CN101798930A - Rapid construction method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel - Google Patents

Rapid construction method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel Download PDF

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CN101798930A
CN101798930A CN 201010133692 CN201010133692A CN101798930A CN 101798930 A CN101798930 A CN 101798930A CN 201010133692 CN201010133692 CN 201010133692 CN 201010133692 A CN201010133692 A CN 201010133692A CN 101798930 A CN101798930 A CN 101798930A
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hole
water
grouting
construction
holes
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CN 201010133692
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CN101798930B (en
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商崇伦
张梅
董裕国
赵西民
宋津喜
和万春
祁玺剑
张金柱
徐家定
王晋雄
吴波
邱文恒
席继红
武亮月
骆文学
兰福东
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中铁十二局集团有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to the field of tunnel construction, in particular to a rapid construction method of a high-pressure water-rich fault zone of a tunnel, which solves a plurality of problems in the construction method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone tunnels under the guide of the traditional knowledge. A draining branch tunnel is additionally arranged between a main tunnel and a parallel heading, the water flow pressure of the hanging wall of a fault interface is reduced progressively, and a large amount of water is discharged from the main tunnel by adopting a guiding and non-clogging mode; when the water pressure of the main tunnel is reduced to 0.3-0.5MPa, an informationized tracking and accurate grouting method is used for grouting and reinforcing the main tunnel; and rapidly excavating and sealing technology is used for excavating the main tunnel and the parallel heading. The invention adopts the technology combining the water distribution and pressure reduction mode, the informationized tracking and accurate grouting method and the rapidly excavating and sealing technology for high-pressure water-rich shattered fault zones for the first time, breaks through the traditional concept that the water distribution and pressure reduction mode is opposite to the grouting and reinforcing construction method, solves the world-class problem of construction of the high-pressure water-rich fault zone of the tunnel, improves the construction progress and the construction efficiency, and ensures safe and rapid perforation of the tunnel.

Description

A kind of rapid constructing method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel

Technical field

The present invention relates to the constructing tunnel field, be specially the rapid constructing method of the high-pressure water-enriched tomography in a kind of tunnel.

Background technology

Along with the development of engineering construction, the complex area tunnel technology of building has obtained great lifting now.Present job practices for the high-pressure water-rich fault zone tunnel mainly contains releases energy voltage drop method, curtain-grouting reinforcing method, find that in practice of construction all there is different separately problems in these two kinds of methods, make a concrete analysis of as follows: 1, release the problem that can voltage drop method exists: (1) for below the tomography face of land for the underground river and karst is grown, vertical joint fissure is grown and had wide tension joint crevice water, the tunnel upper face of land is the situation in house, road and paddy field, release and step-down easily to cause geological disaster and environment significant impact incident, poor controllability; (2) tomographic nuclear heart band is mainly fault gouge, and the water yield is little, and is poor for applicability; 2, the problem of curtain-grouting reinforcing method existence: (1) is closely knit for the fault zone extruding, and consolidation effect is relatively poor, and slip casting is tested except that big joint fissure, and the slurry arteries and veins does not have diffusion substantially; (2) have the slip casting blind area, high-pressure water-enriched location excavation risk is bigger; (3) time duration long, can't satisfy the rapid construction requirement.For a long time, traditional understanding can only block up for high-pressure water-enriched tomography, can not put, if discharge water, can cause the tomography geological conditions more abominable, and thinks that grouting for water blocking can not use simultaneously with releasing in step-down.

Summary of the invention

The present invention for the different separately problem of job practices existence in high-pressure water-rich fault zone tunnel, provides a kind of rapid constructing method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel in order to solve under traditional understanding instructs.

The present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize: a kind of rapid constructing method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel when the tunnel is flat when leading He Zhengdong and entering high-pressure water-rich fault zone, may further comprise the steps:

(1) between Zheng Dong and flat leading, sets up at least one hole that sluices as the long-term water buck channel of dividing, dish water yield hydraulic pressure on the tomography interface is carried out step-down step by step, the leading positive hole 50-200m of a hole construction that sluices, for Zheng Dong with flat to lead big burst of effluent adopting ejectment stifled; The quantity that the hole is propped up in described sluicing is decided according to Zheng Dong and flat geological condition of leading and the prominent mud risk situation of gushing water;

(2) treat to adopt when positive hole hydraulic pressure drops to 0.3-0.5Mpa information tracing accurate grouting method to carry out grouting and reinforcing, concrete grammar is as follows:

A, apply wall for grouting; Orifice tube, Grouting Pipe are set

B, measurement boring water burst

C, packer permeability test

D, cloth hole, bore operation

A, apply 3-5 advance geologic inspecting hole earlier, be distributed in vault, haunch and arch springing place, verify actual geological condition and hydrologic condition, optimize the design of follow-up cloth hole according to the monitoring result of advance geologic inspecting hole as cycle hole; B, apply all the other cycle holes, for being circular layout, grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 3.5~5m, and adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m; C, apply one deck inner ring hole at least, arrange ringwise that in the cycle hole inboard grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 1.5~2m, adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m; D, apply the face stabilizer hole, spacing is 1.5m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between first section of work plane is according to adjacent holes; Spacing is 3.0m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between second section of work plane is according to adjacent holes; E, apply inspection eye, water yield and grouting amount analysis result according to above-mentioned cycle hole, inner ring hole, face stabilizer hole, arrange inspection eye, mainly be arranged near the abnormal hole of geological conditions difference or slip casting weakness zone, adopt the principle of two inspection eyes of an abnormal hole arranged around; F, apply the Guan Peng hole, cloth hole in outer 90 °~120 ° scopes in arch of excavation outline line, laying spacing 40~50cm, 5 °~7 ° of outer limbs;

In the above-mentioned steps, the number of plies of inner ring hole is determined according to slip casting, water plugging effect; Advance geologic inspecting hole hold concurrently injected hole and inspection eye, the unification of three holes, the hold concurrently inspection eye of cycle hole of inner ring hole, the hold concurrently inspection eye of inner ring hole of face stabilizer hole, inspection eye is held concurrently and is replenished injected hole, and the Guan Peng hole periphery of holding concurrently replenishes injected hole;

E, slip casting operation

A, grouting sequence: the slip casting process is according to outer stifled crack, interior solid country rock, carry out grouting sequence control by leash law outer and interior, that the hole is jumped at the interval, concrete grouting sequence is followed successively by advance geologic inspecting hole-all the other cycle hole-inner ring holes-face stabilizer hole-inspection eye-Guan Peng hole, in the slip casting process, the internal layer hole is as the inspection eye of outer hole, and adjacent holes is inspection eye each other; B, grouting mode: adopt the protrusive segmenting slip casting, section length is controlled according to water yield and stratum crushing degree: water yield is less than Q<10m 3During/h, section length is less than the 10m/ section; Boring water yield 10m 3/ h≤Q<30m 3During/h, control according to the 3-5m/ segment length; Boring water yield Q 〉=30m 3During/h, stop to creep into and carry out the slip casting processing immediately; The stratum does not have the hole of collapsing, and section length is less than the 10m/ section; The hole appears slightly collapsing in the stratum, and section length is less than or equal to the 5m/ section; The hole appears seriously collapsing in the stratum, stops to creep into slip casting; C, injecting paste material are selected: based on sulphate aluminium cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid slurry, superfine cement slurry are auxilliary, wherein sulphate aluminium cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.6~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, volume ratio is 1: (0.3~1), and superfine cement pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1;

F, leading daguanpeng construction

Select the better location of country rock for pipe canopy overlap joint paragraph, adopt no service depot pipe roof construction, adopt ductule to strengthen applying to overlap joint section and pipe canopy back segment in the construction, pipe canopy material adopts Φ 76-Φ 108mm seamless steel pipe;

G, glass fiber anchor pole steady operation face

Pre-grouting is put into the hollow glass fibre anchor pole and is carried out mortar depositing construction after finishing in the boring of first section of work plane, make the high-tensile anchor pole of tool by slurries and the fixed integral body that becomes of soft stratum, forms vertical anchor stud;

(3) remove wall for grouting

Wall for grouting adopts blasting procedure to remove, and at its cross-sectional direction, earlier from the bottom of one's heart, periphery is reserved 50-100cm, and from coil to coil adopts blasting method to expand and digs, and at its longitudinal direction, segment blast length is 50cm; Strengthen in the explosion of orifice tube position;

(4) adopt and to dig fast encapsulation technique soon and align hole peace and lead and excavate

Leading and the periphery probing of A, short distance

In work progress, strengthen the bore detecting in the place ahead and the peripheral 5.0m scope, leading 6 holes of construction in the positive every circulation in hole, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Flat leading led 3 holes of construction in every circulation, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Hole count is carried out differentiated control, in time adjusts according to the difference of excavation length, can be reduced to 3 holes for preceding 10m, 6 holes of back 10m construction;

B, align the hole and adopt three steps seven step excavation method to construct, flat leading adopts up/down steps excavation method to construct.

In the above-mentioned steps, wall for grouting applies, and orifice tube, Grouting Pipe are set, and measures the boring water burst, and operations such as packer permeability test are all the same with conventional construction method; Three steps, seven steps excavation method and up/down steps excavation method also are the job practicess of constructing tunnel field routine.

The present invention adopts tomography high-pressure water-enriched section employing to set up drain cavern as drainage gallery (dividing the water buck channel), and one or many divides the water step-down, and the control discharging effectively reduces positive hole hydraulic pressure, reduces the prominent mud amount of gushing water, reduces the prominent mud risk of positive hole gushing water; Positive hole adopts information tracing accurate grouting method to reinforce country rock and the big water outlet crack of shutoff periphery in the tunnel scope, guarantees to optimize slip casting design and construction method and technology under the safe prerequisite, compares the full section curtain-grouting of tradition and improves effect 30-40%; The excavation supporting operation is transferred in slip casting effect evaluation back, strengthens construction organization, the weak Blasting Excavation of machinery or control, and strong supporting is in time dug fast envelope soon and is passed through safely and fast.Compare with conventional construction method, the present invention has the following advantages:

1, high-pressure water-enriched fault belt is adopted the step-down of branch water, information tracing accurate grouting first and digs fast envelope combination technique soon, broken through and divided the idea of water step-down (putting) in the past with grouting and reinforcing (blocking up) job practices opposition, the advantage of having given full play to the two adds the rational Application of digging fast encapsulation technique soon, has solved the world-class difficult problem of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel construction;

2, first to repeatedly dividing water step-down Changing Pattern to carry out system summary, drawn hanging wall and divided the water antihypertensive effect good (effectively reduce hydraulic pressure, block the main supply source of water).Let out the stepped reduction of energy antihypertensive effect, be to reduce by half for the first time relatively for the second time and successively decrease, the minimizing of successively decreasing the second time relatively for the third time.The tunnel gushing water has vault, tops bar, base plate, proves tomography water from from all directions, and the top is main supply direction.A flat hole of leading, the sluice body scope little (the flooder amount is big) of collapsing prove that flooder is mainly joint fissure mediation thing, and the body that collapses forms for whole the seat down, provides foundation for high pressure, rich water tunnel divide employing of water step-down method and enforcement;

3, adopt information tracing accurate grouting method to have following advantage:

(1), broken traditional construction theory, slip casting design and geology are changed combine closely, adopt and " stifled crack, reduce the water yield; Gu country rock, good ground " new slip casting mechanism; Adhere to that " advance geologic inspecting hole-all the other cycle hole-inner ring holes-face stabilizer hole-inspection eye (slip casting perforations adding)-Guan Peng hole " order applies, all linked with one another; The slip casting principle of " advance geologic inspecting hole-injected hole-inspection eye utilizes mutually; the unification of three holes ", the mentality of designing conversion makes injected hole reduce 30-40%, and (positive hole fixing collar thickness is by 8m-5m, put down and lead fixing collar thickness) by 8m-3m, stifled big flood, stifled crevice water, strengthening stratum is optimized the curtain-grouting hole count; Slip casting advanceed to 25 days by former positive hole 40-50 days circulation timei, and flat leading by former 30-40 days advances to 20 days, and slip casting rapid construction ability has breakthrough, and has reduced grouting amount, has reduced the influence to surrounding environment; The raising of grouting quality has simultaneously guaranteed construction safely and fast, has eliminated the prominent mud incident of great gushing water, protects surrounding environment to greatest extent;

(2), material aspect, by adopting MC superfine cement slurries, the T-C slurries, T slurries construction applied research is determined based on sulphate aluminium cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid slurry, superfine cement slurry are auxilliary, optimum combination, ordinary Portland cement and sulphate aluminium cement are convenient to use slip casting effect height, moderate cost, promotion prospect is good;

(3), technology use aspect, protrusive and retrusive slip casting are studied, prove under the high-pressure water-enriched condition that to adopt plastics sleeve valve pipe and pvc pipe to carry out retrusive grouting operation difficulty very big; Slip casting step pitch rule has been carried out conscientiously research, and once grouting length is selected 20-30m usually, makes the grouting process parameter select to have had very much progress;

(4), no workplace pipe roof construction technology, cancellation pipe canopy workplace directly heads into and does not invade extreme position (place of heading into utilize cocycle bassoon canopy stressed); Cancellation pipe canopy reinforcing cage; By the stressed monitoring of pipe canopy, canopy is stressed can meet the demands for one circle pipe, optimize the former bimetallic tube canopy of drafting and strengthened supporting scheme, simplified operation, and pipe canopy material optimized, from initial Φ 108mm seamless steel pipe+reinforcing cage-Φ 108mm seamless steel pipe-Φ 76mm seamless steel pipe, not only save a large amount of steel, and adopt Φ 76mm pipe canopy and improve more than 2 times than adopting Φ 108mm pipe roof construction speed;

(5), first slip casting method and existing new meaning method are organically combined in the construction, stablize the face method based on new meaning method glass anchor pole, after pre-grouting finishes, spacing is 1.5m and is the principle cloth hole of isosceles triangle up and down between first section of work plane is according to adjacent holes, be lowered to the hollow glass fibre anchor pole behind the pore-forming and carry out mortar depositing construction, make the high-tensile anchor pole of tool by slurries and the fixed integral body that becomes of soft stratum, form vertically " anchor stud ", effectively improve the excavation face stability, convenient and safe excavation accelerating construction progress;

(6), the slip casting ending standard is furtherd investigate; every meter water yield of inspection eye single hole is loosened to 2L/min.m by primary standard 0.2L/min.m; excavation checking proving effect evaluation criteria is reasonable; the understanding theory has had large increase, has reduced grouting amount, has reduced the influence to surrounding environment; the raising of grouting quality simultaneously; guarantee construction safely and fast, eliminated the prominent mud incident of great gushing water, protected surrounding environment to greatest extent.

4, propose first can effectively clear up geostatic stress, be equivalent to " stress flows and weighs the distribution equilibrium effect " for the moving water of fault belt; The joint fissure growth can effectively be received geostatic stress, is equivalent to " high damping absorption stress effect ".By clearing up and receive effective minimizing geostatic stress, correct understanding fault zone geostatic stress takes place in order to go on foot down, the rule of development, and control minimizing geostatic stress has been done ground-breaking research;

5, pass through the correct understanding of fault zone and the enforcement of branch water step-down, optimize and reduced supporting intensity, former positive hole 8m curtain-grouting fixing collar thickness optimization is 3.5-5m, and former double-deck steelframe supporting is optimized for the supporting of individual layer steelframe, lining thickness is optimized for 60cm by 95cm, remarkable in economical benefits;

6, the use by combined method, guarantee the original construction speed 3-5m/ month of high-pressure water-enriched tomography tunnel that makes to bring up to the 15-20m/ month under the prerequisite of safety, quality, improve construction speed and efficient greatly, guaranteed the perforation safely and fast in tunnel, obtained good society and economic benefit.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is that loop graph is handed in the whole hole of pre-grouting;

Fig. 2 is bore flooding quantity time effect figure;

Fig. 3 is boring grouting amount time effect figure;

Slurry consolidation fragmented rock body situation when Fig. 4 evaluates for slip casting effect;

Slurries filling crack situation when Fig. 5 evaluates for slip casting effect;

Fig. 6 is tunnel exit construction layout plan;

Among the figure: 1-advance geologic inspecting hole; The 2-cycle hole; The 3-inner ring hole; 4-face stabilizer hole; 5-Guan Peng hole; The positive hole of 6-; 7-is flat to be led; 8-sluices and props up a hole, 9-transverse passage-way.

The specific embodiment

Enumerate following case history and further specify job practices of the present invention

One, Engineering Notice, the F11 tomography exposure of tunnel, Qi Yue mountain is in face of land DK364+950~+ 180 section, but but growth is the position, boundary of the weak non-lava led at T1j4 dolomite shale, mud stone that to be main hard lava contain calcareous composition with T2b1, tunnel scope DK365+110~+ 340 are main fault zone, have property of many phases, secondary structure development, the lithological composition complexity is glued loose, rock crushing, saturation water make the ground condition worsen feature.

The F11 tomography is divided into the broken weak band of upper lower burrs fragmented rock body contact zones and nuclear portion, and structural fracture is grown, and water permeability is strong; The intercooler core area is to be similar to the loose materials that contains rubble silty clay or rubble earthy, and saturated rich cementaceous content is big.Prediction DK365+110~+ 450 a section normal water yield is 11000m 3/ d, maximum flooding quantity are 114000m 3/ d, advance borehole actual measurement hydraulic pressure 1.7-2.6Mpa, single hole water yield 1800m 3/ h is that tunnel, Qi Yue mountain is subjected to underground water to threaten the most serious location, is the global problem that the circle, tunnel generally acknowledges.

Two, adopt the method for the invention to carry out this tunnel faults in construction, concrete steps are as follows:

A kind of rapid constructing method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel when the tunnel is flat when leading He Zhengdong and entering high-pressure water-rich fault zone, may further comprise the steps:

On March 1st, (1) 2009 is flat lead gushing water after, consider just wide open big (the about 100m of K1.5 hydraulic pressure resistance lining tube canopy workplace section of section that digs 3), the excavation risk is bigger, considers that the water yield after the step-down of branch water, hydraulic pressure reduce, and optimizes former supporting thickness, dwindles section.For further reducing the just wide open risk of digging, guarantee safety, as shown in Figure 6, lead and just setting up between the hole to sluice and propping up a hole flat, as long-term minute water buck channel, a sluicing rear, hole is communicated with positive hole by transverse passage-way 9, dish water yield hydraulic pressure on the tomography interface is carried out step-down step by step, and advance development further reduces the positive hole water yield, hydraulic pressure, gushing water when June 20 drilled in advance, the about 4800m of moment flow 3/ h, the about 1200m of gushing water stable back flow 3/ h, the about 1000m of belongings 3, positive hole hydraulic pressure is reduced to 0.5-0.8Mpa.On July 24th, 2009 tops bar clearly in the construction of end shop fixtures in positive hole, the water burst of topping bar, the about 2800-3200m of moment flow 3/ h, the about 600-800m of gushing water stable back flow 3/ h, the about 30-50m of belongings 3, hydraulic pressure is reduced to 0.3-0.5Mpa behind the water burst of positive hole, aligns the peaceful water burst of leading in hole and adopts the not stifled measure of ejectment.

(2) treat to adopt when positive hole hydraulic pressure drops to 0.3-0.5Mpa information tracing accurate grouting method to carry out grouting and reinforcing, concrete grammar is as follows:

A, align the hole and apply wall for grouting: wall for grouting adopts C25 concreting, flat thick 1.5m-2.5m, the positive thick 2m-3m in hole, the substrate embeding layer 50cm of leading; The long Φ 42mm conduit of the pre-buried 1.5m of periphery behind the wall for grouting casting complete, carries out slip casting by conduit, and shutoff is carried out in the space between wall for grouting and preliminary bracing;

Orifice tube, Grouting Pipe are set: after getting into desired depth, stop to creep into, withdraw from drilling tool, utilize rig or artificial jacking orifice tube, stay 30 centimetres outside; Pipe shaft weldering hangnail is to increase (anti-impact goes out) frictional resistance, and the aperture twines flax silk filler mud, be in the milk filling pipe outer wall and hole wall gap, fixed orifice tube again.Must be noted that when water gushing out with high pressure and high pressure slip casting orifice tube must be fixed with anchor pole etc., prevent that the high pressure big flood from going out orifice tube, or the slip casting back-pressure penetrates and injures personnel and plant equipment.Treat orifice tube fixed good after, can continue to creep into, in order to avoid rig shakes loose orifice tube.For effectively controlling prominent water burst, the orifice tube leading portion must be installed high pressure sluice valve.The effect that orifice tube is set is the protection hole wall, leads and prevent to hole and gush big flood suddenly.

B, measurement boring water burst

Survey the water yield, adopt the orifice tube container measurement that discharges water; Survey hydraulic pressure, adopt orifice tube to install gauge measurement; Survey water burst position, adopt drilling rod rice number to measure; If adopt water to bore in the drilling process; make flushing liquor with clear water, if the water yield gone out of boring is unusual more muddy or spray remote sandstone than normally creeping into big, water quality under the situation, should stop to creep into this moment; measure the water yield, hydraulic pressure and water burst position, determine processing scheme and grouting mode.

C, packer permeability test

Start two pumps simultaneously and carry out water filling, check earlier whether blender has string water phenomenon, begin water filling in the past hole after normal, progressively strengthen discharge capacity, rising pressure is when water injection pressure reaches or is slightly larger than predetermined water injection pressure, kept 2~3 minutes, check that filling system and face have or not the string drainage,, prepare slip casting as not finishing water injection test; Pass through packer permeability test, check pipe-line system, opening arrangement and the sealing performance of ending the magmatic rock dish, measure the specific water absorption of slip casting section country rock simultaneously, the cranny development situation of evaluation country rock, for the match ratio of determining slurries and grouting amount and injection rate provide foundation, the crack of flushable mediation simultaneously is beneficial to the raising slip casting effect.

D, cloth hole, bore operation, as shown in Figure 1,

A, apply 3-5 advance geologic inspecting hole 1 earlier as cycle hole, be distributed in vault, haunch and arch springing place, common vault cloth one hole, each two of haunch, arch springings, verify actual geological condition and hydrologic condition according to the monitoring result of advance geologic inspecting hole, optimize the design of follow-up cloth hole;

B, apply all the other cycle holes 2, for being circular layout, grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 3.5~5m, and adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m;

C, apply one deck inner ring hole 3, arrange ringwise that in the cycle hole inboard grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 1.5~2m, adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m;

D, apply face stabilizer hole 4, spacing is 1.5m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between first section of work plane is according to adjacent holes; Spacing is 3.0m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between second section of work plane is according to adjacent holes;

E, apply inspection eye, water yield and grouting amount analysis result according to above-mentioned cycle hole, inner ring hole, face stabilizer hole, arrange inspection eye, mainly be arranged near the abnormal hole of geological conditions difference or slip casting weakness zone, adopt the principle of two inspection eyes of an abnormal hole arranged around;

F, apply Guan Peng hole 5, cloth hole in outer 90 °~120 ° scopes in arch of excavation outline line, laying spacing 40~50cm, 5 °~7 ° of outer limbs;

Advance geologic inspecting hole grouting for water blocking hole, face stabilizer hole the hold concurrently injected hole, inspection eye of injected hole, Guan Peng hole of holding concurrently of holding concurrently held concurrently and replenished injected hole etc. and utilize mutually, subsequent openings checking preorder hole slip casting effect, optimize steadily by ring, reduce boring, slip casting quantity, accelerate the circulation construction period.

Boring is first procedure of mortar depositing construction, and the quality of drilling quality directly influences grouting quality, the speed restriction slip casting duration of penetration rate.So should creep in strict accordance with boring direction, angle, the aperture of design, press the operational procedure operation of rig.The location of rig generally is in place according to calculating good coordinate position.Inlet well is in the position of face, preestablish the rig position (highly, from the distance of face, partially in apart from), calculate each boring in the coordinate figure of face and inclination angle, the drift angle of boring according to whole hole site, hole are long etc. then.

E, slip casting operation

A, grouting sequence: the slip casting process is according to outer stifled crack, interior solid country rock, carry out grouting sequence control by leash law outer and interior, that the hole is jumped at the interval, concrete grouting sequence is followed successively by advance geologic inspecting hole-all the other cycle hole-inner ring holes-face stabilizer hole-inspection eye-Guan Peng hole, in the slip casting process, the internal layer hole is as the inspection eye of outer hole, and adjacent holes is inspection eye each other;

B, grouting mode: adopt the protrusive segmenting slip casting, section length is controlled according to water yield and stratum crushing degree: water yield is less than Q<10m 3During/h, section length is less than the 10m/ section; Boring water yield 10m 3/ h≤Q<30m 3During/h, control according to the 3-5m/ segment length; Boring water yield Q 〉=30m 3During/h, stop to creep into and carry out the slip casting processing immediately; The stratum does not have the hole of collapsing, and section length is less than the 10m/ section; The hole appears slightly collapsing in the stratum, and section length is less than or equal to the 5m/ section; The hole appears seriously collapsing in the stratum, stops to creep into slip casting;

C, injecting paste material are selected: based on sulphate aluminium cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid slurry, superfine cement slurry are auxilliary, wherein sulphate aluminium cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.6~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, volume ratio is 1: (0.3~1), and superfine cement pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1;

F, leading daguanpeng construction

Daguanpeng construction in the conventional hole, in order to satisfy the rig job requirement, as the pipe roof construction workplace, it is quite big not only to excavate workload must to enlarge 60~80cm when rig (10-15m is long adopt big) along the excavation outline line, and in that to enlarge the section excavation risk for soft stratum high.

In order to improve efficiency of construction, avoid the excessive risk of weak broken stratum excavation workplace and extra open excavation amount, logical in the construction to stratigraphic analysis, reasonably optimizing Grouting Pipe canopy construction segment length, select the better location of country rock to be pipe canopy overlap joint paragraph, adopt no service depot pipe roof construction, adopt ductule to strengthen applying to overlap joint section and pipe canopy back segment in the construction, pipe canopy material adopts Φ 76-Φ 108mm seamless steel pipe.Concrete construction sequence is as follows:

A. manage canopy processing: the bassoon canopy adopts diameter of phi 76-Φ 108mmmm, wall thickness 7mm~9mm seamless steel pipe processing, and the long 6~10m of every joint adopts screw thread method or interior cover steel pipe to be welded to connect, and every pipe canopy front end is processed into the most advanced and sophisticated and sealing of vertebra shape, is convenient to manage canopy and installs.Tube wall the is quincunx laying Φ 8mm slurry hole of overflowing, pitch of holes 50cm, the every terminal joint of pipe canopy not being laid the slurry hole of overflowing;

B. pipe roof construction: adjust bore angle along bassoon canopy guide pipe, adopt Φ 90mm~Φ 125mm drill bit to creep into and draw the hole to design length.Draw and withdraw from drilling rod after adopting clear water hole flushing deslagging after finish in the hole, be lowered to the pipe canopy according to design length.The pipe canopy is invaded the limit section be not lowered to pipe canopy (adopting the glass anchor pole to replace stressed dependence upper circular tube canopy), directly will manage ceiling outside the excavation outline line by rig;

C. managing canopy installs and carries out the disposable tube shed grouting in full hole after finishing;

D. slip casting in injected hole early stage is held concurrently by the operation of slip casting segmentation principle in the Guan Peng hole, the intact back hole flushing of slip casting, satisfy the slip casting effect requirement after, be lowered to the pipe canopy and carry out the disposable slip casting in full hole;

G, glass fiber anchor pole steady operation face

After the leading pipe roof construction of tradition curtain-grouting and periphery is finished, maximum danger is exactly to prevent that excavated surface the place ahead is because of high hydraulic action unstability and prevent that excavation faces empty part and collapses, therefore must take effective measures the steady operation face, the present invention organically combines slip casting method and existing new meaning method in construction first, after pre-grouting finishes, in the boring of first section of work plane, put into the hollow glass fibre anchor pole and carry out mortar depositing construction, make the high-tensile anchor pole of tool by slurries and the fixed integral body that becomes of soft stratum, form vertical anchor stud.Effectively improve the excavation face stability, convenient and safe excavation, accelerating construction progress.A plurality of circulation excavations disclose checking, adopt the glass fiber bolt anchorage to have obvious effect to stablizing face.

Slip casting effect assessment method and standard

A, analytic approach

A, bore flooding quantity analysis

By the monitoring to water yield cross section and vertical distribution situation in the mortar depositing construction section, clear and definite outlet area is strengthened mortar depositing construction targetedly, and grouting mode, technological basis water distribution are dynamically adjusted, and improves water plugging rate.And as emphasis inspection after finishing and additional slip casting zone, and in the excavation construction process, add strong supporting and additional slip casting.

B, bore flooding quantity time effect are analyzed

Be analyzed with each drilling construction order and single hole maximum flooding quantity drafting boring water yield time effect figure and single hole slip casting spirogram in the work progress, as Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3.By getting among the figure:

1. slurry amount and water yield are inhaled in the stratum, have tangible corresponding relation, meet the stratum consolidation mechanism of water blocking;

2. the water yield of holing illustrates to reach the water blockoff purpose along with there is the effect of significantly successively decreasing the time;

3. stratum suction slurry amount reduces in time, and void content reduces gradually, and the stratum is closely knit gradually, reaches the filling crack, the purpose of concretion marginsing rock.

C, P-Q-T tracing analysis

P-Q-T tracing analysis by the drafting of mortar depositing construction process, slurry flow and grouting pressure change the slip casting mechanism that must meet filling crack, shutoff water burst in time, if curve generation ANOMALOUS VARIATIONS should in time be analyzed and search reason, game, guarantee grouting quality.

D, grouting for water blocking rate are analyzed

With positive hole, inclined shaft work area the 2nd circulation boring mortar depositing construction is example, and it is as shown in table 1 that maximum flooding quantity carried out the water plugging rate in each stage of statistical analysis during the work progress different phase was holed.

Each stage grouting for water blocking counting rate meter of table 1

The engineering time section Average maximum amount of water (the m of single hole 3/h) Construction slip casting hole count (individual) Grouting amount (m 3) Water plugging rate (%) The initial probe stage ??90 ??5 ??86.61 ??-?-?--?--?- The cycle hole stage ??50 ??13 ??76.63 ??45% The inner ring hole stage ??14.8 ??13 ??49.82 ??83.60% Replenish the slip casting stage ??5.4 ??8 ??10.24 ??94.00% The effect examination phase ??2 ??8 ??6.00 ??97.80%

As can be seen from Table 1, during 5 injected holes were held concurrently leading inspecting hole drilling construction process in earlier stage, average water yield reached 90m 3/ h (maximum 150m 3/ h), after slip casting finished, the average maximum flooding quantity of single hole was 50m in the cycle hole work progress 3/ h, water plugging rate reaches 45%; Along with the propelling gradually by outer and interior mortar depositing construction, water plugging rate reached 83.6% after two circle holes constructions were finished; After replenishing injected hole, inspection eye work progress water plugging rate reaches 97.8%, has reached the water plugging effect of expection.

Working procedure by outer and interior after follow-up boring water yield reduces, helps rapid construction, has also reached the purpose of constraint slip casting.

B, inspection eye method

A, inspection eye water yield are analyzed

After slip casting finishes, distribute and the grouting amount distribution situation according to boring mortar depositing construction process outlet area, carry out borehole inspection at weakness zone, the inspection eye water yield is main evaluation criterion, and existing design review (check) (DR) hole water yield standard is 0.2L/min.m.In the flat first cyclic test section boring mortar depositing construction process of leading, after slip casting finishes by analysis the method evaluation satisfied slip casting effect, but the inspection eye water yield is all about 2L/min.m, is 10 times of design review (check) (DR) standard.After through replenishing slip casting repeatedly, mends altogether in the big zone of water yield and establish 41 of injected holes, but grouting amount is less, the boring water yield remains unchanged substantially, after still fail to reach designing requirement through adopting superfine cement to proceed to replenish slip casting.

Comprehensive above several effect inspections and assessment method are to the slip casting effect analysis:

1. obtain effective shutoff by slip casting water burst crack, the inspection eye water yield obviously reduces, and the hole phenomenon does not occur collapsing.

2. should the vertical slurries amount of circulation slip casting distribute more even, but because the irregular decision slurries that the crack, stratum distributes spread very inhomogeneous in the stratum, even repeatedly slip-casting also is difficult to all cracks of shutoff, therefore still there is tiny infiltration crack in the part, still showing as local infiltration under the high pressure effect, is the comparison difficulty so the inspection eye water yield reaches 0.2L/minm.

3. according to bore angle and drilling depth, most of EXIT POINT is behind vertical 15m, radially outside the 3m, and in conjunction with inspection eye and get the core hole drill and advance velocity analysis, higher by stratum compactness after the slip casting, the Φ 108mm pipe canopy that will carry out circumferential distance 30cm after inspection eye is finished applies the line pipe canopy slip casting of going forward side by side, under leading pipe shed support and grouting curtain acting in conjunction, slip casting effect satisfies the excavation construction requirement substantially, can carry out tentative excavation.

In conjunction with Sinilar engineering such as similar engineering such as Dou Shan tunnels, speedway side, Chongqing, all suffer from fault belt in the excavation tunneling process, the water yield and water pressure are bigger, it is 0.2L/minm that the leading pre-slip casting of the full section of former design finishes back inspection eye evaluation criteria, after slip casting finishes in the practice of construction, the inspection eye water yield all far surpasses the project assessment standard, consider complicated character and the duration and the cost requirement of tomography geology, according under the prerequisite that satisfies the excavation requirement, after in the practice of construction process slip casting standard suitably being adjusted, in the digging process all safety pass through fault zone.

According to this tomography geological condition and in conjunction with other similar engineering boring slip casting effect inspection and the analogy of excavation construction situation, inspection eye water yield recommended standard is proposed.

1. the single hole water yield is not more than 2L/minm, and water quality is more clear.

2. the inspection eye hole that do not collapse is not gushed mud and is gushed sand.

Improving inspection eye water yield standard is the 2L/min.m excavation, discloses through excavation and satisfies the safe excavation requirement fully.The inspection eye water yield control criterion that 2L/min.m is described is to meet high-pressure water-enriched fault belt geology characteristic.

B, boring and coring

By boring and coring, analyze the degree of consolidation of slurries to broken formation, for excavation construction provides foundation, as shown in Figure 4, consolidation effect is better;

Shooting in c, the hole

Utilizing makes a video recording in the hole carries out the slip casting effect evaluation, can be comparatively intuitively the stability property on slurries packing density and stratum and water outlet situation be analyzed and declare knowledge, be a kind of method of easy to operate practicality, as shown in Figure 5, pore-forming situation and slurries filling crack situation all reach requirement.

After the slip casting effect evaluation, reach the purpose of grouting and reinforcing water blockoff, transfer excavation teams and groups and excavate.

(4) remove wall for grouting

Wall for grouting adopts blasting procedure to remove, and at its cross-sectional direction, earlier from the bottom of one's heart, periphery is reserved 50-100cm, and from coil to coil adopts blasting method to expand and digs, and at its longitudinal direction, segment blast length is 50cm; Strengthen in the explosion of orifice tube position;

Strict control explosive payload and firing order were damaged original preliminary bracing and rear plant equipment etc. when wall for grouting was removed construction when preventing explosion, forbade to brag, also must the leading inspecting hole of construction before wall for grouting is removed.Wall for grouting is abolished main points: branch order, subregion, controlled blasting; Close perforating, few powder charge, the control vibrations; Wall for grouting is uniform thickness not, answers the reasonably optimizing borehole;

(5) adopt and to dig fast encapsulation technique soon and align hole peace and lead and excavate

Leading and the periphery probing of A, short distance

In work progress, strengthen the bore detecting in the place ahead and the peripheral 5.0m scope, leading 6 holes of construction in the positive every circulation in hole, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Flat leading led 3 holes of construction in every circulation, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Hole count is carried out differentiated control, in time adjusts according to the difference of excavation length, can be reduced to 3 holes for preceding 10m, 6 holes of back 10m construction;

B, align the hole and adopt three steps seven step excavation method to construct, flat leading adopts up/down steps excavation method to construct.

Three, monitoring measurement

Monitoring measurement is an important step in the constructing tunnel management.Stability status to the water yield, hydraulic pressure and surrounding rock supporting system in rainfall outside the hole and the hole is monitored, and guarantees construction safety, orderly, quick.

The measurement project of mainly carrying out in the work progress, measuring point are arranged and method sees Table 2, measure frequency and see Table 3, and metric data is analyzed and fed back, and the distortion managerial class sees Table 4.

Table 2

Sequence number The measurement project Measuring point is arranged Method for measurement and requirement 1 Rainfall observation outside the hole Win victory a trough valley, hole Automatic data collection 2 Hydraulic pressure, water yield observation in the hole Representative section in advance borehole, the hole The boring water yield adopts graduated cylinder to survey, divide the water step-down water yield to adopt weir method 3 Wall for grouting observation Wall for grouting is middle and peripheral Bury observation point underground 4 Periphery displacement The inner, hole is at the above 2.5m of interior tread face, left and right sides symmetric arrangement measuring point. Measuring point and numbering are installed rapidly behind the excavation on request, and initial reading should read in the 12h behind excavation. 5 Vault sinks Establish measuring point with the corresponding vault of horizontal convergence section Set up an office at vault rapidly after concrete (spray concrete) construction.

Table 3

Annotate: B is the tunnel excavation width

Table 4 distortion management table of grading

Managerial class The management displacement The construction state ??III ??U<(Uo/3) But normal construction

Managerial class The management displacement The construction state ??II ??(Uo/3)≤U≤(2Uo/3) Should add strong supporting ??I ??U>(2Uo/3) Stop work, take to strengthen to construct behind the supporting measure

Annotate: U is the measured displacements value; Uo is the maximum shift value that allows.

Claims (1)

1. the rapid constructing method of a high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel is characterized in that may further comprise the steps when the tunnel is flat when leading He Zhengdong and entering high-pressure water-rich fault zone:
(1) sets up at least one hole (8) that sluices between (7) as the long-term water buck channel of dividing at Zheng Dong (6) and flat leading, dish water yield hydraulic pressure on the tomography interface is carried out step-down step by step, sluice and prop up the leading positive hole 50-200m of hole construction, lead big burst of effluent adopting ejectment for positive hole peace and do not block up;
(2) treat to adopt when positive hole hydraulic pressure drops to 0.3-0.5Mpa information tracing accurate grouting method to carry out grouting and reinforcing, concrete grammar is as follows:
A, apply wall for grouting; Orifice tube, Grouting Pipe are set
B, measurement boring water burst
C, packer permeability test
D, cloth hole, bore operation
A, apply 3-5 advance geologic inspecting hole (1) earlier, be distributed in vault, haunch and arch springing place, verify actual geological condition and hydrologic condition, optimize the design of follow-up cloth hole according to the monitoring result of advance geologic inspecting hole as cycle hole;
B, apply all the other cycle holes (2), for being circular layout, grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 3.5~5m, and adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m;
C, apply one deck inner ring hole (3) at least, arrange ringwise that in the cycle hole inboard grouting and reinforcing circle thickness is 1.5~2m, adjacent cycle hole perforate spacing is 1.5m, and whole pitch of holes is 3m;
D, apply face stabilizer hole (4), spacing is 1.5m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between first section of work plane is according to adjacent holes; Spacing is 3.0m and is quincuncial principle cloth hole up and down between second section of work plane is according to adjacent holes;
E, apply inspection eye, water yield and grouting amount analysis result according to above-mentioned cycle hole, inner ring hole, face stabilizer hole, arrange inspection eye, mainly be arranged near the abnormal hole of geological conditions difference or slip casting weakness zone, adopt the principle of two inspection eyes of an abnormal hole arranged around;
F, apply Guan Peng hole (5), cloth hole in outer 90 °~120 ° scopes in arch of excavation outline line, laying spacing 40~50cm, 5 °~7 ° of outer limbs;
E, slip casting operation
A, grouting sequence: the slip casting process is according to outer stifled crack, interior solid country rock, carry out grouting sequence control by leash law outer and interior, that the hole is jumped at the interval, concrete grouting sequence is followed successively by advance geologic inspecting hole-all the other cycle hole-inner ring holes-face stabilizer hole-inspection eye-Guan Peng hole, in the slip casting process, the internal layer hole is as the inspection eye of outer hole, and adjacent holes is inspection eye each other;
B, grouting mode: adopt the protrusive segmenting slip casting, section length is controlled according to water yield and stratum crushing degree: water yield is less than Q<10m 3During/h, section length is less than the 10m/ section; Boring water yield 10m 3/ h≤Q<30m 3During/h, control according to the 3-5m/ segment length; Boring water yield Q 〉=30m 3During/h, stop to creep into and carry out the slip casting processing immediately; The stratum does not have the hole of collapsing, and section length is less than the 10m/ section; The hole appears slightly collapsing in the stratum, and section length is less than or equal to the 5m/ section; The hole appears seriously collapsing in the stratum, stops to creep into slip casting;
C, injecting paste material are selected: based on sulphate aluminium cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement list liquid slurry, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid slurry, superfine cement slurry are auxilliary, wherein sulphate aluminium cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement list liquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.6~1.2): 1, ordinary Portland cement-water glass biliquid pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1, volume ratio is 1: (0.3~1), and superfine cement pulp-water gray scale is (0.8~1.2): 1;
F, leading daguanpeng construction
Select the better location of country rock for pipe canopy overlap joint paragraph, adopt no service depot pipe roof construction, adopt ductule to strengthen applying to overlap joint section and pipe canopy back segment in the construction, pipe canopy material adopts Φ 76-Φ 108mm seamless steel pipe;
G, glass fiber anchor pole steady operation face
Pre-grouting is put into the hollow glass fibre anchor pole and is carried out mortar depositing construction after finishing in the boring of first section of work plane, make the high-tensile anchor pole of tool by slurries and the fixed integral body that becomes of soft stratum, forms vertical anchor stud;
(4) remove wall for grouting
Wall for grouting adopts blasting procedure to remove, and at its cross-sectional direction, earlier from the bottom of one's heart, periphery is reserved 50-100cm, and from coil to coil adopts blasting method to expand and digs, and at its longitudinal direction, segment blast length is 50cm; Strengthen in the explosion of orifice tube position;
(5) adopt and to dig fast encapsulation technique soon and align hole peace and lead and excavate
Leading and the periphery probing of A, short distance
In work progress, strengthen the bore detecting in the place ahead and the peripheral 5.0m scope, leading 6 holes of construction in the positive every circulation in hole, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Flat leading led 3 holes of construction in every circulation, down, in lead 2 holes of respectively constructing; Hole count is carried out differentiated control, in time adjusts according to the difference of excavation length, can be reduced to 3 holes for preceding 10m, 6 holes of back 10m construction;
B, align the hole and adopt three steps seven step excavation method to construct, flat leading adopts up/down steps excavation method to construct.
CN2010101336929A 2010-03-24 2010-03-24 Rapid construction method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel CN101798930B (en)

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