CN101962563B - Device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass - Google Patents

Device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101962563B
CN101962563B CN201010525749XA CN201010525749A CN101962563B CN 101962563 B CN101962563 B CN 101962563B CN 201010525749X A CN201010525749X A CN 201010525749XA CN 201010525749 A CN201010525749 A CN 201010525749A CN 101962563 B CN101962563 B CN 101962563B
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bed reactor
fluidized
bio
fuel
hot steam
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CN201010525749XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101962563A (en
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刘荣厚
邓春健
陈天举
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上海交通大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of biofuel, in particular to a device for preparing the biofuel by the quick thermal cracking of biomass. The device comprises an air carrier system, a feeding system, a fluidized bed reactor, a cyclone separator, a hot vapor filter, a biofuel collection system, sensing mechanisms and a data acquisition and control system, wherein the feeding system is connected with the fluidized bed reactor; the cyclone separator, the hot vapor filter and the boilfuel collection system are connected in series through a pipeline in turn; the air carrier system is connected with the fluidized bed reactor, the hot vapor filter and the feeding system respectively; many groups of sensing mechanisms are positioned at the test points of the fluidized bed reactor, the cyclone separator and the hot vapor filter respectively; and the data acquisition and control system is connected with the plurality of sensing mechanisms and acquires the temperature and pressure of each test point. The device has the characteristics of simple and practical structure and lasting and stable feed and improves boifuel quality.

Description

Device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass
Technical field
What the present invention relates to is a kind of device of biofuel technical field, specifically a kind of device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass based on improving the bio-fuel-oil quality.
Background technology
The preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass technology has become a main path of biomass utilization, and its exploitation has obtained the attention of countries in the world.At present, the equipment of existing several types can be used to complete this technique.Rotating cone reactor is succeeded in developing in 1989~1993 years by Dutch Twente university student's material technology group (BTG); The unit cooperations such as Britain Wellman company and Britain Aston university and German wood chemistry research built up in Britain Bo Minghan city the bubbling fluidized bed thermo-cracking demonstration unit that biomass feeding rate is 250kg/h in 2000.In China, the existing history more than 15 years of preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass technology.Liu Ronghou has born National Key Research Programs with the identity of croupier's rank the 2nd in 1995-1998 and has reached and Food and Argriculture OrganizationFAO and the Dutch Twente BTG of university international co-operation " research of biomass pyrolysis for liquid production technology " project, this project is introduced a cover biomass feeding rate in nineteen ninety-five from Holland be the rotating cone reactor biomass flash thermo-cracking pilot plant of 50kg/h, is China's fast pyrolysis liquefying plant the earliest.Shandong Technology Univ has developed quickly thermolyzing and liquefying apparatus for centrifugal separated biomass; China Science ﹠ Technology University develops novel biomass solid particle analgesic reactor.
Find through the retrieval to prior art, Chinese patent application number is: 200510112221.9, name is called apparatus for producing fuel oil by fast thermal cracking and organic waste in agricultural and forest industries, this patent adopts the direct charging of single screw rod, hot pyrolysis gas directly enters condenser through cyclonic separator, and condenser adopts the single-stage condensing mode.The weak point of this equipment is: charging is inhomogeneous, and material is easily put up a bridge, and bio-fuel-oil contains biological carbon and sand, solid content is higher, quality is bad, and condensation is insufficient.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the prior art above shortcomings, a kind of device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass is provided, have simple in structure, practical, continual and steady charging, improve the bio-fuel-oil quality characteristic.
the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions, the present invention includes: carrier gas system, feed system, fluidized-bed reactor, cyclonic separator, the hot steam strainer, bio-fuel-oil gathering system and sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system, wherein: feed system is connected with fluidized-bed reactor, cyclonic separator, the hot steam strainer is connected with the bio-fuel-oil gathering system by the pipeline connection of contacting, carrier gas system respectively with fluidized-bed reactor, hot steam strainer and feed system are connected, some groups of sensing mechanisms are arranged at respectively fluidized-bed reactor, the test point of cyclonic separator and hot steam strainer, data acquisition control system is connected with some sensing mechanisms and gathers the temperature and pressure of each test point.
Described carrier gas system is the nitrogen source of the gas, and this nitrogen source of the gas divides three the tunnel to be connected with the bottom input terminus of fluidized-bed reactor, top input terminus and the feed system of hot steam strainer respectively.
Described feed system is the feeding structure of two-stage series connection, each grade charging structure includes: motor, wheel box, feeding warehouse and feeder, wherein: the first feeder welds mutually with the second feeding warehouse, the second feeder connects by flange seal with fluidized-bed reactor, and wheel box is connected with the output shaft of motor.
Described fluidized-bed reactor comprises: carrier gas preheating chamber, gas distribution grid, ring flange, heat scission reaction chamber and condensation water jacket, wherein: the heat scission reaction chamber is connected with flangeseal with the carrier gas preheating chamber, gas distribution grid is fixedly installed in ring flange, and the condensation water jacket is welded on fluidized-bed reactor.
Described cyclonic separator comprises: cyclone chamber and collection charcoal case, wherein: the lower outlet end of cyclone chamber is provided with collection charcoal case, and cyclone chamber is connected by pipeline with the hot steam strainer.
Described hot steam strainer comprises: inlet plenum, steel pipe with holes, ceramic element, discharge chamber and pulse backblowing inlet mouth, wherein: steel pipe with holes is positioned at ceramic element and is fixedly connected with ceramic element, discharge chamber, inlet plenum and be connected steel pipe successively by the flange connection of contacting, discharge chamber top arranges the pulse backblowing inlet mouth and is connected with the bio-fuel-oil gathering system.
Described bio-fuel-oil gathering system comprises: condenser, cooling-water machine, gas sampling mouth and Electrostatic device, wherein: four condensers are connected in series by pipeline, cooling-water machine connects by the circulation line of condenser inside, condenser connects by pipeline with the Electrostatic device, and the centre arranges the gas sampling mouth.
Described sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system comprise: thermopair, pressure transmitter, PID intelligent temperature controller, pressure acquisition device, data acquisition module and computer, wherein: each several part is fixed in electric appliance control box, connects with wire.
This device carries out work in the following manner: material enters the layer of sand central authorities of fluidized-bed reactor, react in reactor, thermo-cracking steam enters cyclonic separator and hot steam strainer successively under the effect of carrier gas, enter at last the bio-fuel-oil gathering system.The present invention not only guarantees the charging that biomass powder can be continual and steady, reduce ash content and solid content in bio-fuel-oil, improve the quality of bio-fuel-oil, moisture in bio-fuel-oil is separated in the multi-stage condensing device with organism, and can be monitored the temperature and pressure changing condition of each test point in whole process of the test by data collecting system.
the present invention adopts secondary twin screw feed system can guarantee the continual and steady charging of material, the hot steam strainer can filter smaller a small amount of sand and the biological carbon of particle diameter in thermo-cracking steam, improved the quality of bio-fuel-oil, the multi-stage condensing device can condense the most of moisture in bio-fuel-oil and organic compound in certain one-level condenser, determine its purposes according to its characteristic, reduced the separation costs of bio-fuel-oil, the Electrostatic device can capture the steam that there is no condensation in thermo-cracking steam, be significant for the productive rate that improves bio-fuel-oil, simultaneously, the present invention adopts sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system, can record the temperature and pressure changing condition in process of the test, for research provides scientific basis.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is carrier gas system structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is feed system structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is fluidized-bed reactor structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is cyclone separator structure schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is hot steam filter structure schematic representation of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is bio-fuel-oil gathering system structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 8 is sensing mechanism of the present invention and data acquisition control system structural representation.
Embodiment
The below elaborates to embodiments of the invention, and the present embodiment is implemented under take technical solution of the present invention as prerequisite, provided detailed embodiment and concrete operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
as shown in Figure 1, the present invention includes: carrier gas system 1, feed system 2, fluidized-bed reactor 3, cyclonic separator 4, hot steam strainer 5, bio-fuel-oil gathering system 6 and sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system 7, wherein: carrier gas system 1 is connected with fluidized-bed reactor 3 bottoms by airway, feed system 2 is connected by the twin screw perpendicular to fluidized-bed reactor 3 wall bottoms, fluidized-bed reactor 3, cyclonic separator 4, hot steam strainer 5 is connected with the bio-fuel-oil gathering system and is connected by pipeline, sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system 7 gather the temperature and pressure of each test point by thermopair and pressure transmitter.
As shown in Figure 2, described carrier gas system 1 comprises: nitrogengas cylinder 8, tensimeter 9, flow control valve 10, first flow meter 11, the second under meter 12, pulse valve 13 and the 3rd under meter 14, wherein: tensimeter 9 is set on nitrogengas cylinder 8, flow control valve 10 is set in the extension pipeline, the extension pipeline is divided into three bursts of gas circuits, one is connected with fluidized-bed reactor 3 bottoms by first flow meter 11, one stock-traders' know-how second amount meter 12 and pulse valve 13 are connected with hot steam strainer 5 tops, and stock-traders' know-how the 3rd under meter 14 is connected with the second feeding warehouse 19.
As shown in Figure 3, described feed system 2 comprises: the first motor 15, the first wheel box 16, the first feeding warehouse 17, the first feeder 18, the second feeding warehouse 19, the second motor 20, the second wheel box 21 and the second feeder 22, wherein: the first feeder 18 and the second feeding warehouse 19 directly weld together, and the second feeder 22 is connected with fluidized-bed reactor and is connected by flange.Adjust the rotating speed of the first feeder 18 by regulating and controlling the first wheel box 16, reach the purpose of controlling material flow, the second motor 20, the second wheel box 21, the second feeding warehouse 19 be one deck below the first motor 15, the first wheel box 16, the first feeding warehouse 17 respectively, adjusts the rotating speed of the second feeder 22 by regulating and controlling the second wheel box 21.
As shown in Figure 4, described fluidized-bed reactor 3 comprises: external admission mouth 23, carrier gas preheating chamber 24, gas distribution grid 25, heat scission reaction chamber 26, venting port 27, electric heating cover 28, thermometer hole 29, thermometer hole 30, thermometer hole 31, pressure tap 32, pressure tap 33 and condensation water jacket 34, wherein: the heat scission reaction chamber is to be made by a right cylinder weldless steel tube, the two ends welding flange, the ring flange top cover of being furnished with same size arranges pressure tap 32, pressure tap 33 by difference highly on the same bus on tube wall.The heat scission reaction chamber is connected with ring flange with the carrier gas preheating chamber, the use bolt is fixed, gas distribution grid is set in the middle of ring flange, condensation water jacket 34 is one to be welded on fluidized-bed reactor 3 device with intake-outlet, external admission mouth 23 is arranged on carrier gas preheating chamber 24 bottom center positions, and thermometer hole 29, thermometer hole 30 and thermometer hole 31 are arranged on tube wall on the same bus.
As shown in Figure 5, described cyclonic separator 4 comprises: cyclone chamber 35, collection charcoal case 36, electric heating cover 37, thermometer hole 38, pressure tap 39 and check valve 40, wherein: cyclone chamber 35 tops are to be welded by a right cylinder weldless steel tube and a turbination pipe, the below connects collection charcoal case 36, cyclonic separator 4 is connected by pipeline with hot steam strainer 5, the centre arranges pressure tap 39, check valve 40, and electric heating cover 37 is screwed on the right cylinder weldless steel tube on cyclone chamber 35 tops.
as shown in Figure 6, described hot steam strainer 5 comprises: inlet plenum 41, steel pipe 42 with holes, ceramic element 43, discharge chamber 44, pulse backblowing inlet mouth 45, thermometer hole 46, thermometer hole 47, electric heating cover 48 and pressure tap 49, wherein: discharge chamber 44 tops arrange pulse backblowing inlet mouth 45, hot steam strainer 5 extension pipelines arrange pressure tap 49, steel pipe 42 with holes is formed by a steel pipe with holes and flange welding, ceramic element 43 be connected steel pipe 42 and connect by screw, discharge chamber 44, inlet plenum 41 be connected steel pipe 42 and connect by flange, thermometer hole 46 is arranged on discharge chamber 44 central authorities, thermometer hole 47 is arranged on inlet plenum 41 middle and lower parts, thermometer hole 46 and thermometer hole 47 are on tube wall on the same bus, electric heating cover 48 is screwed on inlet plenum 41 and discharge chamber 44 right cylinder weldless steel tubes.
As shown in Figure 7, described bio-fuel-oil gathering system 6 comprises: first to fourth condenser 50,51,52,53, cooling-water machine 54, gas sampling mouth 55 and Electrostatic device 56, wherein: first to fourth condenser 50,51,52,53 is together in series successively by pipeline, cooling-water machine 54 connects by the circulation line of condenser inside, condenser 53 is connected with the Electrostatic device and is connected by pipeline, and the centre arranges gas sampling mouth 55.
As shown in Figure 8, described sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system 7 comprise: thermopair 57, pressure transmitter 58, PID intelligent temperature controller 59, pressure acquisition device 60, data acquisition module 61 and computer 62, wherein: PID intelligent temperature controller 59 comprises: air switch, PID Intelligent temperature controller, electromagnetic relay, each several part is fixed in electric appliance control box, connect with wire, thermopair 57 detects the temperature of thermometer hole 29, thermometer hole 30 and thermometer hole 31, thermometer hole 38, thermometer hole 46, thermometer hole 47 by thermal sensor.
When the present invention moves, at first connect each parts in equipment, the first feeding warehouse 17 is added a certain amount of raw material, airtight, add a certain amount of sand to fluidized-bed reactor 3, pass into water of condensation to condensation water jacket 34.After power-on, set the pre-heating temperature value of electric heating cover on intelligent temperature controller 59, open cooling-water machine 54, set cooling-water machine 54 temperature.reach on intelligent temperature controller 59 and set the pre-heating temperature value, when cooling-water machine 54 reaches design temperature, open nitrogen pot 8, flow control valve 10, set nitrogen flow by under meter, start computer 62, by data acquisition module 61, pressure and temperature in process of the test is collected on computer 62, start the first motor 15, start the second motor 20, by feeder 22 convey materials in the fluidized-bed reactor, at the interior generation heat scission reaction of fluidized-bed reactor 3, the thermo-cracking steam that produces separates the biological carbon of carrying secretly through cyclonic separator 35 under the effect of carrier gas, be deposited in collection charcoal case 36, then enter hot steam strainer 5, remaining impurity is separated.Carry out condensation through condenser 50, condenser 51, condenser 52,53 pairs of thermo-cracking steam of condenser again, sample at gas sampling mouth 55, gaseous constituent is analyzed, and last gas enters into Electrostatic device 56 and collects the bio-fuel-oil that condensers can't condensation.
Table 1 is take the pine wood chip as raw material, and the bio-fuel-oil productive rate of collecting in condenser 50, condenser 51, condenser 52, condenser 53 and Electrostatic device 56 and moisture content distribute.The moisture content of bio-fuel-oil is higher in first step condenser as can be seen from Table 1, and in subsequent stages condenser and Electrostatic device, the moisture content of bio-fuel-oil is lower, lower than 8wt%.If will collect the quality of gained bio-fuel-oil and the long-pending addition of corresponding water ratio everywhere, the gained sum is the moisture that produces in whole reaction process.Calculate again the moisture of collecting everywhere and account for the per-cent that whole reaction produces moisture.Can find that the moisture of 86.2wt% is collected in first step condenser, thereby realized the expected results that most of moisture is separated in the bio-fuel-oil collection process.Therefore, compare with the direct contact type condensing mode, the condensing mode that uses the present invention to propose can reduce the cost that moisture and various compound are separated, and can determine its purposes according to the characteristic of bio-fuel-oil from bio-fuel-oil.
Table 1 bio-fuel-oil moisture content distributes
Table 2 is take rice husk as raw material, and the bio-fuel-oil alkali metal content of collecting in the bio-fuel-oil that condenser 50,51,52,53 obtains (mixing) and Electrostatic device 56 distributes.C wherein 1, C 2The bio-fuel-oil of collecting in the bio-fuel-oil (mixing) that condenser 50,51,52,53 obtains when not using the hot steam strainer and Electrostatic device 56, F 1, F 2For using the bio-fuel-oil of collection in bio-fuel-oil (mixing) that hot steam strainer condenser 50,51,52,53 obtains and Electrostatic device 56.As can be seen from Table 2, the alkali metal content of biological carbon is high especially, with respect to C 1, C 2, the F when using the hot steam strainer 1, F 2The bio-fuel-oil alkali metal content obviously reduces.Solid particulate and biological carbon that this explanation hot steam strainer can hinder in thermo-cracking steam enter into bio-fuel-oil, thereby can improve the quality of bio-fuel-oil.
Table 2 bio-fuel-oil alkali metal content distributes

Claims (1)

1. device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass, comprise: carrier gas system, feed system, fluidized-bed reactor, cyclonic separator, the hot steam strainer, bio-fuel-oil gathering system and sensing mechanism and data acquisition control system, it is characterized in that: feed system is connected with fluidized-bed reactor, cyclonic separator, the hot steam strainer is connected with the bio-fuel-oil gathering system by the pipeline connection of contacting, carrier gas system respectively with fluidized-bed reactor, hot steam strainer and feed system are connected, some groups of sensing mechanisms are arranged at respectively fluidized-bed reactor, the test point of cyclonic separator and hot steam strainer, data acquisition control system is connected with some sensing mechanisms and gathers the temperature and pressure of each test point,
Described carrier gas system is the nitrogen source of the gas, and this nitrogen source of the gas divides three the tunnel to be connected with the bottom input terminus of fluidized-bed reactor, top input terminus and the feed system of hot steam strainer respectively;
Described feed system is the feeding structure of two-stage series connection, each grade charging structure includes: motor, wheel box, feeding warehouse and feeder, wherein: the first feeder welds mutually with the second feeding warehouse, the second feeder connects by flange seal with fluidized-bed reactor, and wheel box is connected with the output shaft of motor;
Described fluidized-bed reactor comprises: carrier gas preheating chamber, gas distribution grid, ring flange, heat scission reaction chamber and condensation water jacket, wherein: the heat scission reaction chamber is connected with flangeseal with the carrier gas preheating chamber, gas distribution grid is fixedly installed in ring flange, and the condensation water jacket is welded on fluidized-bed reactor;
Described cyclonic separator comprises: cyclone chamber and collection charcoal case, and wherein: the lower outlet end of cyclone chamber is provided with collection charcoal case, and cyclone chamber is connected by pipeline with the hot steam strainer;
Described hot steam strainer comprises: inlet plenum, steel pipe with holes, ceramic element, discharge chamber and pulse backblowing inlet mouth, wherein: steel pipe with holes is positioned at ceramic element and is screwed with ceramic element and is connected, discharge chamber, inlet plenum and be connected steel pipe successively by the flange connection of contacting, discharge chamber top arranges the pulse backblowing inlet mouth and is connected with the bio-fuel-oil gathering system;
Described bio-fuel-oil gathering system comprises: condenser, cooling-water machine, gas sampling mouth and Electrostatic device, wherein: four condensers are connected in series by pipeline, cooling-water machine connects by the circulation line of condenser inside, condenser connects by pipeline with the Electrostatic device, and the centre arranges the gas sampling mouth.
CN201010525749XA 2010-10-30 2010-10-30 Device for preparing biofuel by quick thermal cracking of biomass CN101962563B (en)

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CN104263391A (en) * 2014-09-24 2015-01-07 济南联星石油化工有限公司 Crop cracking system
CN106244179A (en) * 2016-08-29 2016-12-21 上海交通大学 Packaged type biomass catalyzing pyrolysis reaction device
CN109289421A (en) * 2018-11-08 2019-02-01 上海电气集团股份有限公司 A kind of biomass gasified gas high-temperature dust removing device
CN109626395A (en) * 2019-01-29 2019-04-16 原初科技(北京)有限公司 The preparation facilities and preparation method of ammonia

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