 A CN102328081 A CN 102328081A CN 201110288332 A CN201110288332 A CN 201110288332A CN 201110288332 A CN201110288332 A CN 201110288332A CN 102328081 A CN102328081 A CN 102328081A
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laser
powder
layer
forming
scanning
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CN201110288332A
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CN102328081B (en
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曾晓雁
马明明
王泽敏
李祥友
胡乾午
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华中科技大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for rapidly forming three-dimensional metal parts by high-power lasers, which can be used for directly manufacturing various metal parts with high precision, large sizes and complicated structures, and comprises the following steps: evenly paving a layer of metal powder on the surface of a substrate, and then, carrying out layer-by-layer melting and deposition on the metal powder in a protective cavity by using high-power density laser beams until the manufacturing of the whole three-dimensional metal parts is ended. The method for rapidly forming the three-dimensional metal parts by the high-power lasers is improved on the basis of an original rapid forming technology, i.e. an assembly comprising various laser devices or multiple laser devices is adopted to serve as an energy source, a high-power laser scanning vibration lens is adopted to carry out rapid scanning on the powder, and processes and methods of prearranging the paved powder, increasing the single-layer deposition thickness, increasing spot diameters and the like are adopted in the forming process, thereby, the problem that only small-sized metal parts can be formed or only simple parts can be formed in an approaching way by the traditional forming technology is effectively solved. Moreover, the precision of the formed parts is high, the mechanical property is good, and the forming time is short. The method for rapidly forming the three-dimensional metal parts by the high-power lasers adapts to large-scale production and application.

Description

A kind of method of high power laser light quick shaping 3-dimensional metal part
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of laser processing, be specifically related to a kind of method that presets shop powder formula high power laser light quick shaping 3-dimensional metal part, this method is particularly useful for the quick shaping of various large and complex structure metal parts.
Background technology
Laser melting coating (Laser Cladding) technology is to adopt the high-energy-density laser beam with the special material fusing and be covered in substrate surface, forms the surface modification technology process of metallurgical binding after the condensation of material of fusing with base material.This technology has that the cladding layer dilution rate is low, cladding layer composition and former cladding material near etc. advantage, so laser melting coating material that designability can be superior.Since the eighties development in last century, laser melting and coating technique has obtained the wide industrial application.Generally speaking, the material that is added during cladding can be metal dust, silk material even sheet material, and wherein metal dust becomes principal mode because of its better adaptability.According to the difference of powder feed mode, laser melting and coating technique can be divided into shop powder method and the synchronous powder feeding system method of presetting again.The former is before laser melting coating, with certain mode (like thermal spraying or binding agent) alloy powder is preset in base material or component surface earlier, adopts these coatings that preset of laser beam fusing then, obtains laser cladding layer after the condensation; The latter is in the laser radiation substrate surface, and alloy powder is sent into the laser irradiation zone synchronously, forms cladding layer after powder smelting, the condensation.Two kinds of methods respectively have characteristics, therefore obtain commercial Application in different fields respectively.
The laser fast forming technology of metallic element is with laser melting coating and rapid prototyping (RapidPrototyping; RP) a kind of advanced manufacturing technology of combining of technology, it can realize the no mould of various 3-dimensional metal parts, complete fine and close, high-performance quick shaping.Its main process comprises: 1. in computer, generate the three-dimensional CAD physical model of part, then model is carried out hierarchy slicing by the thickness and the direction of appointment, the three-D profile information that is about to part is converted into two-dimensional silhouette information; 2. in substrate, generate the two-dimensional shapes of appointment according to certain scanning pattern, repeat this process and successively pile up the formation Three-dimensional Entity Components with the method for laser melting coating.Since the nineties development in last century, this technology has obtained significant progress, demonstrates application prospects in Aero-Space, die production, medical science implantation, special material processing and other fields.
Similar with laser melting and coating technique; The laser Rapid Manufacturing Technology of metallic element has two kinds of typical types; A kind of laser Rapid Manufacturing Technology that is based on the fore-put powder coating is called precinct laser fusion technology (Selective Laser Melting is hereinafter to be referred as the SLM technology); Another kind is based on the laser Rapid Manufacturing Technology of synchronous powder feeding system, is called Direct Laser Fabrication Technology (Direct Laser Fabrication is hereinafter to be referred as the DLF technology).But the two has certain difference DLF and SLM on practical implementation method and effect.
The SLM technology is to be the basis with shop powder method laser melting coating, the laser fast forming technology that combines with rapid prototyping technology and form.Its detailed process is following: at first, on substrate, with scraper plate or roller shop layer of metal powder, shine powder with focussed laser beam fast according to certain scanning pattern then, the powder that is irradiated to melts, solidifies, and forms sedimentary deposit.After sedimentary deposit forms, substrate is descended and the identical height of powder deposition thickness (being slice thickness), repave one deck powder then and scan, repeat of the formation of such process until whole part.(50~300W) as energy source, and the focal beam spot diameter is generally tens of microns, and the thickness that presets the shop powder is generally 10~100 μ m for the laser instrument that the general employing of SLM technology power is lower.These process characteristics of SLM technology occupy certain advantage when small-sized, the high accuracy of being shaped, labyrinth metal parts, be in particular in: 1. forming accuracy is high.SLM technology monolayer deposition thin thickness, spot diameter is little, and this makes drip molding have good dimensional accuracy and surface roughness.And in the laser forming process, the high-velocity scanning that moves through scanning galvanometer of laser beam is accomplished; A series of characteristics such as and the rotary inertia of scanning galvanometer is little, and the starting and stopping acceleration is big, and process velocity and redirect speed are fast; Make that SLM forming process sweep speed is fast, positioning accuracy, forming accuracy height.2. the labyrinth part can be shaped.Because adopt the shop powder system, alloy powder remains static during laser action.Form the molten bath when (being called static molten bath) when laser radiation causes powder smelting on alloy powder bed surface, surrounded by alloy powder around the molten bath, it can support the molten bath can not produce the phenomenon that collapses, so this technology labyrinth part that can be shaped.
But because SLM technology monolayer deposition thickness is lower, spot diameter also has only tens of microns, and according to the basic principle of laser melting and coating technique, the laser power that is adopted generally also only needs 50~300W, causes the overall manufacturing efficient of SLM technology lower like this.In other words, although the sweep speed of SLM technology is high, precision is high,, Stimulated Light is made the restriction of efficient, this technology micro metal parts that can only be shaped.For the direct quick shaping of large scale, high accuracy, labyrinth metal parts, the SLM technology but can't be applied.Main cause is: the first, when employing should technology the manufacturing cycle long, enterprise is difficult to bear; The second, manufacture process also possibly cause manufacturing parts performance that the differentiation that can not expect takes place for a long time, causes the parts distortion like big manufacturing stress, makes that subsequent technique can't continue etc.
The DLF technology then is to be the basis with synchronous powder feeding system formula laser melting coating, and a kind of RP technique that combines with rapid prototyping technology.Laser forming adds man-hour, and laser beam is according to predefined path, and motion under the control of numerical control table, NC table is carried out two-dimensional scan processing to substrate.In the time of laser beam flying, metal dust is delivered directly in the molten bath that high power laser light forms on substrate through coaxial nozzle system, and is melted fast, solidifies and form one deck cladding layer, i.e. sedimentary deposit.After accomplishing the shaping of one deck sedimentary deposit; Powder jet and the focus lamp height identical that together rise with monolayer deposition thickness; The perhaps parts of substrate and the formed thereby height identical that together descend with monolayer deposition thickness; Continue deposition one deck down then, repeat of the formation of this process until whole part.Because the DLF technology adopts coaxial nozzle system to carry powder, in the forming process, monolayer deposition thickness is higher, and thickness generally can reach 0.1~3.0mm, and for preventing the generation of spherodization, the focal beam spot diameter generally can reach 1.0~10.0mm.Therefore, according to the basic principle of laser melting and coating technique, the laser power that is adopted in the forming process is higher, adopts Nd:YAG or CO usually 2Laser instrument is as energy source, and power can reach several hectowatts to last myriawatt.These process characteristics of DLF make this compared with techniques improve greatly aspect the forming efficiency in the SLM technology, can be at the relatively short large-scale metal parts of time internal shaping, overcome can only the be shaped shortcoming of miniature parts of SLM technology.
But; Because the DLF technology adopts coaxial nozzle to carry powder and digital control system control laser beam flying; Alloy powder be under motion state with laser beam generation reciprocation, and fusing, solidification forming make its forming effect and SLM compared with techniques have bigger difference.Mainly show: 1. owing to adopt coaxial nozzle transferring metal powder; There is difference in height between the drop point of formed thereby metallic element and remaining powder; Therefore the not support of melted alloy powder around the molten bath can't obtain is difficult to make and has unsettled characteristic or radius of curvature is less, the metallic element of shape relative complex; 2. high-power, the large spot of DLF technology and the dynamically characteristics in molten bath, the time that makes the molten bath exist is long, and heat accumulation is big, causes part forming precision and surface smoothness to reduce greatly, and part generally need pass through further machining and could use; 3. make that some are large-scale, during baroque metallic element, the movement travel of lathe is short, needs frequent starting and stopping motor, drives working table movement.Because the acceleration of motor driven systems is low; The scanning pattern of laser beam is short again, so the actual scanning speed of Digit Control Machine Tool is very limited, causes adopting DLF technology (for example thin-wall construction) when the molding large precision parts; Deposition efficiency is on the low side, and manufacturing cost is high.Therefore, the same with the SLM technology, the DLF technology can't realize the quick shaping of large scale, high accuracy, labyrinth metal parts equally.
In sum; Because the shortcoming that SLM technology and DLF technology exist separately; Make that existing laser fast forming technology is not the precision manufacturing that is confined to the small size labyrinth metallic element of SLM technology; Be confined to the manufacturing of the large scale simple structure metallic element blank of DLF technology exactly; And can't high efficiency, high power, produce and have that size is big, precision is high, the metallic element of three characteristic features of complex structure concurrently accurately, restricted it and be widely used in more in the manufacturing of various parts.
Summary of the invention
For solving an above-mentioned difficult problem; The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method based on the high power laser light quick shaping 3-dimensional metal part of spreading the powder mode; This method has high efficiency, high power, high-precision quick manufacture characteristic simultaneously, both can the various large and complex structure metallic element of quick shaping, can obtain dimensional accuracy and surface roughness preferably simultaneously again; And forming speed is fast, the time is short, forming efficiency height, good mechanical performance, low cost of manufacture.
The method of a kind of laser fast forming 3-dimensional metal part provided by the invention is characterized in that this method comprises the steps:
The 1st step: set up three-dimensional CAD model according to formation of parts, and carry out the hierarchy slicing discretization with section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path;
The 2nd step: substrate is fixed on the liftable platform, and one layer thickness is the powder of 0.1~2.0mm in the even shop of substrate surface to use scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device;
The 3rd step: according to pre-set scanning pattern; Adopt single or a plurality of laser scanning galvanometers that the powder on the substrate is scanned, make powder smelting and solidify the formation sedimentary deposit; Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1.5~20kW; The focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 100~800mm/s;
The 4th step:, and on sedimentary deposit, repave the powder that a layer thickness is 0.1~2.0mm with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness;
The 5th step: laser beam is according to predefined scanning pattern; Under the control of said scanning galvanometer, the powder that reinitializes is scanned, make powder smelting and solidify, form new sedimentary deposit; Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1~18kW; The focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 150~1000mm/s;
The 6th step: repeated for the 4th~5 step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing.
The present invention select for use comprise peak power greater than the combination of semiconductor laser, Nd:YAG laser instrument, optical fiber laser or the multi-station laser of 1kW as energy source, and adopt single or adopt a plurality of high power laser light scanning galvanometers that powder is scanned fast simultaneously.In the forming process, adopted and preset shop powder, increase monolayer deposition thickness, strengthened technology and methods such as focal beam spot diameter, increasing laser power, guaranteed the quick shaping of various large-scale metallic elements, and forming accuracy has been high, the manufacturing cycle is short.
Particularly, the present invention has following technique effect:
1. than SLM and DLF technology; The present invention adopts and presets shop powder formula high power laser light quick shaping; Have tangible high efficiency, high power, high-precision quick manufacture characteristic; Can produce and possess simultaneously that size is big, precision is high, the metallic element of three characteristic features of complex structure, and curring time is short, efficient is high.This is the characteristics that SLM technology and DLF technology do not possess.
2. than original SLM technology; Guaranteeing under the enough prerequisites of laser power density; Taked to increase considerably methods, particularly spot diameter maximum such as monolayer deposition thickness, laser power, spot diameter, sweep speed and can reach 10mm, exceeded 100~500 times even higher than existing SLM technology; Therefore significantly increased the forming efficiency of forming efficiency, especially large parts.Make the mode preset shop powder, constituency fusing can be directly, efficiently, the various large and complex structure metal parts of quick shaping, effectively overcome can only the be shaped difficult problem of miniature parts of traditional SLM technology.
3. than synchronous powder feeding system formula DLF technology molding large metal parts; The present invention adopts and presets shop powder formula laser fast forming; Its molten bath is inactive state, and not molten powder is arranged as support, and therefore can be shaped has large-scale three dimensional labyrinth metal parts unsettled arbitrarily, the deep camber characteristic; And forming accuracy is high, has effectively overcome can only the be shaped difficult problem of simple blank part of DLF technology.
4. than the DLF technology, the present invention has adopted the high power laser light scanning galvanometer that powder is scanned.When the molding large metal parts; The starting and stopping acceleration of scanning galvanometer is big; Sweep speed and redirect speed are fast, can guarantee the high sweep speed of laser beam, and forming accuracy is high; Overcome effectively that the acceleration of DLF technology when the molding large part is low, process velocity is limited, long, the higher difficult problem of manufacturing cost of part manufacturing cycle.
5. the present invention selects the mode of single galvanometer, two galvanometer and the combination of many galvanometers to scan the mode that promptly adopts multiple head laser to scan simultaneously according to the size of formation of parts breadth flexibly.It can guarantee when shaping large format or even super large breadth hardware, to test and can carry out smoothly, can save a large amount of process times again, reduces cost.
6. with DLF technology and SLM compared with techniques, the present invention has good processing flexibility equally, but at the labyrinth metal parts that need not the various large-scale high-precisions of direct forming, best bright finish under the situation of any mould.
7. with DLF technology and SLM compared with techniques, the present invention has equally typically melts the rapid solidification characteristic fast, so the part machinery performance of formed thereby is good, and crystal grain is tiny, and density is nearly 100%, and the forging of the more identical materials of mechanical property such as intensity and plasticity is good.
The specific embodiment
A kind of method that presets shop powder formula laser fast forming metal parts provided by the invention comprises the steps:
The 1st step: set up three-dimensional CAD model according to formation of parts, and carry out hierarchy slicing discretization processing, obtain each layer laser beam scan path with section software, and with the control system of related data input forming equipment;
The 2nd step: substrate after treatment is fixed on the liftable platform, and evenly spreads one deck powder with roller or scraper plate at substrate surface, shop powder thickness is 0.1~2.0mm;
The 3rd step: according to pre-set scanning pattern, (power is 1~20kW) powder on the substrate to be scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidifies the formation sedimentary deposit to adopt single or a plurality of high power laser light scanning galvanometers.Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1.5~20kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 100~800mm/s;
The 4th step: with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, repave one deck powder, thickness is identical with last layer;
The 5th step: laser beam scans the powder that reinitializes under the control of scanning galvanometer according to predefined scanning pattern fast, powder is melted fast and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1~18kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 150~1000mm/s;
The 6th step: repeated for the 4th, 5 steps, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate.According to the difference of selected dusty material, whole laser forming process will be carried out in the different protection cavity.
In order to realize the present invention better, under the prerequisite that the breadth depth ratio in molten bath is certain when keeping being shaped, said single berth powder thickness and spot diameter can be selected according to the characteristic of formation of parts flexibly.When shaping thin-wall construction metal parts, single berth powder thickness is 0.1~0.5mm, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~2.5mm; When the hardware of molding large, shape relative complex, single berth powder thickness is 0.5~1.0mm, and the focal beam spot diameter is 2.5~5.0mm; And when shaping ultra-large type simple knot member, single berth powder thickness 1.0~2.0mm, focal beam spot diameter are 5.0~10.0mm.
In order to realize the present invention better, said high power laser light scanning galvanometer can select the form of single, double even many galvanometer combinations to scan fast according to the size of formation of parts breadth.If when adopting the mode of two galvanometers or many galvanometers combination to scan, the zone that should make each vibration mirror scanning about equally.
In order to realize the present invention better, according to the requirements of combination of scanning galvanometer, the combination that can select to comprise separate unit semiconductor laser, Nd:YAG laser instrument, optical fiber laser or multi-station laser is as energy source.The corresponding single scanning galvanometer of separate unit laser instrument, multi-station laser make up corresponding a plurality of scanning galvanometer combination.
For the present invention at length is described, below through explaining by embodiment, but following examples only are illustrative, and protection scope of the present invention does not receive the restriction of these embodiment.
Embodiment 1: the latticed thin-walled parts of a kind of large-size stainless steel presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method, and step comprises:
(1) set up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part and be stored as the STL formatted file, carry out the layering discretization with quick shaping section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path, and with the control system of related data input forming equipment.
(2) with thickness be the stainless steel substrate of 10mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread one deck powder of stainless steel at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 0.1mm.
(3) adopt semiconductor laser as energy source, adopt single high power scanning galvanometer,, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit according to pre-set scanning pattern.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 1.5kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5mm, and overlapping rate is 15%, and sweep speed is 100mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate height identical that descend with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 1kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5mm, and overlapping rate is 15%, and sweep speed is 150mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
Embodiment 2: a kind of large-scale nickel base superalloy thin-walled parts presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method, and step comprises:
(1) set up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part and be stored as the STL formatted file, carry out the layering discretization with quick shaping section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path, and with the control system of related data input forming equipment.
(2) with thickness be the nickel base superalloy substrate of 20mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread one deck nickel base superalloy powder at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 0.3mm.
(3) adopt the Nd:YAG laser instrument as energy source, adopt single high power scanning galvanometer,, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit according to pre-set scanning pattern.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 4.5kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 1.5mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 200mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate height identical that descend with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.The laser beam power output is 4kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 1.5mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 300mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
Embodiment 3: a kind of stainless steel thin-wall part with deep camber characteristic presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method, and step comprises:
(1) sets up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part; And be stored as the STL formatted file after part deep camber shape partly added the zigzag thin-wall support; With quick shaping section software above-mentioned data being carried out the layering discretization handles; Obtain each layer laser beam scan path data, and with the control system of related data input forming equipment.
(2) with thickness be the stainless steel substrate of 30mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread one deck powder of stainless steel at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 0.5mm.
(3) adopt optical fiber laser as energy source, adopt single high power scanning galvanometer,, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit according to pre-set scanning pattern.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 8.5kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 2.5mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 400mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 8kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 2.5mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 500mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate, and removes the supporting construction of thin-wall part in the manufacture process.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
Embodiment 4: a kind of large aluminum alloy structural member with unsettled characteristic presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method.
Adopt DLF or SLM technology direct forming, be difficult to make large aluminum alloy structural member with unsettled characteristic.But, adopt the present invention can accomplish this technology.Concrete steps are following:
(1) sets up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part, and, be stored as the STL formatted file after the structural member overhanging portion interpolation zigzag thin-wall support structure; Carry out the layering discretization with quick shaping section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path, and with the control system of related data input forming equipment.
(2) with thickness be the aluminium alloy base plate of 40mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread the layer of aluminum alloy powder at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 0.8mm.
(3) adopt optical fiber laser as energy source, adopt single high power scanning galvanometer,, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit according to pre-set scanning pattern.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 11kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 4.0mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 800mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the laser beam power output is 10kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 4.0mm, and overlapping rate is 20%, and sweep speed is 1000mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate, and removes the thin-wall support structure.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
Embodiment 5: a kind of large format alloy complex structural member presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method, and step comprises:
(1) set up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part and be stored as the STL formatted file, carry out the layering discretization with quick shaping section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path, and with related data input forming apparatus control system.
(2) with thickness be the titanium alloy substrate of 40mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread one deck titanium alloy powder at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 1.0mm.
(3) adopt two optical fiber lasers as energy source, laser beam is imported two high power scanning galvanometers respectively, the zone of the whole two dimensional surface 1/2 of single vibration mirror scanning.According to predefined scanning pattern, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the single beam laser power output is 16kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 5.0mm, and overlapping rate is 25%, and sweep speed is 500mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the single beam laser power output is 15kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 5.0mm, and overlapping rate is 25%, and sweep speed is 600mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
Embodiment 6: a kind of super large breadth titanium alloy simple knot member presets shop powder formula laser fast forming method, and step comprises:
(1) set up the three-dimensional CAD model of this part and be stored as the STL formatted file, carry out the layering discretization with quick shaping section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path, and with related data input forming apparatus control system.
(2) with thickness be the titanium alloy substrate of 50mm through being installed on the liftable platform after the surface preparation, and evenly spread one deck titanium alloy powder at substrate surface with scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device, powder thickness is 2.0mm.
(3) adopt many high power diode lasers as energy source, laser beam is imported four high power scanning galvanometers respectively, the zone of the whole two dimensional surface 1/4 of single vibration mirror scanning.According to predefined scanning pattern, the powder bed that has preset is scanned fast, powder is melted fast and solidify, form sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the single beam laser power output is 20kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 30%, and sweep speed is 600mm/s.
(4) with platform together with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness, and on sedimentary deposit, spread one deck powder again, powder thickness is identical with last layer.
(5) laser beam scans this layer powder according to new scanning pattern, powder is melted fully and solidifies, and forms new sedimentary deposit.Machined parameters: the single beam laser power output is 18kW, and the focal beam spot diameter is 10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 30%, and sweep speed is 800mm/s.
(6) repeated for (4)~(5) step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing, closes laser instrument and control system then, treats after the part cooling it to be cut down from substrate.Whole laser forming process is carried out in the protective atmosphere cavity.
The present invention improves on original RP technique basis; Select for use comprise peak power greater than the combination of semiconductor laser, Nd:YAG laser instrument, optical fiber laser or the multi-station laser of 1kW as energy source; Adopted in the forming process and preset shop powder, increase monolayer deposition thickness, increased technology and methods such as spot diameter, the quick scanning of high power laser light galvanometer, guaranteed that quick, the high accuracy of various large and complex structure metal parts is shaped.Effectively overcome SLM technology can only closely the be shaped shortcoming of simple part of micro metal part and DLF that can only be shaped.The specific embodiment of the invention also not only is confined to above-mentioned a kind of in for example, but through selecting all embodiment of the present invention of different powder, powder bed thickness and different laser working process parameter, and can reach good invention effect.

Claims (4)

1. the method for a laser fast forming 3-dimensional metal part is characterized in that, this method comprises the steps:
The 1st step: set up three-dimensional CAD model according to formation of parts, and carry out the hierarchy slicing discretization with section software and handle, obtain each layer laser beam scan path;
The 2nd step: substrate is fixed on the liftable platform, and one layer thickness is the powder of 0.1~2.0mm in the even shop of substrate surface to use scraper plate, roller or automatic powder feeding device;
The 3rd step: according to pre-set scanning pattern; Adopt single or a plurality of laser scanning galvanometers that the powder on the substrate is scanned, make powder smelting and solidify the formation sedimentary deposit; Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1.5~20kW; The focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 100~800mm/s;
The 4th step:, and on sedimentary deposit, repave the powder that a layer thickness is 0.1~2.0mm with the substrate decline height identical with the monolayer deposition layer thickness;
The 5th step: laser beam is according to predefined scanning pattern; Under the control of said scanning galvanometer, the powder that reinitializes is scanned, make powder smelting and solidify, form new sedimentary deposit; Machined parameters: single beam laser power is 1~18kW; The focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~10.0mm, and overlapping rate is 15%~30%, and sweep speed is 150~1000mm/s;
The 6th step: repeated for the 4th~5 step, layer by layer deposition is accomplished until whole 3 d part manufacturing.
2. the method for laser fast forming 3-dimensional metal part according to claim 1 is characterized in that, when shaping thin-wall construction metal parts, single berth powder thickness is 0.1~0.5mm, and the focal beam spot diameter is 0.5~2.5mm; When the hardware of molding large, shape relative complex, single berth powder thickness is 0.5~1.0mm, and the focal beam spot diameter is 2.5~5.0mm; And when shaping ultra-large type simple knot member, single berth powder thickness 1.0~2.0mm, focal beam spot diameter are 5.0~10.0mm.
3. the method for laser fast forming 3-dimensional metal part according to claim 2; It is characterized in that; Used high power laser light scanning galvanometer selects the form of single, double even many galvanometer combinations to scan fast according to the size of formation of parts size, breadth; If when adopting the mode of two galvanometers or many galvanometers combination to scan, the zone that makes each vibration mirror scanning about equally.
4. the method for laser fast forming 3-dimensional metal part according to claim 3; It is characterized in that; Requirements of combination according to scanning galvanometer; Selection comprises the combination of separate unit semiconductor laser, Nd:YAG laser instrument, optical fiber laser or multi-station laser as energy source, and the corresponding single scanning galvanometer of separate unit laser instrument, multi-station laser make up corresponding a plurality of scanning galvanometer combination.
CN2011102883320A 2011-09-26 2011-09-26 Method for rapidly forming three-dimensional metal parts by high-power lasers CN102328081B (en)

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