CN101354191A - System for utilizing solar step developing heat - Google Patents

System for utilizing solar step developing heat Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101354191A
CN101354191A CNA2008101560344A CN200810156034A CN101354191A CN 101354191 A CN101354191 A CN 101354191A CN A2008101560344 A CNA2008101560344 A CN A2008101560344A CN 200810156034 A CN200810156034 A CN 200810156034A CN 101354191 A CN101354191 A CN 101354191A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
temperature
receiver
solar energy
heat utilization
energy cascade
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CNA2008101560344A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张红
许辉
白穜
战栋栋
丁莉
陶汉中
陈兴元
庄骏
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南京工业大学
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Priority to CNA2008101560344A priority Critical patent/CN101354191A/en
Publication of CN101354191A publication Critical patent/CN101354191A/en

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/46Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling or solar thermal engines

Abstract

The invention relates to a cascade-developed heat utilization system of solar energy, which adopts that: in a low temperature section, a complex parabolic condenser is matched with a normal temperature receiver and the normal temperature receiver is output to an intermediate temperature section; in the intermediate temperature section, a parabolic trench-typed condenser is matched with an intermediate temperature receiver which is output to a high temperature section through a gas-water separator; in the high temperature section, a disk-typed condenser is matched with a high-temperature receiver which is output to a steam turbine. The cascade-developed heat utilization system of solar energy of the invention solves the defects that disk type is too expensive in manufacturing, and the trench type incurs the conflict between the reliability and the efficiency at high temperature, and the like. The effects of the cascade-developed heat utilization system of solar energy of the invention lie in that: the low temperature section adopts the complex parabolic condenser, the intermediate temperature section adopts the parabolic trench-typed condenser and the high temperature section adopts the parabolic disk-typed condenser; the three heat collecting sections are connected in series and respective advantages thereof are utilized while respective defects thereof are avoided; the three heat collecting sections are led to be combined dynamically to produce synergistic effects.

Description

Solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of Solar Energy Heat Utilization System, particularly a kind of Solar Energy Heat Utilization System of cascade development.

Background technology

In all multipaths that conversion of solar energy is utilized, in the high temperature solar heat utilization be unusual important techniques, promptly adopt the focusing heat collection technology, produce the high-temperature gas or the steam that are enough to drive thermal machine, finally can drive generator for electricity generation, solar energy thermal-power-generating technology that Here it is.

Before the present invention, that the type of skill that solar energy thermal-power-generating adopted is mainly is tower, slot type and dish formula.Defectives such as tower have that generate output is big, the simple advantage of technology path, but it is huge also to exist receiver, makes difficulty, and system's initial cost is big.Slot type and dish formula then still are in the experimental study stage, do not possess business-like condition.Tracing it to its cause, mainly is that the technical bottleneck of critical component has limited it and further develops.Slot type and dish formula representative be two kinds of different thermal-arrest principles, the former is a line focus, the latter then is a point focusing.

The solar energy acquisition of line focus formula mainly contains dual mode, i.e. composite parabolic formula and paraboloid trough type.

The general opening of compound parabolic concentrator is less, so its optically focused is smaller, thereby can only realize lower heat-collecting temperature, and generally being used to provide life to use hot water, its benefit is not need follower, makes that the initial cost of system is very little.

The paraboloid trough type concentrator is because opening size can be bigger, make its optically focused than higher, can realize higher heat-collecting temperature, can be used for solar energy thermal-power-generating, being the paraboloid trough type concentrator is focused to the tubular type receiver that is on its focal line with the sunshine of incident, thereby the high steam pushing turbine running that produces about 400 ℃ is used for generating.Because what adopt is line focus, need be at the surface coverage coating for selective absorption of its receiver in order to improving the collecting efficiency of receiver, and the temperature tolerance of this coating still can't solve, and promptly temperature is high more, and its reliability is also poor more; Same because line focus, the thermal stress square of receiver is along with the length of receiver increases and constantly increases when operation, when particularly temperature is higher, to make receiver tangible bending occur because being heated inequality, thereby cause breaking of receiver glass bushing, thereby influenced the reliability of system's long-time running; In addition, the paraboloid trough type solar heat generating system only adopts the paraboloid trough type concentrator to carry out thermal-arrest, the water of Jing Chang porch lower temperature is also heated by it, and slot-type optical collector at this moment just seems and wastes one's talent on a petty job, and has increased the cost and the complexity of system virtually.

Therefore, the reliability of trough type solar power generation system is subjected to the appreciable impact of temperature, and temperature is high more, and its reliability is poor more.Yet the efficient and the maximum cycle temperature of Rankine cycle are closely bound up, and high more its cycle efficieny of temperature is just high more.Like this, the contradiction of reliability and efficient has just appearred, make the trough type solar power generation technology further investigation and apply and still be subjected to very big restriction.

In the disc type solar energy heat generating system, adopted the paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator sunshine to be gathered on the receiver that places its focus place with the form of point focusing, produce HTHP working medium and promote thermal machine and be used for generating.Because this optically focused mode can realize exceeding than slot-type optical collector tens times optically focused ratio, thereby can obtain higher heat-collecting temperature.Adopt the technology of Stirling circulation, cycle fluid adopts helium or hydrogen, and the highest theoretical efficiency of Stirling circulation approaches Carnot efficiency, so the hot generation technology of disc type solar energy has had the theoretical condition of applying.But in actual applications, because the research and development of Stirling engine are still immature with manufacturing, operational reliability can not guarantee that at all cost is too high simultaneously, and this just makes the practical application of this technology and popularization get into a difficult position.

In solar energy system, every kind of collector structure only is applicable to the working media that produces certain special parameter when work, and this is to be determined by the design feature of heat collector itself and operating characteristic.The heat-collecting temperature that line focus formula heat collector is fit to generally can not be too high.If pursue HTHP simply, then can cause the thermal (temperature difference) stress on the receiver, certainly will sacrifice the reliability of heat collector and system thereof.

Summary of the invention

Purpose of the present invention just is to overcome the defective of above-mentioned slot type and the hot generation technology of disc type solar energy, designs a kind of Solar Energy Heat Utilization System that can cascade development.

Technical scheme of the present invention is:

Solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system, its major technique are characterised in that by low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section, high temperature section series connection and constitute; Compound parabolic concentrator and normal temperature receiver coupling in the low-temperature zone, the normal temperature receiver exports middle-temperature section to; Paraboloid trough type concentrator and middle temperature receiver coupling in the middle-temperature section, middle temperature receiver exports high temperature section to through steam-water separator; Dish formula concentrator and high-temperature receiver coupling in the high temperature section, high-temperature receiver exports steam turbine to.

Advantage of the present invention and effect are that solar heat power generation system is divided into 3 thermal-arrest sections carries out thermal-arrest, 3 thermal-arrest sections are respectively low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section and high temperature section, low-temperature zone adopts the composite parabolic heat collector, middle-temperature section adopts the paraboloid trough type heat collector, high temperature section then adopts paraboloid of revolution dish formula heat collector, above-mentioned 3 thermal-arrest sections are together in series, and are low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section and high temperature section from front to back by the working medium flow direction.Utilize their advantages separately respectively, avoid their defectives separately simultaneously, make between the three to organically combine, produce synergy.

Among the present invention composite parabolic heat collector, paraboloid trough type heat collector, the series connection of dish formula heat collector are used, preceding two kinds of heat collectors are used to produce saturated vapor, and it is overheated that dish formula heat collector then is used for saturated vapor is carried out.The lower part of temperature in system utilizes the composite parabolic heat collector to finish the thermal-arrest process, because the composite parabolic heat collector does not need follower, and support is simpler compared to the paraboloid trough type heat collector, therefore can significantly reduce cost; And at middle-temperature section, heat-collecting temperature is strictly controlled in certain scope, compare with conventional trough type solar power generation system, has lower temperature, thereby reduced the issuable thermal stress of middle-temperature section receiver, the reliability of middle-temperature section is significantly improved, temperature range more than the middle-temperature section outlet temperature, then all finish thermal-arrest by dish formula heat collector, because dish formula heat collector and receiver can reach and bear higher temperature and pressure, so just improved system reliability to a great extent.

The present invention is according to the temperature characterisitic of solar energy acquisition process, the thermal-arrest mode of ladder-type has been proposed, reduced the investment of low-temperature zone, reduced the influence that elevated temperature heat stress brings in the slot type heat collection technology, in the middle of dish formula heat collector, because of middle-temperature section has produced saturated vapor, working medium is that monophasic fluid is a steam, the unstability of so just having avoided two-phase fluid to bring; And from electricity generating plan, compare with the hot generation technology of disc type solar energy of routine, then be transferred to Rankine cycle from the Stirling circulation, avoided this technical bottleneck of Stirling engine effectively, the steam turbine that adopts technology maturation makes the high efficient and reliable exploitation of solar energy be easy to more realize as thermal machine.Generally speaking, brought into play advantage separately respectively, made solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system of the present invention have the characteristics of low cost, high efficiency and high reliability just because of 3 thermal-arrest sections.

Description of drawings:

Fig. 1--system principle schematic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2--the high temperature section heat collector schematic diagram among the present invention.

The specific embodiment:

As shown in Figure 1, the present invention includes three thermal-arrest sections of three types collector system composition, is respectively low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section and high temperature section.Low-temperature zone is provided with compound parabolic concentrator 1 and normal temperature receiver 2, the two coupling, i.e. and the working medium of compound parabolic concentrator 1 optically focused to the normal temperature receiver 2, working medium is water among the present invention; Normal temperature receiver 2 has absorbed the solar radiation after focusing on, and with the working medium in the heat transferred pipe, its temperature is raise, and forms low-temperature water heating, and the working medium in the normal temperature receiver 2 just enters middle-temperature section afterwards.Middle-temperature section is provided with paraboloid trough type concentrator 3 and middle temperature receiver 4, also mate, during entering, (circulation) working medium absorbed the solar radiation of assembling by paraboloid trough type concentrator 3 behind the warm receiver 4, and with heat transferred working medium, make it become saturated vapor, enter steam-water separator 15 then, enter high temperature section again by steam-water separator 15 isolated saturated vapors.High temperature section is provided with paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator 5 and high-temperature receiver 6, the two also mates, the saturated vapor that is produced by middle-temperature section enters into after the high-temperature receiver 6, absorbed the solar radiation after paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator 5 focuses on, form the superheated steam of higher temperature, superheated steam then enters steam turbine 7 as required and generates electricity; The exhaust steam of discharging from steam turbine 7 enters condenser 8, and heat is emitted, and waste heat can be realized refrigeration through Absorption Refrigerator 9, and a large amount of heat energy that Absorption Refrigerator 9 is discharged can be used for heat supply water.The supplementing water that water after being condensed by condenser 8 is then carried with feed pump 10 enters feedwater surge tank 11, the front end of feedwater surge tank 11 is provided with booster water pump 12, and booster water pump 12 is brought up to certain pressure with hydraulic pressure and is transported in the middle of the normal temperature receiver 2 of low-temperature zone as working medium.So far, solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system of the present invention has been finished a circulation.

The present invention is provided with the supplementary energy supplementary device for each thermal-arrest section, is used for when solar radiation is not enough system thermal input being replenished.Normal temperature receiver 2 exits in low-temperature zone are provided with water heater 13, adopt the mode of burning to heat water by wherein, open when solar radiation is not enough; Middle temperature receiver 4 exits at middle-temperature section are provided with steam boiler 14, produce the saturated vapor of set parameter when being used for the solar radiation deficiency; As shown in Figure 2, in high temperature section, below each high-temperature receiver 6, be provided with burner 16, when the solar radiation deficiency, burner 16 was not flexible automatically when the outlet steam parameter of high-temperature receiver 6 reached system requirements, burner is extended in the middle of the high-temperature receiver 6, and at this moment, burner 16 igniting automatically heats.By above scheme, then can realize the round-the-clock running of solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system.

In low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section and high temperature section, a plurality of normal temperature receivers 2, middle temperature receiver 4 and high-temperature receiver 6 are arranged respectively, but all serial or parallel connection uses.Wherein normal temperature receiver 2 places on the focal line of compound parabolic concentrator 1, in warm receiver 4 place on the focal line of paraboloid trough type concentrator 3, high-temperature receiver 6 then places the focus place of paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator 5, the strict coupling of above-mentioned receiver and concentrator.When system moved, middle temperature receiver 4 remained unchanged with paraboloid trough type concentrator 3 relative positions, and high-temperature receiver 6 remains unchanged with paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator 5 relative positions.

Three thermal-arrest sections of above-mentioned solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system correspond respectively to different operating temperatures, for present embodiment, the middle-temperature section outlet temperature is controlled in 250 ℃, so just can improve the reliability of middle temperature receiver 4 so that the thermal stress on the middle temperature receiver 4 remains in the very little scope.Low-temperature zone adopts compound parabolic concentrator 1, makes system's initial cost significantly reduce compared to the trough type solar power generation station of routine.High temperature section adopts paraboloid of revolution dish formula concentrator 5 and high-temperature receiver 6, high-temperature receiver 6 adopts the heat pipe-type receiver, make the solar steam generation technology be easier to realize higher operational factor, temperature can reach more than 500 ℃, simultaneously because the Rankine cycle maturity of technology makes this system more reliable than the conventional hot generation technology of disc type solar energy.

Except that above embodiment, the present invention can have numerous embodiments, allly replaces or similar combined transformation all drops within the protection domain that the present invention requires in the equivalence implemented on the basis of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system is characterized in that being made of low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section, high temperature section series connection; Compound parabolic concentrator and normal temperature receiver coupling in the low-temperature zone, the normal temperature receiver exports middle-temperature section to; Paraboloid trough type concentrator and middle temperature receiver coupling in the middle-temperature section, middle temperature receiver exports high temperature section to through steam-water separator; Dish formula concentrator and high-temperature receiver coupling in the high temperature section, high-temperature receiver exports steam turbine to.
2. solar energy cascade according to claim 1 exploitation heat utilization system, it is characterized in that working medium successively from the exit of low-temperature zone, middle-temperature section and high temperature section produce respectively low-temperature water heating, have enough to eat and wear and steam, hyperthermia and superheating steam.
3. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that steam turbine output connects condenser, and condenser output connects refrigeration machine, feedwater surge tank respectively.
4. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that the exit of low-temperature zone normal temperature receiver is provided with water heater.
5. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that warm receiver exit is provided with steam boiler in the middle-temperature section.
6. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that high temperature section high-temperature receiver below is provided with burner.
7. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that a plurality of normal temperature receiver serial or parallel connections.
8. solar energy cascade according to claim 1 exploitation heat utilization system, it is characterized in that a plurality of in warm receiver serial or parallel connection.
9. solar energy cascade exploitation heat utilization system according to claim 1 is characterized in that a plurality of high-temperature receiver serial or parallel connections.
CNA2008101560344A 2008-09-26 2008-09-26 System for utilizing solar step developing heat CN101354191A (en)

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