CN101355261A - Power management system for minitype biped walking robot - Google Patents

Power management system for minitype biped walking robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101355261A
CN101355261A CNA2008102227014A CN200810222701A CN101355261A CN 101355261 A CN101355261 A CN 101355261A CN A2008102227014 A CNA2008102227014 A CN A2008102227014A CN 200810222701 A CN200810222701 A CN 200810222701A CN 101355261 A CN101355261 A CN 101355261A
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power supply
battery
circuit
robot
voltage
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解仑
王志良
乔卿义
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

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Abstract

The invention provides a power supply management system for a small biped walking robot, which relates to an artificial intelligence technology and a power electronic technology. On one hand, a charging circuit, a monitoring circuit and a protection circuit are designed around lithium polymer batteries to realize the good and quick charging of the batteries and to monitor and display important information such as the voltage, the temperature, dump energy of the batteries and so on, so as to prevent the short circuit, the overdischarge, the overcurrent and the overtempreature from damaging the batteries; on the other hand, an uninterrupted power supply module and a multi-path regulated power supply module are designed around the robot to realize the quick switching between the power supply of an external power supply and the power supply of the batteries further to respectively provide the steady power supply for a control circuit board and a steering engine of the robot. A charge control algorithm based on digital PID regulation and an SOC prediction algorithm as the combination of a discharge experiment method and an open-circuit voltage method are also provided in the concrete program design of a controller. In the invention, the stability and the safety of the operation of the robot are assured by designing a set of complete power supply management system.

Description

A kind of power-supply management system that is used for minitype biped walking robot
Technical field
The present invention relates to artificial intelligence technology and power electronic technology, relate in particular to a kind of intelligentized robot power supply management system.
Background technology
At present robot gets more and more with the human chance that contacts, and this just has higher requirement to stability, the fail safe durability of robot, and this and power supply whether low-power consumption reliable and stable and whole system has confidential relation.Therefore need the reliable and stable and energy-conservation power-supply management system of development one cover.
Minitype biped walking robot is connected with mechanical component by a plurality of steering wheels (position servo motor) usually and combines, and the rotation of controlling each steering wheel by controller coordinate allows robot do exercises.
The ROBOT CONTROL circuit board mainly comprises several sections such as core controller, power management, steering wheel control, storage control, communication, sensor information processing, is equivalent to brain, digestion and the circulatory system, the kinematic system of human body, memory system, nervous system and the receptor of brain respectively.Except the work of core controller, " logistics support " of power management effect can not be ignored.In fact be equivalent to charger, the battery of digestive system and be equivalent to the power supply reallocation of blood circulation system, the charge efficiency of the power-supply management system of being formed, energy content of battery density, power supply stability and antijamming capability have directly influenced the overall performance of robot.
For the ease of walking and doing other compound action, robot must be by power autonomous power supply, and the most frequently used is by rechargeable battery powered.Very similar with notebook computer in this respect.The characteristics of notebook computer maximum are exactly its mobility, and power-supply system is the basic of its flexibility and stability.Through accumulation for many years, the laptop technology is quite ripe, as standard smart battery system based on technology such as SBDatya, SMBus, and the intelligent electric management system that comprises UPS.Therefore the present invention also designs electric management system at small-sized walking robot, to guarantee robot stabilized, reliable and safe operation.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of power-supply management system that is used for minitype biped walking robot, realize the uninterrupted power supply of robot, simultaneously to power supply monitoring in real time and protection, the stability, reliability and the fail safe that help improving robot.
Power-supply management system mainly comprises:
The lithium polymer battery of one group of rated voltage 7.4v, capacity 1500mAh is as the robot main power source.
The D.C. regulated power supply of a 12V/5A is used for the charging and the robot external power power supply of lithium polymer battery.
A charging circuit is used for the quick charge of lithium polymer battery.
A battery protecting circuit prevents phenomenons such as lithium polymer battery short circuit, both positive and negative polarity reversal connection occur, overcharges in charge and discharge process, overdischarge, overcurrent, excess temperature.
A monitoring, alarming circuit shows the voltage and the dump energy of battery in real time with charactron, in case occur unusual with buzzer and indicator light warning.
A diverter switch is used for the power supply of battery and D.C. regulated power supply and switches, can only select during power supply the two one of.
A controller, charging, protection, monitoring, alarming and the power supply of control battery are switched.
A multipath voltage regulation output module provides the output of a plurality of stable voltages such as 12v, 7.2v, 5v, 3.3v, for steering wheel, transducer, the control circuit board of robot provides reliable power supply.
That is to say that except D.C. regulated power supply adapter and rechargeable battery, whole power-supply management system is made up of six modules: controller, charging circuit, power protection, power supply monitoring and warning, commutation circuit, multipath voltage regulation output.The master-plan framework as shown in Figure 1; D.C. regulated power supply is to the robot power supply and is the stand-by power supply of the charging of rechargeable battery; charger then is the main power supply as robot and whole power-supply management system; charging, protection, monitoring, warning, main power source and stand-by power supply that controller is responsible for coordinating to control battery as the core of whole power-supply management system switch and multipath voltage regulation output, and detailed process is as described below:
Lithium polymer battery is at the certain electric weight of the Shi Douyou that dispatches from the factory, initial voltage value is generally load voltage value V0 (standard value is 7.4v), can give the power supply of robot and power-supply management system self simultaneously, the monitoring, alarming circuit shows the voltage and the dump energy of battery in real time.Along with consumption of electric, when the voltage of battery is lower than minimum discharge voltage V 1When (standard value is 5.5v), the charging of beginning alarm, as ignore, protective circuit works, and for preventing overdischarge, will cut off the robot power supply, only gives power-supply management system self power supply (system self consumes energy seldom, can report to the police for a long time); If connect D.C. regulated power supply, charge the battery beginning, and cut off the discharge end of battery simultaneously, switch to by external power supply and give robot and power-supply management system power supply, as the cell voltage value of reaching capacity V 2When (standard value is 8.4v), will cut off charging circuit, and alarm is full of; If disconnect D.C. regulated power supply this moment, commutation circuit is transformed into battery-powered rapidly, thereby realizes uninterrupted power supply.
Except controller, protective circuit and monitoring, alarming circuit are very crucial in the whole system.In battery discharge procedure, in case occur that short circuit, both positive and negative polarity connect instead, voltage is lower than minimum discharge voltage V 1, electric current is higher than maximum discharge current I Discharge, when temperature is higher than normal working temperature T, protective circuit all can act at once, cuts off the battery discharge end, and begins to report to the police; Equally, in charging process, if short circuit, reversal connection, excess temperature, voltage are higher than saturation voltage value V 2, electric current is higher than maximum charging current I Charge, protective circuit also can be cut off battery discharge and report to the police.Thereby, guaranteed the safe handling of rechargeable battery.
Advantage of the present invention and good effect: adopt power-supply management system of the present invention, can provide portable, continual, safety and stability power supply efficiently for robot.System has adopted volume energy density than big novel rechargeable battery lithium polymer battery, and volume is very little, but the capacity height can be powered the time; Carry charging, monitoring and protecting function simultaneously, safety easy to use; Adopt diverter switch, realized the uninterrupted power supply of robot; Multipath voltage regulation output provides reliable and stable power supply, can satisfy the multiple power supply requirement of robot.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the robot power supply management system frame diagram of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is the power-supply management system charging circuit schematic diagram of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 3 is the testing circuit of the analog signals such as power-supply management system cell voltage of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 4 is the power-supply management system power supply commutation circuit schematic diagram of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 5 is the power-supply management system DC-DC decompression converting circuit of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 6 is the power-supply management system main program flow chart of the embodiment of the invention.
Embodiment
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
1. power-supply management system controller
That controller adopts is single-chip microcomputer STC12C5412AD, and its main feature is the inner 51 series monolithic kernels that adopt, and programming is relatively easy; At a high speed, the single clock machine cycle, than the fast 8-12 of common 8051 single-chip microcomputers doubly; Peripheral hardware resource in the abundant sheet, 8 path 10 position ADC, 4 passage PWM unit, 23 I/O mouths have been simplified peripheral circuit, also provide cost savings.
Single-chip microcomputer generates by the PWM unit and the required pwm signal of output charging circuit on the one hand; Utilize 4 passage ADC to gather two batteries voltages, charging current and discharging current respectively on the other hand, realize the monitoring and the protection of battery charging and discharging; Utilize other functions such as the existing temperature acquisition of other I/O cause for gossip, switching controls, tripping protection, charactron demonstration and buzzer warning again.The specific implementation method will describe in detail in following each module introduction.
2. battery charger
Charging method adopts classical constant current constant voltage formula charging, promptly begin to carry out constant current charge with the electric current that is no more than battery 1/2C, when saturated, carry out constant voltage charge with voltage again a little less than saturation voltage value, battery is full of when charging current is reduced to a certain degree.
The rechargeable battery set equivalence is the load that an ideal source E connects with a resistance r.From the signal controlling charge switch triode of the PWM of single-chip microcomputer, when switch closure, input power supply U iBy switch S and inductance L filter circuit powering load, while inductance storage power; When switch opens, the energy that is stored in the inductance L discharges to load by diode, makes load obtain continuous and stable energy.The voltage U at load two ends when circuit is stablized oAnd charging current I ChargeBe respectively:
U o = t ON T ( U i - V sat ) = D ( U i - V sat ) - - - ( 1 )
I ch arg e = U o - E r - - - ( 2 )
Constant V wherein SatBe the saturation voltage drop of switching tube, D is the duty ratio of pwm signal, when reducing the PWM duty and recently shortening switch and " lead to " time, and the average voltage minimizing.On the contrary, when increasing the PWM duty and recently prolonging switch and " break " time, the average voltage increase.Realize constant-current constant-voltage charging so can adjust charging voltage (or electric current) by Single-chip Controlling PWM duty ratio.
The key of circuit design then is choosing of inductance except will selecting suitable switch triode, and inductive capacity can calculate by formula (3).
L min=U o(1-U o/(U i-V sat))T/dI (3)
T is the cycle of pwm signal in the formula, and dI is inductance pulsating current (is about charging current half).PWM period T=the 25.6us of charging circuit, input voltage U i=12v, minimum output voltage U o=6.5v, the saturation voltage drop V of switch triode Sat=0.4v, inductance pulsating current dI=0.4A can be regarded as to such an extent that the minimum inductance value is 183uH by formula, the actual many 470uH of inductance value twice that adopt, circuit diagram is as shown in Figure 2.
3. battery protecting circuit
Serial connection Schottky diode MBR320 realizes reverse connecting protection in the power supply major loop, is connected in series one more simultaneously and can recovers fuse RGE300, effectively realizes short-circuit protection and fast quick-recovery.
At the overcharging of battery, overdischarge, overcurrent and over-temperature protection; in order to save cost, do not adopt special-purpose protection chip in the circuit, but give full play to the control action of single-chip microcomputer; by the information such as voltage, electric current and temperature of real-time collection two batteries, realize monitoring and protection.Fig. 3 is the acquisition process circuit of analog signals such as cell voltage, electric current, and four difference amplifiers are exported voltage, the flow measurement electric resistance partial pressure after amplifying of two batteries respectively, then through the AD conversion live digital signal corresponding.Temperature detection is then used digital temperature sensor DS18B20, directly obtains the digital signal of temperature.
4. power supply monitoring and warning
With the threshold that is provided with in the digital signal of voltage, electric current and the temperature of the battery that obtains and the Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) program, rough sledding occurs and then pass through buzzer warning, and cut-out power supply circuits, control voltage, dump energy (percentage) and temperature that the display module circulation shows battery simultaneously, realize monitoring in real time.
5. commutation circuit
When battery charge, can not discharge simultaneously to the robot power supply, so the switching of must powering.The key element that switches is a dpdt relay.When uncharged, the initial condition of relay is to have switched to powered battery, and when inserting the power supply adaptor charging, the switch triode conducting switches to by the adapter power supply by relay, and meanwhile, battery discharge end and circuit disconnect.Physical circuit figure as shown in Figure 4.
6. multipath voltage regulation output
After analyzing, the process power supply requirement as can be known, to provide 7.2v/5A, 5v/0.1A, 3.3v/0.5A three tunnel stabilized voltage power supplys for robot at least.For the first via; because of operating current bigger; in order to raise the efficiency the minimizing thermal losses, adopt the DC-DC decompression converting circuit, as shown in Figure 5; key element is DC-DC integrated chip AOZ1014; Adjustable Output Voltage, output current can reach 5A, and can be by single-chip microcomputer output enable control signal; the unlatching of control chip is turn-offed, and realizes the tripping protection of power supply with this.
Other two-way stabilized voltage power supply mainly is to single-chip microcomputer and the power supply of other digital circuits, requires ripple very little, then adopts the low linear pressurizer of pressure reduction (LDO) LM1117-3.3 and LM1117-5.0 to realize that they all can provide the maximum output current of 800mA.The input voltage of three tunnel stabilized voltage power supplys is identical, is cell voltage when uncharged, is the adapter output voltage during charging.Three earth terminals link to each other by magnetic bead, avoid the phase mutual interference.
Fig. 6 is the design flow diagram of the single-chip microcomputer main program of power-supply management system, program begins earlier timer, inner ADC module, PWM generation module and each I/O mouth etc. to be carried out initialization, the configuration critical registers, begin to inquire about charging circuit then and whether connected power supply adaptor, if there is connection just to disconnect battery discharging circuit, switches to by adapter and power, and begin simultaneously to charge to robot to robot, up to being full of, return inquiry; If do not connect, just battery-powered, and gather information such as cell voltage, electric current, temperature successively; with the threshold of program setting, realize defencive function, show important informations such as cell voltage, electric weight, temperature simultaneously; after finishing a circulation of monitoring and protecting, return and continue inquiry.
7. live part is based on the charging control algolithm of digital PID adjusting
The key of lithium polymer battery charging is how accurately to realize constant current constant voltage control efficiently, adopts the method for software control here.Basic principle is the variation according to the digital signal of cell voltage and electric current, regulates the duty ratio of PWM, adjusts the voltage at battery pack two ends, reaches the purpose of constant charge voltage or electric current.Specific algorithm is with reference to the digital PID control algolithm [3] of classics.
u ( k ) = K P e ( k ) + K I Σ j = 0 k e ( j ) + K D [ ( e ( k ) - e ( k - 1 ) ] + u 0 - - - ( 4 )
Consider the restriction of sample rate, AD conversion speed, single-chip microcomputer arithmetic speed and memory capacity, when carrying out programming, will simplify and improve digital pid algorithm.In order to guarantee higher governing speed and stability, adopt the adjusting algorithm [4] of the digital PI of integration separation, promptly when beginning to regulate, only introduce proportional component, just when error is in threshold range, introduce integral element.
u ( k ) = K P [ e ( k ) + K L K I Σ j = 0 k e ( j ) + u 0 - - - ( 5 )
ε is a threshold value
In the constant current charge stage, by adjusting the duty ratio D of pwm signal, charging current I is changed in very little error range, can be considered constant current.By formula 1 and 2 as can be known,
D = E + IR U i - V sat - - - ( 6 )
R is 1 ohm a flow measurement resistance, much larger than the internal resistance of cell, and the alternative internal resistance of cell.And that the electromotive force of battery changes at short notice is very slow, can be considered constant, and then duty ratio D and charging current are linear, and slope is R/ (U i-V Sat).Formula 5 described controllers can be embodied as when not introducing integral element
D ( k ) = R U i - V sat [ I ( k ) - I 0 ] + D 0 - - - ( 7 )
And error threshold ε and integral coefficient KI can determine according to the adjusting time by experiment.
8. dump energy (S0C) algorithm for estimating
Battery charge state SOC (State of charge) describes the quantity of battery dump energy, is the important parameter [5] in the battery use.At present unified is from electric weight viewpoint definition SOC, defines SOC as United States advanced battery federation (USABC) in its " batteries of electric automobile laboratory manual " and is: battery under discharge-rate necessarily, the ratio of rated capacity under dump energy and the same terms.
SOC = Q remain Q all = 1 - Q consume Q all - - - ( 8 )
Robot electric current when doing action changes quite violent, change to several amperes from tens milliamperes, and the most of the time steering wheel all holding torque do not rotate, the moment of steering wheel is directly proportional with electric current, electric current is constant substantially in a period of time, and recording the hold mode electric current is about 0.3A.
Utilize electronic load that battery is carried out the discharge of 0.3A constant current, record the time dependent curve U of cell voltage (t), then ignore internal resistance of cell consumption, can get the dump energy Q of battery Remain
Q remain = ∫ 0 T U ( t ) Idt - ∫ 0 t U ( t ) Idt - - - ( 9 )
SOC = 1 - ∫ 0 t U ( t ) Idt ∫ 0 T U ( t ) Idt - - - ( 10 )
I is a constant current, and T is total discharge time.SOC=SOC (t) utilizes U (t) again, obtains SOC (U), calculates SOC respectively and equals corresponding voltage value U such as 95%, 90%, 85%, obtains the SOC-U question blank.When robot is in hold mode, gather the cell voltage that tends towards stability, inquiry SOC-U table can estimate SOC

Claims (3)

1, a kind of power-supply management system that is used for minitype biped walking robot is characterized in that, described power-supply management system comprises:
The lithium polymer battery of one group of rated voltage 7.4v, capacity 1500mAh is as the robot main power source;
The D.C. regulated power supply of a 12V/5A is used for the charging and the robot external power power supply of lithium polymer battery;
A charging circuit is used for the quick charge of lithium polymer battery;
A battery protecting circuit prevents phenomenons such as lithium polymer battery short circuit, both positive and negative polarity reversal connection occur, overcharges in charge and discharge process, overdischarge, overcurrent, excess temperature;
A monitoring, alarming circuit shows the voltage and the dump energy of battery in real time with charactron, in case occur unusual with buzzer and indicator light warning;
A diverter switch is used for the power supply of battery and D.C. regulated power supply and switches, can only select during power supply the two one of;
A controller, charging, protection, monitoring, alarming and the power supply of control battery are switched;
A multipath voltage regulation output module provides 12v, 7.2v, 5v, 3.3v many stable voltages outputs, for steering wheel, transducer, the control circuit board of robot provides reliable power supply.
2, the power-supply management system that is used for minitype biped walking robot as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, begin to select for use lithium polymer battery to give the power supply of robot and power-supply management system self simultaneously, the monitoring, alarming circuit shows the voltage and the dump energy of battery in real time, along with consumption of electric, when the voltage of battery is lower than minimum discharge voltage V1, the charging of beginning alarm, as ignore, protective circuit works, power-supply management system self power supply is only given in the power supply of cut-out robot; If connect D.C. regulated power supply, charge the battery beginning, and cut off the discharge end of battery simultaneously, switch to by external power supply and give robot and power-supply management system power supply, when the cell voltage value of reaching capacity V2, will cut off charging circuit, and alarm is full of; If disconnect D.C. regulated power supply this moment, commutation circuit is transformed into battery-powered rapidly, thereby realizes uninterrupted power supply.
3, the power-supply management system that is used for minitype biped walking robot as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, battery protecting circuit is in battery discharge procedure, in case occur that short circuit, both positive and negative polarity connect instead, voltage is lower than minimum discharge voltage V1, electric current is higher than maximum discharge current, when temperature is higher than normal working temperature T, protective circuit all can be cut off the battery discharge end at once, and begins to report to the police; Equally, in charging process, if short circuit, reversal connection, excess temperature, voltage are higher than saturation voltage value V2, electric current is higher than maximum charging current, protective circuit also can be cut off battery discharge and report to the police.
CNA2008102227014A 2008-09-22 2008-09-22 Power management system for minitype biped walking robot Pending CN101355261A (en)

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CN110246319A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-09-17 云南航天工程物探检测股份有限公司 16 high-speed synchronous ADC distributed wireless acquisition systems of multichannel and method
CN113009358A (en) * 2019-12-20 2021-06-22 浙江宇视科技有限公司 Battery remaining capacity detection device
CN111707341A (en) * 2020-06-24 2020-09-25 北京恒通安泰科技有限公司 Data acquisition device and data acquisition method for rail weighbridge and rail weighbridge
CN112787377A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-11 南京熊猫电子股份有限公司 Battery quick-charging protection device and method applied to service robot
CN114142599A (en) * 2021-12-01 2022-03-04 山东新坐标智能装备有限公司 Robot power management system and method
CN115416779B (en) * 2022-11-04 2023-09-19 宿迁市玉合轩科技有限公司 Two-leg bionic robot based on gravity center adjustment and balancing method thereof
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