WO2022051879A1 - 电化学装置及电子装置 - Google Patents

电化学装置及电子装置 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2022051879A1
WO2022051879A1 PCT/CN2020/113873 CN2020113873W WO2022051879A1 WO 2022051879 A1 WO2022051879 A1 WO 2022051879A1 CN 2020113873 W CN2020113873 W CN 2020113873W WO 2022051879 A1 WO2022051879 A1 WO 2022051879A1
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Prior art keywords
tab
positive electrode
negative electrode
shell
electrochemical
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PCT/CN2020/113873
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
丁宇
严坤
梁迎春
Original Assignee
宁德新能源科技有限公司
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Application filed by 宁德新能源科技有限公司 filed Critical 宁德新能源科技有限公司
Priority to PCT/CN2020/113873 priority Critical patent/WO2022051879A1/zh
Priority to CN202080015246.XA priority patent/CN113454833A/zh
Publication of WO2022051879A1 publication Critical patent/WO2022051879A1/zh

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M50/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts of electrochemical cells other than fuel cells, e.g. hybrid cells
    • H01M50/10Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery
    • H01M50/102Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery characterised by their shape or physical structure
    • H01M50/103Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery characterised by their shape or physical structure prismatic or rectangular
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/058Construction or manufacture
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/058Construction or manufacture
    • H01M10/0585Construction or manufacture of accumulators having only flat construction elements, i.e. flat positive electrodes, flat negative electrodes and flat separators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/058Construction or manufacture
    • H01M10/0587Construction or manufacture of accumulators having only wound construction elements, i.e. wound positive electrodes, wound negative electrodes and wound separators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M50/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts of electrochemical cells other than fuel cells, e.g. hybrid cells
    • H01M50/10Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery
    • H01M50/102Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery characterised by their shape or physical structure
    • H01M50/107Primary casings, jackets or wrappings of a single cell or a single battery characterised by their shape or physical structure having curved cross-section, e.g. round or elliptic
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M50/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts of electrochemical cells other than fuel cells, e.g. hybrid cells
    • H01M50/50Current conducting connections for cells or batteries
    • H01M50/502Interconnectors for connecting terminals of adjacent batteries; Interconnectors for connecting cells outside a battery casing
    • H01M50/503Interconnectors for connecting terminals of adjacent batteries; Interconnectors for connecting cells outside a battery casing characterised by the shape of the interconnectors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M50/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts of electrochemical cells other than fuel cells, e.g. hybrid cells
    • H01M50/50Current conducting connections for cells or batteries
    • H01M50/531Electrode connections inside a battery casing
    • H01M50/538Connection of several leads or tabs of wound or folded electrode stacks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M50/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts of electrochemical cells other than fuel cells, e.g. hybrid cells
    • H01M50/50Current conducting connections for cells or batteries
    • H01M50/531Electrode connections inside a battery casing
    • H01M50/54Connection of several leads or tabs of plate-like electrode stacks, e.g. electrode pole straps or bridges
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product

Definitions

  • the present application relates to the field of electrochemical technology, and in particular, to an electrochemical device and an electronic device.
  • lithium-ion battery mainly relies on the movement of lithium ions between the positive electrode and the negative electrode to work.
  • lithium-ion batteries As a source of clean power and clean electricity, lithium-ion batteries have an increasingly prominent status and application in the new energy industry, and are widely used in various electronic products such as mobile terminals, power tools, and electric vehicles.
  • an electrochemical device comprising:
  • a first electrochemical cell includes a first encapsulation shell, a first electrode assembly located in the first encapsulation shell, and a first electrolyte filled in the first encapsulation shell, the first electrode assembly includes The first positive electrode tab and the first negative electrode tab extending out of the first package shell;
  • a second electrochemical cell includes a second encapsulation shell, a second electrode assembly located in the second encapsulation shell, and a second electrolyte filled in the second encapsulation shell, the second electrode assembly includes a second positive electrode tab and a second negative electrode tab protruding from the second packaging shell, the second negative electrode tab and the first positive electrode tab are arranged opposite to each other; and
  • a separator is arranged between the first electrochemical cell and the second electrochemical cell, the separator includes a separator, and the first encapsulation shell and the second encapsulation shell are respectively connected to the The isolation pad is fixedly connected, and the first positive electrode tab and the second negative electrode tab are electrically connected.
  • the separator further includes an electrical conductor disposed in the separator, and the first positive electrode tab and the second negative electrode tab are respectively electrically connected to the electrical conductor.
  • the isolation pad is provided with a through hole, the first positive electrode tab and the second negative electrode tab are directly electrically connected, and the connection is located in the through hole.
  • the first package shell and the second package shell are soldered to the isolation pads, respectively.
  • the first positive electrode tab and the second negative electrode tab are respectively welded to the electrical conductor.
  • the first electrochemical cell, the separator and the second electrochemical cell are cylindrical, prismatic or elliptical, and the electrical conductor is cylindrical, prismatic or elliptical columnar.
  • the material of the release pad includes at least one of plastic raw gum, paraben, modified polypropylene, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride.
  • the material of the electrical conductor includes at least one of copper, nickel, and copper-nickel alloys.
  • the first positive electrode tab includes a first positive electrode inner tab portion located in the first package shell, and is welded with the first positive electrode inner tab portion and protrudes from the first positive electrode tab portion. the first positive electrode of the package shell is connected to the tab part;
  • the first negative electrode tab includes a first negative electrode inner tab portion located in the first packaging case, and a first negative electrode welded with the first negative electrode inner tab portion and extending out of the first packaging case transfer tab;
  • the second positive electrode tab includes a second positive electrode inner tab portion located in the second packaging shell, and a second positive electrode welded with the second positive electrode inner tab portion and extending out of the second packaging shell transfer tab;
  • the second negative electrode tab includes a second negative electrode inner tab portion located in the second packaging shell, and a second negative electrode welded with the second negative electrode inner tab portion and extending out of the second packaging shell A transfer tab part, the second negative electrode transfer tab part and the first positive electrode transfer tab part are respectively welded with the conductor.
  • the first positive inner tab portion, the first negative inner tab portion, the second positive inner tab portion and the second negative inner tab portion respectively have full tabs structure.
  • the first electrode assembly and the second electrode assembly are respectively wound electrode assemblies
  • the inner tab portion of the first positive electrode, the inner tab portion of the first negative electrode, the inner tab portion of the second positive electrode, and the inner tab portion of the second negative electrode are respectively flattened and flattened.
  • the first electrode assembly and the second electrode assembly are respectively laminated electrode assemblies.
  • the first electrochemical cell further includes: a first positive electrode tab glue sealingly connecting the first positive electrode tab and the first packaging shell, and a first negative electrode tab the first negative electrode tab glue sealed with the ear and the first package shell;
  • the second electrochemical cell further includes: a second positive electrode tab glue sealingly connecting the second positive electrode tab and the second packaging shell, and connecting the second negative electrode tab with the second The second negative electrode tab glue that is sealed and connected to the packaging case.
  • the first electrochemical cell and the second electrochemical cell have the same nominal voltage and the same rated capacity.
  • the external dimensions of the first electrochemical cell and the second electrochemical cell are the same.
  • the materials of the first encapsulation shell and the second encapsulation shell include polymer composite films.
  • the materials of the first encapsulation shell and the second encapsulation shell include at least one of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, polyvinyl chloride, and plastic gum.
  • the electrochemical device further comprises:
  • a third packaging case encapsulates the first electrochemical cell, the separator and the second electrochemical cell, and exposes the first negative electrode tab and the second positive electrode tab.
  • an electronic device including the electrochemical device of any of the foregoing embodiments.
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic three-dimensional structure diagram of an electrochemical device according to some embodiments of the present application.
  • FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the electrochemical device according to some embodiments of the present application along the A-A direction of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a wound electrode assembly in some embodiments of the present application.
  • FIG. 4 is an exploded view of a laminated electrode assembly in some embodiments of the present application.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a laminated electrode assembly in some embodiments of the present application.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic three-dimensional structure diagram of an electrochemical device according to other embodiments of the present application.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic three-dimensional structure diagram of electrochemical devices according to further embodiments of the present application.
  • the basic working principle of a lithium ion battery is that lithium ions move between the positive electrode and the negative electrode with the electrolyte as a medium, so that the charging and discharging of the lithium ion battery can be realized.
  • lithium ions are extracted from the lattice of the positive electrode material, and inserted into the lattice of the negative electrode material after passing through the electrolyte, so that the negative electrode is rich in lithium and the positive electrode is poor in lithium; when the lithium ion battery is discharged, the lithium ions are removed from the negative electrode.
  • the material is released from the lattice of the material, and inserted into the lattice of the positive electrode material after passing through the electrolyte, so that the positive electrode is rich in lithium and the negative electrode is depleted in lithium.
  • the embodiments of the present application provide an electrochemical device and an electronic device including the electrochemical device.
  • the electrochemical device generates less heat during high-power discharge and has higher discharge safety.
  • the electrochemical device 100 provided by some embodiments of the present application includes:
  • the first electrochemical cell 1A includes a first encapsulation shell 11A, a first electrode assembly 12A located in the first encapsulation shell 11A, and a first electrolyte 13A filled in the first encapsulation shell 11A, and the first electrode assembly 12A including a first positive electrode tab 14Aa and a first negative electrode tab 14Ab extending out of the first packaging case 11A;
  • the second electrochemical cell 1B includes a second encapsulation shell 11B, a second electrode assembly 12B located in the second encapsulation shell 11B, and a second electrolyte 13B filled in the second encapsulation shell 11B, and the second electrode assembly 12B comprising a second positive electrode tab 14Ba and a second negative electrode tab 14Bb extending out of the second packaging shell 11B, and the second negative electrode tab 14Bb and the first positive electrode tab 14Aa are disposed opposite to each other; and
  • the spacer 5 is disposed between the first electrochemical cell 1A and the second electrochemical cell 1B, the spacer 5 includes a spacer pad 51, and the first package shell 11A and the second package shell 11B are respectively connected to the spacer pad 51, Also, the first positive electrode tab 14Aa and the second negative electrode tab 14Bb are electrically connected.
  • the electrochemical device 100 includes two electrochemical cells, which are the first electrochemical cell 1A and the second electrochemical cell 1B, respectively.
  • the number of included spacers 5 is one.
  • the number of electrochemical cells included in the electrochemical device may also be three or more, for example, the first electrochemical cell, the second electrochemical cell, the The third electrochemical cells..., etc., these electrochemical cells are arranged in a line, and a spacer of the above structure is arranged between any two adjacent electrochemical cells, so as to realize a certain number of electrochemical cells. of electrochemical cells in series.
  • the first packaging case 11A and the second packaging case 11B are respectively welded with the isolation pads 51 , for example, through an ultrasonic welding process to achieve hermetic welding.
  • the separator 5 further includes a conductor 52 disposed in the isolation pad 51 , and the first positive electrode tab 14Aa and the second negative electrode tab 14Bb are respectively electrically connected to the conductor 52 .
  • the first positive electrode tabs 14Aa and the second negative electrode tabs 14Bb may be respectively welded to the conductors 52 , for example, by a laser welding process, to achieve electrical connection.
  • first encapsulation shell 11A and the second encapsulation shell 11B may also be sealed and bonded to the isolation pad 51 through insulating sealants, respectively, so as to realize fixed connection.
  • the first positive electrode tab 14Aa and the second negative electrode tab 14Bb can be designed to be respectively Elastic contact with both ends of the conductor 52 to achieve electrical connection.
  • the spacer 5 may only include spacer pads 51 .
  • the isolation pad 51 is provided with a through hole, the first positive electrode tab 14Aa and the second negative electrode tab 14Bb are directly electrically connected, and the connection is located in the through hole.
  • the first electrode assembly 12A and the second electrode assembly 12B in the embodiments of the present application may be wound electrode assemblies, respectively.
  • a conventional wound electrode assembly includes: a positive pole piece 121a and a negative pole piece 121b that are wound and arranged after lamination, a separator 123 located between the positive pole piece 121a and the negative pole piece 121b, The positive tab 14a is connected to the positive pole piece 121a, and the negative pole tab 14b is connected to the negative pole piece 121b.
  • the main structures of the positive electrode sheet 121a and the negative electrode sheet 121b of the wound electrode assembly both include a current collector and an active material layer on the surface of the current collector. Taking the positive electrode sheet 121a as an example, its current collector has an empty foil area at one edge along the winding direction, that is, the area not covered by the active material layer.
  • the negative pole piece 121b is similar in structure to the positive pole piece 121a, but the materials used are different. For details, please refer to the preparation examples of the positive pole piece and the negative pole piece below.
  • a part of the separator 123 serves as the outermost layer of the wound electrode assembly, that is, is exposed to the circumference of the wound electrode assembly. side surface.
  • a part of the pole piece eg, the positive pole piece 121a or the negative pole piece 121b
  • a part of the separator 123 and a part of the pole piece may be used together as the outermost layer of the wound electrode assembly.
  • the corresponding area of the current collector can be coated with active material on both sides or only the inner surface.
  • the positive electrode piece 121a and the positive electrode tab 14a serve as the positive electrode of the electrochemical cell
  • the negative electrode electrode piece 121b and the negative electrode tab 14b serve as the negative electrode of the electrochemical cell.
  • the positive pole piece 121 a and the negative pole piece 121 b are soaked in the electrolyte and separated by the separator 123 .
  • the function of the separator 123 is to allow free passage of lithium ions but not allow electrons to pass through, thereby preventing a short circuit between the positive electrode and the negative electrode through the electrolyte.
  • the first electrode assembly 12A is of a wound type
  • the first positive electrode tab 14Aa includes a first positive electrode inner tab portion 141Aa located in the first package shell 11A, and a first positive electrode inner tab portion 141Aa
  • the first positive electrode adapter tab portion 142Aa is welded and protrudes out of the first packaging case 11A
  • the first negative electrode tab 14Ab includes a first negative electrode inner tab portion 141Ab located in the first packaging case 11A, and is connected with the first negative electrode inner tab portion 141Ab.
  • the tab portion 141Ab is welded and protrudes from the first negative electrode adapter tab portion 142Ab of the first packaging case 11A.
  • the second positive electrode tab 14Ba includes a second positive electrode inner tab portion 141Ba located in the second package shell 11B, and is welded to the second positive electrode inner tab portion 141Ba and The second positive electrode adapter tab portion 142Ba extending out of the second package shell 11B;
  • the second negative electrode tab portion 14Bb includes a second negative electrode inner tab portion 141Bb located in the second package shell 11B, and is connected with the second negative electrode inner tab portion 141Bb.
  • the portion 141Bb is welded and protrudes from the second negative electrode adapter tab portion 142Bb of the second package 11B.
  • the second negative electrode adapter tab portion 142Bb and the first positive electrode adapter tab portion 142Aa are welded to both sides of the conductor 52, respectively.
  • the first positive electrode inner tab portion 141Aa, the first negative electrode inner tab portion 141Ab, the second positive electrode inner tab portion 141Ba and the second negative electrode inner tab portion 141Bb respectively have full tab structures.
  • the full-pole-tab structure is formed by winding the hollow foil area continuously extending in a strip shape along one edge of the current collector winding direction of the pole piece.
  • the first positive electrode inner tab portion 141Aa, the first negative electrode inner tab portion 141Ab, the second positive electrode inner tab portion 141Ba and the second negative electrode inner tab portion 141Bb are finally flat.
  • first positive electrode inner tab portion, first negative electrode inner tab portion, second positive electrode inner tab portion, and second negative electrode inner tab portion may also include a plurality of spaced arrangements, respectively. of sheet-like units, which are finally flattened after being rolled and flattened.
  • the inner electrode tabs are arranged in the encapsulation shell, and the transfer tabs are extended out of the encapsulation shell for serial connection with adjacent electrochemical cells or circuit structures of electronic devices.
  • Such a design not only facilitates the processing and manufacture of the pole piece, but also facilitates the lead-out of the pole lug from the encapsulation case.
  • the first electrode assembly and the second electrode assembly in the embodiments of the present application may also be stacked electrode assemblies.
  • the stacked electrode assembly includes a plurality of positive electrode pieces 121 a and a plurality of negative electrode pieces 121 b that are alternately stacked.
  • the pole piece of the laminated electrode assembly eg, the positive pole piece 121a or the negative pole piece 121b
  • one of the positive electrode pieces 121a and one of the negative electrode pieces 121b are respectively used as the surface layers of the stacked electrode assembly.
  • two separators 123 may be used as the surface layers of the stacked electrode assembly, respectively.
  • the separator 123 may be used as one surface layer of the stacked electrode assembly, and the positive electrode sheet 121a or the negative electrode electrode 121b may be used as the other surface layer of the stacked electrode assembly.
  • the positive pole piece 121a or the negative pole piece 121b is used as the surface layer of the laminated electrode assembly, the corresponding region of the current collector can be coated with active material on both sides or only the inner surface.
  • the tabs of the electrode assembly can also adopt a design similar to the tabs of the aforementioned wound electrode assembly. Pole lead out.
  • the first electrochemical cell 1A further includes: a first positive electrode tab glue 144Aa sealingly connecting the first positive electrode tab 14Aa to the first packaging shell 11A, and a first positive electrode tab glue 144Aa
  • the first negative electrode tab glue 144Ab sealingly connected to the negative electrode tab 14Ab and the first packaging case 11A
  • the second electrochemical cell 1B further includes: a second positive electrode sealingly connecting the second positive electrode tab 14Ba to the second packaging case 11B Tab glue 144Ba, and second negative electrode tab glue 144Bb sealingly connecting the second negative electrode tab 14Bb to the second packaging shell 11B.
  • the way of sealing connection is, for example, sealing and bonding with the package shell through a hot-melt process. On the one hand, it can prevent the short circuit between the pole piece and the package shell, and on the other hand, it can play a sealing function to prevent leakage of electrolyte.
  • the aforementioned first electrochemical cell 1A, second electrochemical cell 1B and separator 5 are cylindrical. In other embodiments of the present application, the aforementioned first electrochemical cells, second electrochemical cells and separators may also be prism-shaped.
  • the aforementioned first electrochemical cell 1A, second electrochemical cell 1B and separator 5 are in the shape of a rectangle, and the first electrode assembly and the second electrode assembly inside are respectively wound electrodes assembly, or a stacked electrode assembly, respectively.
  • the first electrochemical cell, the second electrochemical cell and the separator are in the shape of an elliptical cylinder.
  • the separator 5 may also be inconsistent with the peripheral shape of the electrochemical cell 1, for example, the first electrochemical cell 1A and the second electrochemical cell 1B are both cylindrical and The cross-sectional radius is the same, and the spacer is in the shape of a regular hexagonal prism and the radius of the inscribed circle of its cross-section is not less than the cross-sectional radius of the cylinder.
  • the shape of the conductor 52 of the spacer 5 is not limited, for example, it can be cylindrical, prismatic, or elliptical, and so on.
  • the material of the release pad 51 includes raw plastic (LCP), paraben (PHBA), modified polypropylene (PP), polyester (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) at least one of them.
  • the material of the conductor 52 includes at least one of copper, nickel, and copper-nickel alloys.
  • the material of the first positive transfer tab portion 142Aa and the second positive transfer tab portion 142Ba includes aluminum; the material of the first negative transfer tab portion 142Ab and the second negative transfer tab portion 142Bb includes nickel or copper plating nickel.
  • the first packaging case 11A and the second packaging case 11B serve as watch cases of the electrochemical device 100 .
  • the materials of the first encapsulation shell 11A and the second encapsulation shell 11B include polymer composite films, for example, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), plastic raw glue (LCP) at least one.
  • the materials of the first encapsulation shell 11A and the second encapsulation shell 11B include aluminum-plastic composite films, and the structure of the aluminum-plastic composite films includes modified polypropylene (PP) layers arranged in sequence along the direction away from the electrode assembly , aluminum layer and polyester (PET) layer.
  • PP polypropylene
  • the aluminum-plastic composite film has good barrier properties, electrolyte resistance stability, cold stamping formability, puncture resistance and insulation.
  • the first encapsulation shell 11A and the second encapsulation shell 11B are made of aluminum-plastic composite film material, which can have a good protection effect on the internal structure.
  • the electrochemical device 100 further includes a third encapsulation shell 3 , and the third encapsulation shell 3 encapsulates the aforementioned first electrochemical cell 1A and second electrochemical cell 1B and the separator 5, and the first negative electrode tab 14Ab and the second positive electrode tab 14Ba are exposed. If the electrochemical device includes three or more electrochemical cells, the third encapsulation shell 3 encapsulates the three or more electrochemical cells, and the isolation provided between any two electrochemical cells and expose the positive tab of the electrochemical cell at one end and the negative tab of the electrochemical cell at the other end.
  • the materials of the first encapsulation shell 11A and the second encapsulation shell 11B include polymer composite films, for example including at least parabens (PHBA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and plastic raw glue (LCP).
  • the material of the third encapsulation shell 3 includes a polymer composite film, for example, the polymer composite film includes at least one of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and plastic raw glue (LCP), or, a third
  • the packaging shell 3 is made of aluminum-plastic composite film material.
  • the electrochemical cell 1A and the electrochemical cell 1B have the same nominal voltage and the same rated capacity, and the electrochemical cell 1A and the electrochemical cell 1B have the same external dimensions.
  • the electrochemical cell 1A and the electrochemical cell 1B have the same cross-sectional shape and size perpendicular to the arrangement direction, but different length dimensions along the arrangement direction.
  • the electrochemical device is, for example, a lithium-ion battery.
  • the embodiment of the present application increases the nominal voltage of the electrochemical device by connecting a certain number of electrochemical cells in series, thereby reducing the normal discharge current and
  • the maximum discharge current can significantly reduce the heat generation of the electrochemical device during operation, therefore, the occurrence of thermal runaway can be effectively reduced, and the discharge safety of the electrochemical device can be improved.
  • a single lithium-ion battery with a model of 18650 in the related art that is, the lithium-ion battery has a cylindrical shape, a diameter of 18mm and a length of 65mm), and its nominal voltage is 3.7 volts (referring to the discharge during the use of the battery).
  • Platform voltage the rated capacity is 3000 mA, and the heat generation power is about 0.36w when working at a 1C discharge rate.
  • a 18650 model lithium-ion battery is also used, which includes two electrochemical cells connected in series through a separator, such as the first electrochemical cell 1A and the second electrochemical cell shown in FIG. 1 respectively.
  • Electrochemical cell 1B wherein the thickness of the separator is 3mm, the diameter of each electrochemical cell is 18mm, the length is 31mm, the nominal voltage is 3.7V, and the rated capacity is 1500mAh.
  • the lithium-ion battery has a nominal voltage of 7.4 volts and a rated capacity of 3000 mAh. It also operates at a 1C discharge rate and generates a heat power of about 0.197W.
  • the negative electrode electrode sheet includes a negative electrode current collector and a negative electrode active material layer.
  • the material of the negative electrode current collector is not particularly limited, for example, copper foil, aluminum foil, aluminum alloy foil, or composite current collector is used.
  • the material of the negative electrode active material layer is not particularly limited, and includes, for example, at least one of artificial graphite, natural graphite, mesocarbon microspheres, soft carbon, hard carbon, silicon, silicon carbon, lithium titanate, and the like.
  • the positive electrode sheet is not particularly limited, for example, the positive electrode sheet includes a positive electrode current collector and a positive electrode active material layer.
  • the material of the positive electrode current collector is not particularly limited, for example, aluminum foil, aluminum alloy foil, or composite current collector is used.
  • the material of the positive electrode active material layer is not particularly limited, and includes, for example, at least one of NCM811, NCM622, NCM523, NCM111, NCA, lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium manganese iron phosphate, or lithium titanate.
  • the electrolyte is not particularly limited.
  • the electrolyte may be in any of a gel state, a solid state, and a liquid state.
  • the liquid electrolyte includes a lithium salt and a non-aqueous solvent.
  • lithium salts include lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF 4 ), lithium difluorophosphate (LiPO 2 F 2 ), bistrifluoromethanesulfonimide Lithium LiN(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 (LiTFSI), Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide Li(N(SO 2 F) 2 )(LiFSI), Lithium Bisoxalate Borate LiB(C 2 O 4 ) 2 (LiBOB) ) or at least one of lithium difluorooxalate borate LiBF 2 (C 2 O 4 ) (LiDFOB).
  • LiPF 6 can be selected as the lithium salt.
  • the non-aqueous solvent is not particularly limited in the embodiments of the present application.
  • the non-aqueous solvent includes at least one of carbonate compounds, carboxylate compounds, ether compounds, nitrile compounds or other organic solvents.
  • the carbonate compound may include diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), dipropyl carbonate (DPC), methyl propyl carbonate (MPC), ethyl propyl carbonate ( EPC), methyl ethyl carbonate (MEC), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylene carbonate (BC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), 1,2-difluoroethylene carbonate, 1,1-difluoroethylene carbonate, 1,1,2-trifluoroethylene carbonate, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorocarbonate Ethylene carbonate, 1-fluoro-2-methylethylene carbonate, 1-fluor
  • the separator includes polymers or inorganic substances formed from materials that are stable to the electrolyte.
  • the separator should be ionically conductive and electronically insulating.
  • the separator includes a substrate layer and a surface treatment layer.
  • the substrate layer is, for example, a non-woven fabric, film or composite film with a porous structure
  • the material of the substrate layer is, for example, at least one selected from polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide. kind.
  • the substrate layer adopts polypropylene porous film, polyethylene porous film, polypropylene non-woven fabric, polyethylene non-woven fabric or polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene porous composite film.
  • at least one surface of the substrate layer is provided with a surface treatment layer, such as a polymer layer or an inorganic layer, or a layer formed by mixing polymers and inorganic substances.
  • the inorganic layer includes inorganic particles and a binder, and the embodiment of the present application does not have any particular limitations on the inorganic particles, for example, it can be selected from aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, magnesium oxide, titanium oxide, hafnium dioxide, tin oxide, and ceria , at least one of nickel oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, zirconium oxide, yttrium oxide, silicon carbide, boehmite, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and barium sulfate.
  • the binder in the embodiment of the present application can be selected from polyvinylidene fluoride, vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, polyacrylate, polyacrylic acid, polyacrylate, One or a combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl ether, polymethyl methacrylate, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyhexafluoropropylene.
  • the polymer layer contains a polymer, and the material of the polymer includes polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, acrylate polymer, polyacrylic acid, polyacrylate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl ether, polyvinylidene fluoride or poly( At least one of vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene).
  • the electrochemical device comprises two electrochemical cells and a separator, the two electrochemical cells and the separator are cylindrical, the two electrochemical cells have the same size, and the electrodes The components are respectively wound electrode components.
  • the production method of this electrochemical device is as follows, in which various tests and evaluations were performed according to the following methods, and unless otherwise specified, "parts" and “%” are based on weight.
  • the negative electrode active material graphite, conductive carbon black, and styrene-butadiene rubber were mixed according to a mass ratio of 96:1.5:2.5, deionized water was added as a solvent, and a slurry with a solid content of 70% was prepared and stirred evenly.
  • the slurry was uniformly coated on one surface of a copper foil with a thickness of 10 ⁇ m and an empty copper foil area was left on one edge, and dried at 110 °C to obtain a single-sided coated negative electrode with a coating thickness of 150 ⁇ m.
  • the negative pole piece of the active material layer and then repeat the above coating steps on the other surface of the negative pole piece.
  • the positive active material LiCoO 2 , conductive carbon black, and PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) were mixed in a mass ratio of 97.5:1.0:1.5, and NMP was added as a solvent to prepare a slurry with a solid content of 75%, which was stirred evenly.
  • the slurry was uniformly coated on one surface of an aluminum foil with a thickness of 12 ⁇ m and an empty aluminum foil area was left at one edge, and dried at 90°C to obtain a single-sided coating of a positive electrode active material layer with a coating thickness of 100 ⁇ m.
  • Positive pole piece The above steps are then repeated on the other surface of the positive pole piece.
  • organic solvents EC ethylene carbonate
  • EMC ethyl methyl carbonate
  • DEC diethyl carbonate
  • LiPF 6 lithium hexafluorophosphate
  • the negative pole piece, the first separator, the positive pole piece and the second separator are stacked in sequence, and the strip-shaped empty aluminum foil and the strip-shaped empty copper foil are respectively located on two opposite sides of the laminated structure.
  • the diaphragm is made of polyethylene (PE) film with a thickness of 15 ⁇ m; after that, the above-mentioned laminated structure is wound into a cylindrical shape along the length direction of the strip-shaped hollow aluminum foil and the strip-shaped hollow copper foil.
  • the first diaphragm is placed in the most On the outside, the rolled empty aluminum foil is located at one end of the cylinder, and the rolled empty copper-nickel foil is located at the other end of the column; after that, the rolled empty aluminum foil and the empty copper foil are flattened to obtain a flat inner tab of the positive electrode and the inner tab of the negative electrode; after that, the positive electrode adapter tab of the nickel foil material is welded to the inner electrode tab of the positive electrode, and the negative electrode adapter tab of the aluminum foil material is welded to the inner electrode tab of the negative electrode.
  • two wound electrode assemblies were respectively prepared.
  • Electrochemical devices of application examples Weld the positive terminal of one electrochemical cell to one end of the conductor of the separator, and weld the negative terminal of the other electrochemical cell to the other end of the conductor of the separator; then , sealing and welding the encapsulation shell of one electrochemical cell and the one side surface of the isolation pad of the separator, and sealing and welding the encapsulation shell of the other electrochemical cell and the other side surface of the isolation pad of the separator to obtain the present invention. Electrochemical devices of application examples.
  • the positive electrode adapter tab portion and the negative electrode adapter tab portion can be welded by a laser welding process with the conductor, and the package shell and the isolation pad can be welded by an ultrasonic welding process.
  • Embodiments of the present application further provide an electronic device, including the electrochemical device of any of the foregoing embodiments.
  • Specific product types of electronic devices include, but are not limited to, mobile terminals, power tools, electric vehicles, mobile power supplies, and the like. Since the electrochemical device generates less heat during high-power discharge, the discharge safety is higher, and therefore, the safety of the use of the electronic device is also higher.

Abstract

本申请提供一种电化学装置及电子装置。电化学装置包括:第一电化学单体,包括第一封装壳、位于第一封装壳内的第一电极组件,及填充于第一封装壳内的第一电解液,第一电极组件包括伸出第一封装壳的第一正极极耳和第一负极极耳;第二电化学单体,包括第二封装壳、位于第二封装壳内的第二电极组件,及填充于第二封装壳内的第二电解液,第二电极组件包括伸出第二封装壳的第二正极极耳和第二负极极耳,第二负极极耳与第一正极极耳相向设置;及隔离件,设置在第一电化学单体和第二电化学单体之间,隔离件包括隔离垫,第一封装壳和第二封装壳分别与隔离垫固定连接,且,第一正极极耳和第二负极极耳电连接。

Description

电化学装置及电子装置 技术领域
本申请涉及电化学技术领域,尤其涉及一种电化学装置及电子装置。
背景技术
锂离子电池作为一种电化学装置,其主要依靠锂离子在正极和负极之间的移动来工作。锂离子电池作为清洁动力和清洁电力的来源,在新能源行业的地位与应用普遍性日益突出,被广泛应用于移动终端、电动工具、电动汽车等各类电子产品中。
目前,随着电子产品用电需求的不断增加,对锂离子电池的放电功率也提出了更高的要求。然而,在较大的放电功率下,锂离子电池的产热通常也较大。
发明内容
根据本申请实施例的一方面,提供一种电化学装置,包括:
第一电化学单体,包括第一封装壳、位于所述第一封装壳内的第一电极组件,以及填充于所述第一封装壳内的第一电解液,所述第一电极组件包括伸出所述第一封装壳的第一正极极耳和第一负极极耳;
第二电化学单体,包括第二封装壳、位于所述第二封装壳内的第二电极组件,以及填充于所述第二封装壳内的第二电解液,所述第二电极组件包括伸出所述第二封装壳的第二正极极耳和第二负极极耳,所述第二负极极耳与所述第一正极极耳相向设置;及
隔离件,设置在所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体之间,所述隔离件包括隔离垫,所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳分别与所述隔离垫固定连接,且,所述第一正极极耳和所述第二负极极耳电连接。
在一些实施例中,所述隔离件还包括设置于所述隔离垫内的导电体,所述第一正极极耳和所述第二负极极耳分别与所述导电体电连接。
在一些实施例中,所述隔离垫设有通孔,所述第一正极极耳与所述第二负极极耳直接电连接,且连接处位于所述通孔中。
在一些实施例中,所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳分别与所述隔离垫 焊接。
在一些实施例中,所述第一正极极耳和所述第二负极极耳分别与所述导电体焊接。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电化学单体、所述隔离件和所述第二电化学单体呈圆柱状、棱柱状或椭圆柱状,所述导电体呈圆柱状、棱柱状或椭圆柱状。
在一些实施例中,所述隔离垫的材料包括塑料原胶、对羟基苯甲酸、改性聚丙烯、聚酯和聚氯乙烯中的至少一种。
在一些实施例中,所述导电体的材料包括铜、镍和铜镍合金中的至少一种。
在一些实施例中,所述第一正极极耳包括位于所述第一封装壳内的第一正极内极耳部,以及与所述第一正极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第一封装壳的第一正极转接极耳部;
所述第一负极极耳包括位于所述第一封装壳内的第一负极内极耳部,以及与所述第一负极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第一封装壳的第一负极转接极耳部;
所述第二正极极耳包括位于所述第二封装壳内的第二正极内极耳部,以及与所述第二正极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第二封装壳的第二正极转接极耳部;
所述第二负极极耳包括位于所述第二封装壳内的第二负极内极耳部,以及与所述第二负极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第二封装壳的第二负极转接极耳部,所述第二负极转接极耳部和所述第一正极转接极耳部分别与所述导电体焊接。
在一些实施例中,所述第一正极内极耳部、所述第一负极内极耳部、所述第二正极内极耳部和所述第二负极内极耳部分别具有全极耳结构。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电极组件和所述第二电极组件分别为卷绕式电极组件;
所述第一正极内极耳部、所述第一负极内极耳部、所述第二正极内极耳部和所述第二负极内极耳部分别经过揉平处理并呈扁平状。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电极组件和所述第二电极组件分别为叠片式电极组件。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电化学单体还包括:将所述第一正极极耳与所述第一封装壳密封连接的第一正极极耳胶,及将所述第一负极极耳与所述第一封装壳密封连接的第一负极极耳胶;
所述第二电化学单体还包括:将所述第二正极极耳与所述第二封装壳密封连接的第二正极极耳胶,及将所述第二负极极耳与所述第二封装壳密封连接的第二负极极耳胶。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体的标称电压相同并且额定容量相同。
在一些实施例中,所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体的外形尺寸相同。
在一些实施例中,所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳的材料包括高分子复合膜。
在一些实施例中,所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳的材料包括对羟基苯甲酸、聚氯乙烯和塑料原胶中的至少一种。
在一些实施例中,电化学装置还包括:
第三封装壳,封装所述第一电化学单体、所述隔离件和所述第二电化学单体,且曝露出所述第一负极极耳和所述第二正极极耳。
根据本申请实施例的另一方面,提供一种电子装置,包括前述任一实施例的电化学装置。
附图说明
为了更清楚地说明本申请实施例或相关技术中的技术方案,下面对本申请实施例或相关技术描述中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍。显而易见地,下面描述中的附图仅仅是本申请的一些实施例,对于本领域普通技术人员来讲,在不付出创造性劳动的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其它的附图。
图1为本申请一些实施例的电化学装置的立体结构示意图;
图2为本申请一些实施例的电化学装置沿图1的A-A向的剖视图;
图3为本申请一些实施例中卷绕式电极组件的断面示意图;
图4为本申请一些实施例中叠片式电极组件的爆炸图;
图5为本申请一些实施例中叠片式电极组件的截面示意图;
图6为本申请另一些实施例的电化学装置的立体结构示意图;
图7为本申请又一些实施例的电化学装置的立体结构示意图。
具体实施方式
为使本申请的目的、技术方案及优点更加清楚明白,以下参照附图并举实施例对本申请作进一步详细说明。显然,所描述的实施例仅仅是本申请的一部分实施例,而不是全部的实施例。
锂离子电池作为一种电化学装置,其基本工作原理为:锂离子以电解液为介质在正极与负极之间运动,从而可以实现锂离子电池的充电与放电。锂离子电池充电时,锂离子从正极材料的晶格中脱出,经过电解液后插入到负极材料的晶格中,使得负极富锂,正极贫锂;锂离子电池放电时,锂离子从负极材料的晶格中脱出,经过电解液后插入到正极材料的晶格中,使得正极富锂,负极贫锂。
目前,随着电子装置产品用电需求的不断增加,对锂离子电池的放电功率也提出了更高的要求。然而,在较大的放电功率下,锂离子电池的产热通常也较大,存在热失控安全隐患。
本申请实施例提供了一种电化学装置及包含该电化学装置的电子装置,该电化学装置在大功率放电时的产热量较小,放电安全性更高。
如图1和图2所示,本申请一些实施例提供的电化学装置100,包括:
第一电化学单体1A,包括第一封装壳11A、位于第一封装壳11A内的第一电极组件12A,以及填充于第一封装壳11A内的第一电解液13A,第一电极组件12A包括伸出第一封装壳11A的第一正极极耳14Aa和第一负极极耳14Ab;
第二电化学单体1B,包括第二封装壳11B、位于第二封装壳11B内的第二电极组件12B,以及填充于第二封装壳11B内的第二电解液13B,第二电极组件12B包括伸出第二封装壳11B的第二正极极耳14Ba和第二负极极耳14Bb,第二负极极耳14Bb与第一正极极耳14Aa相向设置;及
隔离件5,设置在第一电化学单体1A和第二电化学单体1B之间,隔离 件5包括隔离垫51,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B分别与隔离垫51连接,且,第一正极极耳14Aa和第二负极极耳14Bb电连接。
在本申请图1和图2所示的实施例中,电化学装置100所包含的电化学单体的数量为两个,分别为第一电化学单体1A和第二电化学单体1B,所包含隔离件5的数量为一个。在本申请的一些其它实施例中,电化学装置所包含的电化学单体的数量也可以为三个或者为更多个,例如分别为第一电化学单体、第二电化学单体、第三电化学单体……,等等,这些电化学单体呈一字型依次排列,并且在任意相邻两个电化学单体之间设置一个上述结构的隔离件,从而实现将一定数量的电化学单体串联。
以下实施例以电化学装置包含两个电化学单体为例进行说明。
在本申请的一些实施例中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B分别与隔离垫51焊接,例如,通过超声波焊接工艺实现密封焊接。
在一些实施例中,隔离件5还包括设置于隔离垫51内的导电体52,第一正极极耳14Aa和第二负极极耳14Bb分别与导电体52电连接。第一正极极耳14Aa和第二负极极耳14Bb可以分别与导电体52焊接,例如,通过激光焊接工艺焊接,以实现电连接。
在本申请的另一些实施例中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B也可以分别通过绝缘密封胶与隔离垫51密封粘接,从而实现固定连接。
在本申请的又一些实施例中,由于第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B分别与隔离垫51固定连接,因此,可以将第一正极极耳14Aa和第二负极极耳14Bb设计为分别与导电体52的两端弹性抵接,从而实现电连接。
在本申请的又一些实施例中,隔离件5可以仅包括隔离垫51。隔离垫51设有通孔,第一正极极耳14Aa和第二负极极耳14Bb直接电连接,且连接处位于所述通孔内。
本申请实施例中的第一电极组件12A和第二电极组件12B可以分别为卷绕式电极组件。
如图3所示,一种常规的卷绕式电极组件包括:在层叠后卷绕设置的正极极片121a和负极极片121b、位于正极极片121a和负极极片121b之间的隔膜123、连接正极极片121a的正极极耳14a,以及连接负极极片121b的负极 极耳14b。卷绕式电极组件的正极极片121a和负极极片121b的主要结构均包括集流体和位于集流体表面的活性材料层。以正极极片121a为例,其集流体在沿卷绕方向上的一边缘具有空箔区,即没有被活性材料层覆盖的区域。负极极片121b与正极极片121a的结构类似,但所采用的材料有所差异,具体详见下文关于正极极片和负极极片的制备例。
根据卷绕式电极组件的卷绕方式不同,在一个实施例中,如图3所示,隔膜123的一部分作为该卷绕式电极组件的最外层,即曝露于卷绕式电极组件的周侧表面。在另一个实施例中,也可以是,极片(如正极极片121a或负极极片121b)的一部分作为卷绕式电极组件的最外层。再又一个实施例中,还可以是,隔膜123的一部分,以及极片(如正极极片121a或负极极片121b)的一部分共同作为卷绕式电极组件的最外层。当极片(如正极极片121a或负极极片121b)的一部分作为卷绕式电极组件的最外层时,其集流体的对应区域可以在两侧表面或仅在内侧表面涂布活性材料。
电极组件中,正极极片121a与正极极耳14a作为电化学单体的正极,负极极片121b与负极极耳14b作为电化学单体的负极。在形成电化学单体后,正极极片121a和负极极片121b浸润在电解液中并通过隔膜123间隔。隔膜123的作用是允许锂离子自由通过,而不允许电子通过,从而防止正极与负极之间通过电解液发生短路。
如图2所示,第一电极组件12A为卷绕式,第一正极极耳14Aa包括位于第一封装壳11A内的第一正极内极耳部141Aa,以及与第一正极内极耳部141Aa焊接且伸出第一封装壳11A的第一正极转接极耳部142Aa;第一负极极耳14Ab包括位于第一封装壳11A内的第一负极内极耳部141Ab,以及与第一负极内极耳部141Ab焊接且伸出第一封装壳11A的第一负极转接极耳部142Ab。类似的,卷绕式的第二电极组件12B中,第二正极极耳14Ba包括位于第二封装壳11B内的第二正极内极耳部141Ba,以及与第二正极内极耳部141Ba焊接且伸出第二封装壳11B的第二正极转接极耳部142Ba;第二负极极耳14Bb包括位于第二封装壳11B内的第二负极内极耳部141Bb,以及与第二负极内极耳部141Bb焊接且伸出第二封装壳11B的第二负极转接极耳部142Bb。第二负极转接极耳部142Bb和第一正极转接极耳部142Aa分别与导 电体52的两侧焊接。
其中,第一正极转接极耳部142Aa与第一正极内极耳部141Aa、第一负极转接极耳部142Ab与第一负极内极耳部141Ab、第二正极转接极耳部142Ba与第二正极内极耳部141Ba、第二负极转接极耳部142Bb与第二负极内极耳部141Bb、第二负极转接极耳部142Bb和第一正极转接极耳部142Aa与导电体52,可以分别通过激光焊接工艺焊接。
在该实施例中,第一正极内极耳部141Aa、第一负极内极耳部141Ab、第二正极内极耳部141Ba和第二负极内极耳部141Bb分别具有全极耳结构,所述全极耳结构由所述沿极片的集流体卷绕方向上的一个边缘呈带状连续延伸的空箔区卷绕形成。电极组件在组装时,在将正极极片、负极极片和隔膜按照前述方式层叠并卷绕后,需要对卷绕的各内极耳部进行揉平处理,以减小其在轴向上的尺寸,使其最终呈扁平状。如图2所示,第一正极内极耳部141Aa、第一负极内极耳部141Ab、第二正极内极耳部141Ba和第二负极内极耳部141Bb最终呈扁平状。
在本申请的另一些实施例中,前述第一正极内极耳部、第一负极内极耳部、第二正极内极耳部和第二负极内极耳部也可以分别包括多个间隔排列的片状单元,这些片状单元在卷绕并经过揉平处理后最终呈扁平状。
对于卷绕式电极组件,将内极耳部设于封装壳内,将转接极耳部伸出封装壳,用于与相邻的电化学单体或电子装置的电路结构串接。这样设计,不但便于极片的加工制作,而且便于极耳从封装壳中引出。
本申请实施例中的第一电极组件和第二电极组件也可以为层叠式电极组件。如图4和图5所示,层叠式电极组件包括交替层叠的多个正极极片121a和多个负极极片121b,在任意相邻的正极极片121a和负极极片121b之间对应设置的隔膜123、连接各个正极极片121a的正极极耳14a,以及连接各个负极极片121b的负极极耳14b。层叠式电极组件的极片(如正极极片121a或负极极片121b)呈平面状,其结构与前述卷绕式电极组件的极片结构类似,这里不再重复赘述。
根据层叠式电极组件的层叠方式不同,在一个实施例中,如图5所示,其中一个正极极片121a和其中一个负极极片121b分别作为该层叠式电极组 件的表层。在另一个实施例中,也可以是,两个隔膜123分别作为该层叠式电极组件的表层。再又一个实施例中,还可以是,隔膜123作为该层叠式电极组件的其中一个表层,正极极片121a或负极极片121b作为该层叠式电极组件的另一个表层。当正极极片121a或负极极片121b作为层叠式电极组件的表层时,其集流体的对应区域可以在两侧表面或仅在内侧表面涂布活性材料。
对于叠片式电极组件,其极耳也可以采用与前述卷绕式电极组件的极耳相类似的设计,例如采用全极耳结构设计并进行揉平处理,也可以通过一个L形的转接极耳引出。
如图1所示,在一些实施例中,第一电化学单体1A还包括:将第一正极极耳14Aa与第一封装壳11A密封连接的第一正极极耳胶144Aa,及将第一负极极耳14Ab与第一封装壳11A密封连接的第一负极极耳胶144Ab;第二电化学单体1B还包括:将第二正极极耳14Ba与第二封装壳11B密封连接的第二正极极耳胶144Ba,及将第二负极极耳14Bb与第二封装壳11B密封连接的第二负极极耳胶144Bb。密封连接的方式例如为,通过热熔工艺与封装壳密封粘合在一起,一方面,可以防止极片与封装壳外发生短路,另一方面,能够起到密封作用,防止电解液泄露。
在本申请的一些实施例中,如图1所示,前述第一电化学单体1A、第二电化学单体1B和隔离件5呈圆柱状。在本申请的另一些实施例中,前述第一电化学单体、第二电化学单体和隔离件还可以呈棱柱状。例如,如图6所示,前述第一电化学单体1A、第二电化学单体1B和隔离件5呈矩形体状,内部的第一电极组件和第二电极组件分别为卷绕式电极组件,或者分别为层叠式电极组件。在本申请的又一些实施例中,第一电化学单体、第二电化学单体和隔离件呈椭圆柱状。
在本申请的再一些实施例中,隔离件5也可以与电化学单体1的外周形状不相一致,例如,第一电化学单体1A和第二电化学单体1B均呈圆柱状并且截面半径相同,而隔离件呈正六棱柱形状并且其截面内切圆的半径不小于圆柱的截面半径。隔离件5的导电体52的形状不限,例如,可以呈圆柱状、棱柱状或椭圆柱状,等等。
在本申请的一些实施例中,隔离垫51的材料包括塑料原胶(LCP)、对羟基苯甲酸(PHBA)、改性聚丙烯(PP)、聚酯(PET)和聚氯乙烯(PVC)中的至少一种。导电体52的材料包括铜、镍和铜镍合金中的至少一种。第一正极转接极耳部142Aa和第二正极转接极耳部142Ba的材料包括铝;第一负极转接极耳部142Ab和第二负极转接极耳部142Bb的材料包括镍或铜镀镍。
如图1所示,在本申请的一些实施例中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B作为电化学装置100的表壳。在一些实施例中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B的材料包括高分子复合膜,例如包括对羟基苯甲酸(PHBA)、聚氯乙烯(PVC)、塑料原胶(LCP)中的至少一种。在另一些实施例中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B的材料包括铝塑复合膜,铝塑复合膜的结构包括沿远离电极组件的方向依次设置的改性聚丙烯(PP)层、铝层和聚酯(PET)层。铝塑复合膜具有良好的阻隔性、耐电解液稳定性、冷冲压成型性、抗穿刺性和绝缘性。第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B采用铝塑复合膜材料,能够对内部结构起到良好的保护效果。
如图7所示,在本申请的另一些实施例中,电化学装置100还包括第三封装壳3,第三封装壳3封装前述第一电化学单体1A、第二电化学单体1B和隔离件5,且曝露出第一负极极耳14Ab和第二正极极耳14Ba。如果电化学装置包括三个或三个以上的电化学单体,则第三封装壳3封装该三个或三个以上的电化学单体,以及任意两个电化学单体之间设置的隔离件,并且曝露出位于一端的电化学单体的正极极耳和位于另一端的电化学单体的负极极耳。在该实施中,第一封装壳11A和第二封装壳11B的材料包括高分子复合膜,例如包括对羟基苯甲酸(PHBA)、聚氯乙烯(PVC)、塑料原胶(LCP)中的至少一种。第三封装壳3的材料包括高分子复合膜,高分子复合膜例如包括对羟基苯甲酸(PHBA)、聚氯乙烯(PVC)、塑料原胶(LCP)中的至少一种,或者,第三封装壳3采用铝塑复合膜材料。
在本申请的一些实施例中,电化学单体1A和电化学单体1B的标称电压相同并且额定容量相同,电化学单体1A和电化学单体1B的外形尺寸相同。
在本申请的另一些实施例中,电化学单体1A和电化学单体1B在垂直于排列方向上的截面形状和尺寸相同,但沿排列方向上的长度尺寸不同。
在本申请实施例中,电化学装置例如为锂离子电池。
在与单体电化学装置具有相当放电功率的前提下,本申请实施例通过将一定数量的电化学单体串联来增加电化学装置的标称电压,进而减小电化学装置的正常放电电流和最大放电电流,这使得电化学装置在工作时的产热显著降低,因此,可以有效减少热失控的发生,提高了电化学装置的放电安全性。
相关技术中的一种型号为18650的单体锂离子电池(即锂离子电池的外形呈圆柱状,直径为18mm,长度为65mm),其标称电压为3.7伏(指电池使用过程中放电的平台电压),额定容量为3000毫安时,工作在1C放电倍率时,产热功率约为0.36w。
在本申请的一个实施例中,同样采用18650型号的锂离子电池,其包括通过隔离件串联的两个电化学单体,例如分别为图1所示的第一电化学单体1A和第二电化学单体1B,其中,隔离件的厚度为3mm,每个电化学单体的直径为18mm,长度为31mm,标称电压为3.7伏,额定容量为1500毫安时。该锂离子电池的标称电压为7.4伏,额定容量为3000毫安时,同样是工作在1C放电倍率,产热功率约为0.197W。
可见,与相关技术相比,在相同的额定容量下,本申请实施例锂离子电池的标称电压增加一倍,热量产出减少了45%。
在本申请实施例中,对负极极片没有特别限制,例如,负极极片包含负极集流体和负极活性材料层。其中,负极集流体的材料没有特别限制,例如采用铜箔、铝箔、铝合金箔或复合集流体等。负极活性材料层的材料没有特别限制,例如包括人造石墨、天然石墨、中间相碳微球、软碳、硬碳、硅、硅碳、钛酸锂等中的至少一种。
在本申请实施例中,对正极极片没有特别限制,例如,正极极片包含正极集流体和正极活性材料层。其中,正极集流体的材料没有特别限制,例如采用铝箔、铝合金箔或复合集流体等。正极活性材料层的材料没有特别限制,例如包括NCM811、NCM622、NCM523、NCM111、NCA、磷酸铁锂、钴酸锂、锰酸锂、磷酸锰铁锂或钛酸锂中的至少一种。
在本申请实施例中,对电解液没有特别限制。例如,电解液可以是凝胶 态、固态和液态中的任一种。例如,液态电解液包括锂盐和非水溶剂。
本申请实施例对锂盐没有特别限制,例如,锂盐包括六氟磷酸锂(LiPF 6)、四氟硼酸锂(LiBF 4)、二氟磷酸锂(LiPO 2F 2)、双三氟甲烷磺酰亚胺锂LiN(CF 3SO 2) 2(LiTFSI)、双(氟磺酰)亚胺锂Li(N(SO 2F) 2)(LiFSI)、双草酸硼酸锂LiB(C 2O 4) 2(LiBOB)或二氟草酸硼酸锂LiBF 2(C 2O 4)(LiDFOB)中的至少一种。例如,锂盐可选用LiPF 6
本申请实施例对非水溶剂没有特别限制,例如,非水溶剂包括碳酸酯化合物、羧酸酯化合物、醚化合物、腈化合物或其它有机溶剂中的至少一种。碳酸酯化合物可以包括碳酸二乙酯(DEC)、碳酸二甲酯(DMC)、碳酸甲乙酯(EMC)、碳酸二丙酯(DPC)、碳酸甲丙酯(MPC)、碳酸乙丙酯(EPC)、碳酸甲乙酯(MEC)、碳酸亚乙酯(EC)、碳酸亚丙酯(PC)、碳酸亚丁酯(BC)、碳酸乙烯基亚乙酯(VEC)、碳酸氟代亚乙酯(FEC)、碳酸1,2-二氟亚乙酯、碳酸1,1-二氟亚乙酯、碳酸1,1,2-三氟亚乙酯、碳酸1,1,2,2-四氟亚乙酯、碳酸1-氟-2-甲基亚乙酯、碳酸1-氟-1-甲基亚乙酯、碳酸1,2-二氟-1-甲基亚乙酯、碳酸1,1,2-三氟-2-甲基亚乙酯或碳酸三氟甲基亚乙酯中的至少一种。
本申请实施例对隔膜没有特别限制,例如,隔膜包括由对电解液稳定的材料形成的聚合物或无机物等。隔膜应当具有离子传导性和电子绝缘性。
在本申请的一些实施例中,隔膜包括基材层和表面处理层。基材层例如为具有多孔结构的无纺布、膜或复合膜,基材层的材料例如选自聚乙烯、聚丙烯、聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯和聚酰亚胺中的至少一种。例如,基材层采用聚丙烯多孔膜、聚乙烯多孔膜、聚丙烯无纺布、聚乙烯无纺布或聚丙烯-聚乙烯-聚丙烯多孔复合膜。在一些实施例中,基材层的至少一个表面上设置有表面处理层,表面处理层例如为聚合物层或无机物层,或者为混合聚合物与无机物所形成的层。
例如,无机物层包括无机颗粒和粘结剂,本申请实施例对无机颗粒没有特别限制,例如可以选自氧化铝、氧化硅、氧化镁、氧化钛、二氧化铪、氧化锡、二氧化铈、氧化镍、氧化锌、氧化钙、氧化锆、氧化钇、碳化硅、勃姆石、氢氧化铝、氢氧化镁、氢氧化钙和硫酸钡中的至少一种。本申请实施例对粘结剂没有特别限制,例如可以选自聚偏氟乙烯、偏氟乙烯-六氟丙烯的 共聚物、聚酰胺、聚丙烯腈、聚丙烯酸酯、聚丙烯酸、聚丙烯酸盐、聚乙烯呲咯烷酮、聚乙烯醚、聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯、聚四氟乙烯和聚六氟丙烯中的一种或几种的组合。聚合物层中包含聚合物,聚合物的材料包括聚酰胺、聚丙烯腈、丙烯酸酯聚合物、聚丙烯酸、聚丙烯酸盐、聚乙烯呲咯烷酮、聚乙烯醚、聚偏氟乙烯或聚(偏氟乙烯-六氟丙烯)中的至少一种。
在本申请的一个实施例中,电化学装置包含两个电化学单体和一个隔离件,两个电化学单体和隔离件呈圆柱状,两个电化学单体的规格尺寸相同,并且电极组件分别为卷绕式电极组件。该电化学装置的制作方法如下,其中,各种的试验及评价按照下述的方法进行,另外,只要无特别说明,“份”、“%”为重量基准。
制备例1:负极极片的制备
将负极活性材料石墨、导电炭黑、丁苯橡胶按照质量比96:1.5:2.5进行混合,加入去离子水作为溶剂,调配成为固含量为70%的浆料,搅拌均匀。将浆料均匀涂覆在厚度为10μm的铜箔的一个表面上并在一侧边缘留出空铜箔区,110℃条件下烘干,得到涂层厚度为150μm层厚的单面涂覆负极活性材料层的负极极片,然后在该负极极片的另一个表面上重复以上涂覆步骤。
制备例2:正极极片的制备
将正极活性材料LiCoO 2、导电炭黑、PVDF(聚偏氟乙烯)按照质量比97.5:1.0:1.5进行混合,加入NMP作为溶剂,调配成为固含量为75%的浆料,搅拌均匀。将浆料均匀涂覆在厚度为12μm的铝箔的一个表面上并在一侧边缘留出空铝箔区,90℃条件下烘干,得到涂层厚度为100μm的单面涂覆正极活性材料层的正极极片。然后在该正极极片的另一个表面上重复以上步骤。
制备例3:电解液的制备
在干燥氩气气氛中,首先将有机溶剂EC(碳酸乙烯酯)、EMC(碳酸甲乙酯)和DEC(碳酸二乙酯)以质量比EC:EMC:DEC=30:50:20混合,然后向有机溶剂中加入LiPF 6(六氟磷酸锂)溶解并混合均匀,得到锂盐浓度为1.15M的电解液。
制备例4:卷绕式电极组件的制备
将负极极片、第一隔膜、正极极片、第二隔膜依次层叠,并使带状空铝箔和带状空铜箔分别位于叠层结构的两个相对的侧边,第一隔膜和第二隔膜选用厚度15μm的聚乙烯(PE)膜;之后,沿带状空铝箔和带状空铜箔的长度方向将上述叠层结构卷绕成圆柱状,该步骤完成后,第一隔膜置于最外侧,成卷的空铝箔位于圆柱状的一端,成卷的空铜镍箔位于圆柱状的另一端;之后,将成卷的空铝箔和空铜箔揉平,得到扁平状的正极内极耳部和负极内极耳部;之后,将镍箔材料的正极转接极耳部与正极内极耳部焊接,将铝箔材料的负极转接极耳部与负极内极耳部焊接。依此方法分别制得两个卷绕式电极组件。
制备例5:电化学单体的制备
将一厚度为0.5mm的冲坑成型的封装膜置于组装夹具内,并使坑面朝上;之后,将根据制备例4制得的卷绕式电极组件置于坑内;之后,将另一厚度为0.5mm的冲坑成型的封装膜覆盖于卷绕式电极组件之上,并使坑面朝下;之后,引出正极转接极耳部和负极转接极耳部,采用热压方式将两个封装膜热封,形成一端开口的腔体;之后,将根据制备例3制得的电解液从开口注入腔体内;最后,采用热压方式将开口密封,得到电化学单体。依此方法分别制得两个电化学单体。
制备例6:电化学装置的装配
将其中一个电化学单体的正极转接极耳部与隔离件的导电体的一端焊接,将另一个电化学单体的负极转接极耳部与隔离件的导电体的另一端焊接;之后,将其中一个电化学单体的封装壳与隔离件的隔离垫的一侧表面密封焊接,将另一个电化学单体的封装壳与隔离件的隔离垫的另一侧表面密封焊接,得到本申请实施例的电化学装置。
其中,正极转接极耳部和负极转接极耳部与导电体之间可以通过激光焊接工艺焊接,封装壳与隔离垫之间可以通过超声波焊接工艺焊接。
本申请实施例还提供一种电子装置,包括前述任一实施例的电化学装置。电子装置的具体产品类型包括但不限于移动终端、电动工具、电动汽车、移动电源等。由于电化学装置在大功率放电时的产热量较小,放电安全性更高,因此,电子装置使用的安全性也较高。
以上所述仅为本申请的较佳实施例而已,并非用于限定本申请的保护范围。凡在本申请的精神和原则之内所作的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均包含在本申请的保护范围内。

Claims (18)

  1. 一种电化学装置,包括:
    第一电化学单体,包括第一封装壳、位于所述第一封装壳内的第一电极组件,以及填充于所述第一封装壳内的第一电解液,所述第一电极组件包括伸出所述第一封装壳的第一正极极耳和第一负极极耳;
    第二电化学单体,包括第二封装壳、位于所述第二封装壳内的第二电极组件,以及填充于所述第二封装壳内的第二电解液,所述第二电极组件包括伸出所述第二封装壳的第二正极极耳和第二负极极耳,所述第二负极极耳与所述第一正极极耳相向设置;及
    隔离件,设置在所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体之间,所述隔离件包括隔离垫,所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳分别与所述隔离垫连接,且,所述第一正极极耳和所述第二负极极耳电连接。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述隔离件还包括设置于所述隔离垫内的导电体,所述第一正极极耳和所述第二负极极耳分别与所述导电体电连接。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述隔离垫设有通孔,所述第一正极极耳与所述第二负极极耳直接电连接,且连接处位于所述通孔中。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳分别与所述隔离垫焊接。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电化学单体、所述隔离件和所述第二电化学单体呈圆柱状、棱柱状或椭圆柱状,所述导电体呈圆柱状、棱柱状或椭圆柱状。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述隔离垫的材料包括塑料原胶、对羟基苯甲酸、改性聚丙烯、聚酯和聚氯乙烯中的至少一种。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述导电体的材料包括铜、镍和铜镍合金中的至少一种。
  8. 根据权利要求2所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一正极极耳包括位于所述第一封装壳内的第一正极内极耳部,以及与所述第一正极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第一封装壳的第一正极转接极耳部;
    所述第一负极极耳包括位于所述第一封装壳内的第一负极内极耳部,以及与所述第一负极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第一封装壳的第一负极转接极耳部;
    所述第二正极极耳包括位于所述第二封装壳内的第二正极内极耳部,以及与所述第二正极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第二封装壳的第二正极转接极耳部;
    所述第二负极极耳包括位于所述第二封装壳内的第二负极内极耳部,以及与所述第二负极内极耳部焊接且伸出所述第二封装壳的第二负极转接极耳部,所述第二负极转接极耳部和所述第一正极转接极耳部分别与所述导电体焊接。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一正极内极耳部、所述第一负极内极耳部、所述第二正极内极耳部和所述第二负极内极耳部分别具有全极耳结构。
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电极组件和所述第二电极组件分别为卷绕式电极组件;
    所述第一正极内极耳部、所述第一负极内极耳部、所述第二正极内极耳部和所述第二负极内极耳部分别经过揉平处理并呈扁平状。
  11. 根据权利要求8所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电极组件和所述第二电极组件分别为叠片式电极组件。
  12. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电化学单体还包括:将所述第一正极极耳与所述第一封装壳密封连接的第一正极极耳胶,及将所述第一负极极耳与所述第一封装壳密封连接的第一负极极耳胶;
    所述第二电化学单体还包括:将所述第二正极极耳与所述第二封装壳密封连接的第二正极极耳胶,及将所述第二负极极耳与所述第二封装壳密封连接的第二负极极耳胶。
  13. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳的材料包括高分子复合膜。
  14. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一封装壳和所述第二封装壳的材料包括对羟基苯甲酸、聚氯乙烯和塑料原胶中的至少一种。
  15. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体的标称电压相同并且额定容量相同。
  16. 根据权利要求1所述的电化学装置,其中,
    所述第一电化学单体和所述第二电化学单体的外形尺寸相同。
  17. 根据权利要求1-16任一项所述的电化学装置,还包括:
    第三封装壳,封装所述第一电化学单体、所述隔离件和所述第二电化学单体,且暴露出所述第一负极极耳和所述第二正极极耳。
  18. 一种电子装置,包括根据权利要求1-17任一项所述的电化学装置。
PCT/CN2020/113873 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 电化学装置及电子装置 WO2022051879A1 (zh)

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