CN101252088A - Realizing method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device - Google Patents

Realizing method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device Download PDF

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CN101252088A
CN101252088A CNA2008100178352A CN200810017835A CN101252088A CN 101252088 A CN101252088 A CN 101252088A CN A2008100178352 A CNA2008100178352 A CN A2008100178352A CN 200810017835 A CN200810017835 A CN 200810017835A CN 101252088 A CN101252088 A CN 101252088A
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gan
grid
algan
growth
hemt
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CN101252088B (en
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张进城
郑鹏天
郝跃
董作典
王冲
张金风
吕玲
秦雪雪
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西安电子科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a realization method for a novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, relating to the microelectronic technical field. The realization method has low cost, simple technique, good repeatability, high reliability and small damage on materials. The enhancement type HEMT device with high threshold voltage and nano-sized effective channel length can be obtained. The invention adopts the method of etching a table top after growth of an AlN nucleating layer and a GaN epitaxial layer and before growth of a secondary GaN epitaxial layer and an AlGaN layer to make heterojunction materials on the side face of the table top grow along the nonpolarized direction, thereby the air density of two-dimensional electrons in the heterojunction materials on the side face of the table top is greatly reduced. A grid electrode of the device is produced on the side face of the table top; under the condition of no additional voltage on the grid electrode, a conductive channel can not be switched on or weakly switched on; under the condition of certain additional positive bias on the grid electrode, the conductive channel is switched on. The invention can be used in a high-temperature high-frequency high-power situation, a high-power switch and a digital circuit.

Description

A kind of implementation method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device

Technical field

The invention belongs to microelectronics technology, relate to semi-conducting material, device making technics technology.Specifically a kind of implementation method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device can be used in high temperature high-frequency high-power occasion, high power switch and the digital circuit.

Background technology

As the typical case of semiconductor material with wide forbidden band representative, characteristics such as the GaN sill has that energy gap is big, electronics saturation drift velocity height, disruptive field intensity height and good heat conductivity can be used for making high temperature, high frequency and high-power electronic device.The more important thing is, the GaN sill can form the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure of modulation doping, this structure at room temperature can obtain very high electron mobility, high peak value velocity of electrons and saturated electrons speed, and obtain the two-dimensional electron gas density higher than second generation compound semiconductor heterostructure.Therefore, the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction has extraordinary application prospect aspect the HIGH-POWERED MICROWAVES device.1994 so far, and the development of the growth of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction material and AlGaN/GaN HEMT device is all the time in occupation of the main status of GaN electronic device research.Yet the major part work at the research of GaN base electron device concentrates on depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT device for over ten years, this be because with compare based on the heterostructure of InP and GaAs, the existence of strong polarization charge in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, make the enhancement device of making based on GaN become very difficult, also less about this report on the one hand.

Enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device has broad application prospects.At first enhancement mode HEMT device and depletion type HEMT device have great application prospect in digital circuits such as high temperature, radioresistance in conjunction with the phase inverter that forms.Enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device also has very big application potential and good circuit compatibility at microwave high power device and circuit simultaneously, because still Si base that present microwave power amplifier adopts mostly and the basic enhancement device of GaAs.And as the power switch application, enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device also receives much concern.Thereby research high-performance enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device has very important significance.

At present, no matter be internal and international on, few people adopt traditional barrier layer P type Mg doping techniques to develop enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device.This is because at first, the technology that Mg mixes is still immature; Secondly, Mg activation energy in AlGaN is very high, needs very high annealing temperature with it activation.Therefore, current also all is the method for having avoided P type heavy doping barrier layer about the report of AlGaN/GaN enhancement mode HEMT device in the world, but has adopted some new methods.These methods comprise:

Calendar year 2001, the people such as Kurnar of U.S. University of Illinois adopt recessed gate technique also successfully to be developed into AlGaN/GaN enhancement mode HEMT device.They have made change a little on traditional depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT device architecture, promptly behind growth AlGaN/GaN heterostructure on the Sapphire Substrate, do not have the direct electron beam evaporation and form grid, but pass through at Cl at pre-growth area of grid earlier 2Carry out groove of ICP-RIE etching in the/Ar plasma, on recessed grid window, make Ni/Au Schottky contacts grid after the rapid thermal annealing.Adjustment by depth of groove can exhaust the two-dimensional electron gas in the raceway groove greatly.This afterwards method is used always.Referring to document Kumar, V., et al.: ' Recessed 0.25mm gateAlGaN=GaN HEMTs on SiC with high gate-drain breakdown voltage using ICP-RIE ', Electron.Lett.2001,37, pp.1483-1485.2003, they utilized recessed gate technique again and by structure optimization, have successfully made one micron high transconductance enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT that grid are long with mocvd method on the SiC substrate.The peak value intrinsic transconductance of this device is 248mS/mm, and current density is 470mA/mm, and threshold voltage is 75mV, f TBe 8GHz, f MaxBe 26 GHz.Referring to document V.Kumar, A.Kuliev, T.Tanaka, Y.Otoki, and I.Adesida, " Hightransconductance enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC substrate; " Electron.Lett., vol.39, no.24, pp.1758-1760, Nov.2003.

In the last few years, found a kind of new technology in development in enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device abroad, promptly based on the plasma injection technique of fluoride.Find in the research that inject fluorine ion owing to the strong electronegativity of F ion in the AlGaN barrier layer, the F ion in the barrier layer will provide stable negative electrical charge, thereby can effectively exhaust the strong two-dimensional electron gas of channel region.After the F amount of ions of injecting reached some, the two-dimensional electron gas in the raceway groove exhausted fully, and originally the AlGaN/GaN HEMT of depletion type is converted into enhancement mode HEMT.2005, people such as the Y.CAI of electronic engineering portion of Hong Kong University of Science and Thchnology utilized and have successfully developed high performance enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device based on the plasma treatment technology of fluoride.It is reported that the thin layer carrier concentration is 1.3 * 10 under the room temperature 13Cm -2, mobility is 1000cm 2/ Vs, the threshold voltage of device are 0.9V, and maximum drain current is 310mA/mm, and the peak value mutual conductance is 148mS/mm, cut-off frequency f TBe 10.1GHz, the maximum resonance frequency f MaxBe 34.3GHz.Referring to document Y.Cai, Y.G.Zhou, K.J.Chen, and K.M.Lau, " High-performance enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using fluoride-based plasmatreatment, " IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol.26, no.7, pp.435-437.

Afterwards, all be based on recessed gate technique about the report of enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device and based on the plasma injection technique of fluoride, its performance also constantly refreshes.People such as the PALACOS of California, United States university in 2006 have developed a kind of high performance enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device with these two kinds of effective combinations of technology.The grid of this device are long to be 160nm, and threshold voltage is 0.1V, and the peak value mutual conductance has surpassed 400mS/mm, and maximum drain current has reached 1.2A/mm, cut-off frequency f TUnexpectedly also reach 85GHz, maximum resonance frequency f MaxBe 150GHz.Referring to document T.Palacios, A.Chakraborty, S.Keller, S.P.DenBaars, " High-performance E-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT, " IEEE Electron Device Lett.vol.27, no.6, JUNE 2006.

In sum, current, the making of enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device is mainly adopted recessed gate technique and based on the plasma injection technique of fluoride in the world.Also there is very big shortcoming at present in prior art, the one, threshold voltage is not high, at present the highest report have only 0.9V, be nowhere near for this threshold voltage of switch application; The 2nd, it still is that the fluorine ion injection all can cause damage to material that etching forms groove, though annealedly can eliminate certain damage, but residual damage still can impact device performance and reliability, and the repeatability of present this technology is also not high simultaneously; The 3rd, it is long to adopt high-grade process equipment such as electron-beam direct writing to make short grid when forming the short channel device towards microwave applications, and technology difficulty is bigger.

The content of invention

The objective of the invention is:, proposed a kind of implementation method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaNHEMT device in order to overcome the shortcoming of prior art.This implementation method cost is low, and technology is simple, good reproducibility, and the reliability height can not cause damage to material.Can obtain the enhancement mode HEMT device of high threshold voltage and nanoscale length of effective channel.

The object of the present invention is achieved like this: the present invention uses epitaxial growth technology, after AlN nucleating layer and GaN outer layer growth, before secondary GaN epitaxial loayer and AlGaN layer growth, adopt the method for etching table top, heterojunction material on the table top side is grown along non-polarized direction, thereby weakened the two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterojunction material on the table top side greatly.Like this, the grid of device is produced on the side of table top, when not having making alive on the grid, conducting channel can conducting or weak conducting; When adding certain positive bias on the grid, the conducting channel conducting.This enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT preparation of devices is undertaken by following several steps:

(1) on sapphire or silicon carbide substrates substrate, utilizes MOCVD or MBE technology, the growing AIN nucleating layer;

(2) on the AlN nucleating layer, the growing GaN epitaxial loayer;

(3) on the GaN epitaxial loayer, adopt ICP or RIE technology etching table top;

(4) behind the etching table top, the above-mentioned sample of making is put into reative cell, diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer;

(5) after the diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer, epitaxial growth AlGaN barrier layer;

(6) on the AlGaN barrier layer, adopt LPCVD or pecvd process deposit gate dielectric layer, gate dielectric layer can be SiO 2Perhaps SiN x

(7) after gate dielectric layer forms, photolithographic source, drain region, acquisition source, drain region window;

(8) adopt electron beam evaporation process, on source, drain region window, evaporate metal ohmic contact, formation source, drain electrode;

(9) after source, drain electrode form, photoetching area of grid window on gate dielectric layer, and on this gate window, adopt electron beam evaporation process evaporation gate metal, form grid;

(10) after grid formed, photoetching obtained the thickening electrode pattern.Adopt electron beam evaporation process afterwards, add thick electrode, finish the device manufacturing.

The implementation method of above-mentioned a kind of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, said its growth conditions of growing AIN nucleating layer is: the temperature of reative cell is controlled between 450 ℃~550 ℃, and reaction rate was less than 5nm/ minute, and thickness is 20nm~40nm.

The implementation method of above-mentioned a kind of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, said growing GaN epitaxial loayer, its growth conditions is: the temperature of reative cell is controlled between 900 ℃~1050 ℃, and reaction rate was less than 20nm/ minute, epitaxy layer thickness can be controlled, generally at 1~3 μ m.

The implementation method of above-mentioned a kind of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, said on the GaN epitaxial loayer etching table top, in the process of etching table top, the needed grid of the degree of depth visual organ spare of etching are long and decide.The purpose of etching table top is for the direction of growth of the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction material that is in the grid below thereon of growth after changing, and this regional heterojunction material is grown along non-polarised direction.Thereby weakened the two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterojunction of grid below greatly.

The implementation method of above-mentioned a kind of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, said diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer, it has not only improved the material surface quality behind the mesa etch effectively, the more important thing is, adjustment by secondary GaN epitaxy layer thickness, can change non-polarized angle of inclination, thus the enhancement mode HEMT device that acquisition has different threshold voltages, because the angle of inclination directly influences the two-dimensional electron gas density in non-polarized zone.

The implementation method of above-mentioned a kind of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, said on gate dielectric layer photoetching area of grid window, the area of grid window is chosen on the side of gate dielectric layer.Owing to have only extremely weak two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterojunction of area of grid below, when not having making alive on the grid, conducting channel can conducting or weak conducting; When adding certain positive bias on the grid, the conducting channel conducting.

The present invention compared with prior art has following advantage:

(1) method of the present invention's proposition, be by before the heterojunction material growth, carrying out mesa etch, heterojunction material on the table top side is grown along non-polarized direction, thereby weakened the two-dimensional electron gas in the heterojunction material on the table top side greatly, thereby two-dimensional electron gas exhausting rate height, the enhancement device threshold voltage that forms is higher, can reach more than the 1V.

(2) processing step during the present invention realizes all is current domestic relatively ripe, and technical process is also fairly simple, and cost is lower, complete and ripe depletion type GaN based hemts device preparation technology compatibility.Particularly can adopt the micron order lithography tool can form nano level length of effective channel, greatly reduce the technology difficulty of short channel length devices.

(3) method of the present invention's proposition is to use the epitaxial growth technology direct growth to obtain.This method is compared with ion implantation technique with groove etching commonly used abroad at present, effectively avoided etching and ion to inject the material damage that causes, so process repeatability is better, and device reliability is higher.

(4) the present invention has proposed a kind of implementation method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device for the first time at home, and having provided the implementation method of the integrated enhanced and depletion type HEMT inverter of monolithic, this will greatly expand the application of GaN based hemts device.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is single grid enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device profile structural representation that the embodiment of the invention 1 is finished

Fig. 2 is double grid enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device profile structural representation that the embodiment of the invention 2 is finished

Fig. 3 is the integrated enhanced and depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT inverter cross-sectional view of monolithic that the embodiment of the invention 3 is finished

Embodiment

Referring to Fig. 1, it is single grid enhanced AlGaN that embodiment 1 finishes among the present invention/GaN HEMT device profile structural representation.Growth substrates is selected 0001 surface sapphire substrate for use in the present embodiment, prepares single grid enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device according to following process:

1. Sapphire Substrate is placed the reative cell of metal organic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD equipment, the vacuum degree of reative cell is evacuated to 1 * 10 -2Under the Torr, down Sapphire Substrate is carried out high-temperature heat treatment and surfaces nitrided the mixed gas protected of hydrogen and ammonia, heating-up temperature is 1050 ℃, be 5min heating time, chamber pressure is 40Torr, and the feeding hydrogen flowing quantity is 1500sccm, and ammonia flow is 1500sccm;

2. underlayer temperature is reduced to 500 ℃, the maintenance growth pressure is 40Torr, and hydrogen flowing quantity is 1500sccm, and ammonia flow is 1500sccm, and feeding flow to reative cell is the aluminium source of 30 μ mol/min, is the low temperature AI N nucleating layer of 30nm with the growth thickness;

3. growth temperature being raise is 1000 ℃, and the maintenance growth pressure is 40Torr, and hydrogen flowing quantity is 1500sccm, and ammonia flow is 1500sccm, and feeding flow to reative cell is the gallium source of 50 μ mol/min, is the GaN epitaxial loayer of 2000nm with the growth thickness;

4. deposit silicon dioxide SiO 2: adopt electron evaporation equipment deposition thickness to be about the SiO of 150nm 2Layer.Increasing this step is in order to form SiO on sample 2With the double-deck mask graph that photoresist shields jointly, more help protecting not etch areas surface;

5. photoetching table top: sample is carried out positive-glue removing, and rotating speed is 5000 commentaries on classics/min, and then dries by the fire 10min in temperature is 80 ℃ baking oven, by photoetching and develop and form the required window of etching;

6.ICP etching: adopt ICP dry etching GaN layer, form table top.The electrode power that adopts during etching is 600W, and bias voltage is 120V, and pressure is 1Pa, and etch period is 200s;

7. except that the mask after the etching: adopt the positive glue after acetone is removed etching, in BOE, soak 1min then and remove SiO 2Mask cleans up with deionized water at last and dries up with nitrogen;

8. sample is placed once more the reative cell of metal organic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD equipment, the vacuum degree of reative cell is evacuated to 1 * 10 -2Under the Torr, down sample is heat-treated the mixed gas protected of hydrogen and ammonia, heating-up temperature is 1000 ℃, and be 5min heating time, and chamber pressure is 40Torr, and the feeding hydrogen flowing quantity is 1500sccm, and ammonia flow is 1500sccm;

9. repeating step 3, the GaN epitaxial loayer that diauxic growth 100nm is thick;

10. feed aluminium source and gallium source simultaneously to reative cell, control flow and reaction temperature well, the not doped with Al GaN separator of 3nm of growing successively, 15nmSi doped with Al GaN barrier layer and 5nm be doped with Al GaN cap layer not.The barrier layer doping content is 2 * 10 18Cm -3

11. form silicon nitride SiN gate dielectric layer: adopt PECVD equipment deposition thickness to be about the SiN layer of 5nm, adopt step 5 same procedure to form window then, adopt wet etching to remove the SiN dielectric film of source and drain areas at source and drain areas;

12. photolithographic source, drain region: for stripping metal better, at first get rid of binder on sample, rotating speed is 8000 commentaries on classics/min, and the time is 30s, dries by the fire 20min in temperature is 160 ℃ high temperature oven; And then on this sample positive-glue removing, rotating speed is 5000 commentaries on classics/min, at last dries by the fire 10min in temperature is 80 ℃ high temperature oven, photoetching obtains source, drain region window;

13. bottoming film: adopt the DQ-500 equipment for burning-off photoresist by plasma to remove the photoresist thin layer that window region does not develop clean, this step has improved the rate of finished products of peeling off greatly;

14. evaporation source, leakage metal: adopt four layers of metal of VPC-1100 electron beam evaporation equipment deposit Ti/Al/Ni/Au;

15. stripping metal and annealing: carry out sonicated after in acetone, soaking more than the 20min, dry up with nitrogen then.Sample put in the quick anneal oven anneal: at first fed nitrogen about about 7 minutes in annealing furnace, under nitrogen atmosphere, temperature is the high annealing that carries out 30s under 850 ℃ of conditions then;

16. photoetched grid regional window: get rid of binder on sample, rotating speed is 8000 commentaries on classics/min, and the time is 30s; In being 160 ℃ high temperature oven, temperature dries by the fire 20min; And then on this sample positive-glue removing, rotating speed is 5000 commentaries on classics/min, at last dries by the fire 10min in temperature is 80 ℃ high temperature oven, photoetching obtains gate window;

17. evaporation grid metal: adopt VPC-1100 electron beam evaporation equipment evaporation Ni/Au double layer of metal, subsequently sample is immersed in the stripper 2 minutes, obtain grid;

18. photoetching adds thick electrode: sample is carried out positive-glue removing, and rotating speed is 5000 commentaries on classics/min, dries by the fire 10min then in temperature is 80 ℃ high temperature oven, and photoetching subsequently obtains the thickening electrode pattern;

19. evaporation adds thick electrode and peels off: adopt VPC-1100 electron beam evaporation equipment evaporation Ti/Au double layer of metal, adopt stripping technology to obtain adding thick electrode then.So far finish the device manufacturing.

Referring to Fig. 2, it is the double grid enhanced AlGaN that embodiment 2 finishes among the present invention/GaN HEMT device profile structural representation.It is identical for the manufacture process of double grid enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device and embodiment 1.The shared source electrode of double grid enhanced AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, two grid, drain electrode and AlGaN barrier layers are symmetrical structure with respect to source electrode.The source of this device, leak metal and once finish by electron beam evaporation Ti/Al/Ni/Au, latter two grid once finish by electron beam evaporation Ti/Au.

Referring to Fig. 3, it is the integrated enhanced and depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT inverter cross-sectional view of monolithic that embodiment 3 finishes among the present invention.Growth substrates is still selected Sapphire Substrate for use, and preceding continuous preparation process is substantially the same manner as Example 1, just some variation of subsequent technique.

The main variation of subsequent technique is: the one, and the shared drain electrode of depletion type and enhancement mode HEMT device, their source, drain electrode are once finished by electron beam evaporation Ti/Al/Ni/Au; The 2nd, for depletion type HEMT device, in above-mentioned step 11, simultaneously the SiN medium of source, leakage metallic region and grid metallic region to be removed, depletion device adopts Ni/Au double-level-metal Schottky gate, and enhancement mode HEMT device adopts the medium grid.

For those skilled in the art; after having understood content of the present invention and principle; can be under the situation that does not deviate from the principle and scope of the present invention; the method according to this invention is carried out various corrections and the change on form and the details, but these are based on correction of the present invention with change still within claim protection range of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. the implementation method of a novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device, implementation step is as follows:
(1) on sapphire or silicon carbide substrates substrate, utilizes MOCVD or MBE technology, the growing AIN nucleating layer;
(2) on the AlN nucleating layer, the growing GaN epitaxial loayer;
(3) on the GaN epitaxial loayer, adopt ICP or RIE technology etching table top;
(4) behind the etching table top, the above-mentioned sample of making is put into reative cell, diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer;
(5) after the diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer, epitaxial growth AlGaN barrier layer;
(6) on the AlGaN barrier layer, adopt LPCVD or pecvd process deposit gate dielectric layer, gate dielectric layer can be SiO 2Perhaps SiN x
(7) after gate dielectric layer forms, photolithographic source, drain region, acquisition source, drain region window;
(8) adopt electron beam evaporation process, on source, drain region window, evaporate metal ohmic contact, formation source, drain electrode;
(9) after source, drain electrode form, photoetching area of grid window on gate dielectric layer, and on this gate window, adopt electron beam evaporation process evaporation gate metal, form grid;
(10) after grid formed, photoetching obtained the thickening electrode pattern, adopts electron beam evaporation process afterwards, adds thick electrode, finishes the device manufacturing.
2. the manufacture method of a kind of enhanced AlGaN according to claim 1/GaN HEMT device, said its growth conditions of growing AIN nucleating layer is: the temperature of reative cell is controlled between 450 ℃~550 ℃, reaction rate was less than 5nm/ minute, and thickness is 20nm~40nm.
3. the manufacture method of enhanced AlGaN according to claim 1/GaN HEMT device, said growing GaN epitaxial loayer, its growth conditions is: the temperature of reative cell is controlled between 900 ℃~1050 ℃, reaction rate was less than 20nm/ minute, epitaxy layer thickness can be controlled, generally at 1~3 μ m.
4. the manufacture method of enhanced AlGaN according to claim 1/GaN HEMT device, said on the GaN epitaxial loayer etching table top, in the process of etching table top, the needed grid of the degree of depth visual organ spare of etching are grown and are decided, the purpose of mesa etch is the direction of growth for the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction material that is in the grid below thereon of growth after changing, this regional heterojunction material is grown along non-polarised direction, thereby weakened the two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterojunction of grid below greatly.
5. the manufacture method of enhanced AlGaN according to claim 1/GaN HEMT device, said diauxic growth GaN epitaxial loayer, it has not only improved the material surface quality behind the mesa etch effectively, the more important thing is, adjustment by secondary GaN epitaxy layer thickness, can change non-polarized angle of inclination, thereby obtain to have the enhancement mode HEMT device of different Fujian threshold voltage, because the angle of inclination directly influences the two-dimensional electron gas density in non-polarized zone.
6. the manufacture method of enhanced AlGaN according to claim 1/GaN HEMT device, said on gate dielectric layer photoetching area of grid window, the area of grid window is chosen on the side of gate dielectric layer, owing to have only extremely weak two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterojunction of area of grid below, when not having making alive on the grid, conducting channel can conducting or weak conducting; When adding certain positive bias on the grid, the conducting channel conducting.
CN2008100178352A 2008-03-28 2008-03-28 Realizing method of novel enhancement type AlGaN/GaN HEMT device CN101252088B (en)

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