WO2021031336A1  Method for automated construction progress resource optimization employing building information model  Google Patents
Method for automated construction progress resource optimization employing building information model Download PDFInfo
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 WO2021031336A1 WO2021031336A1 PCT/CN2019/113220 CN2019113220W WO2021031336A1 WO 2021031336 A1 WO2021031336 A1 WO 2021031336A1 CN 2019113220 W CN2019113220 W CN 2019113220W WO 2021031336 A1 WO2021031336 A1 WO 2021031336A1
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Definitions
 the invention relates to a resource optimization method, in particular to a construction schedule resource automatic optimization method based on a building information model.
 RCPSP Resourceconstrained project scheduling problem
 RCPSP is an important mathematical model for resource optimization of construction schedule.
 RCPSP is an NP problem.
 researchers use many heuristic algorithms to solve these problems, including heuristic algorithms based on priority rules such as simplified branch and bound method, local search technology, etc., and metaheuristic algorithms, such as genetic algorithm, Particle swarm algorithm and tabu search.
 heuristic algorithms based on priority rules such as simplified branch and bound method, local search technology, etc.
 metaheuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm, Particle swarm algorithm and tabu search.
 TCT timecost tradeoff
 the most basic RCPSP defines a series of processes that are related to each other. Each process occupies several reusable resources during the process, and the availability of these resources is constrained by a constant upper limit during the entire project period. On this basis, various more complete RCPSP models can be derived.
 An analysis of 24 recent studies reveals that process duration, prepost and postrelationships, and resource availability are necessary information for the solution of the basic RCPSP model, and many studies consider constraints such as multimode and cost. But only one study considered the reusable types of different resources. Further statistical analysis shows that the problem of schedule resource optimization involves 7 types of information such as process duration, multiple modes, pre and postrelationships, contracting time and milestones, resource availability, resource reusable types, and costs.
 the existing technology has the following problems:
 schedule resource optimization model requires manual intervention, which is cumbersome and errorprone, and wastes a lot of time.
 the purpose of the present invention is to provide a method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on building information models, which can greatly improve the efficiency of data integration and construction optimization, and shorten the time for optimization of construction plans from several days to several hour.
 a method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on building information models which includes the following steps: 1) Prepare building information models with building element categories and main resource categories, and work Enter or import the required work package templates in the package template database, and use the work package templates to generate work packages.
 Each work package and the building components are manytomany associations; 2) Data integration is based on the types of building components and materials 3)
 the schedule resource optimization model is automatically generated and solved automatically to complete the optimization of the construction schedule resource.
 the data integration method is: 2.1) Based on the classification and coding of building component types, traverse each work package template to establish a coding tree; 2.2) Automatically associate work packages with building components; 2.3) Generate rulebased Work package logic: After the work package is associated with the building component, the sequence logic is generated based on the rules. The definition of the rule is realized based on the attributes of the work package.
 the attributes of the work package include spatial location, component type and engineering specialty; the basic form of the rule is to have The construction of a work package with a certain attribute or attribute combination should be earlier or later than a work package with another attribute or attribute combination; after these rules are predefined, the relevant work package can be queried through the attributes of the work package, and then according to the predefined
 the defined rules automatically generate the logical sequence of work packages.
 step 2.1 for each level of the building component type code in each work package template, if the level is not included in the coding tree, the node is added to the coding tree, and the code corresponding to the entire code
 the tree node is associated with the work package template; the specific process is: a) Traverse all the work package templates to get the template t, set the code of the template t as c; b) set the tree root node of the building component as curnode; c) traverse the c For each layer, get the layer code n; d) Determine whether the child node of the tree root node curnode contains the layer code n, if it does, go to step e); if not, create the child node n for the tree root node curnode, Go to step e); e) assign the tree root node curnode to n in the child node; f) determine whether n exists in the next layer, if it exists, return to step c), otherwise associate the template
 the automatic association of the work package and the building component includes 4 steps: the first matching of the building component and the work package template, the second matching of the building component and the work package template, the instantiation of the work package and the work package Reorganization;
 the first matching is that each building component is matched step by step from the root node and is associated with the work package template associated with all the matched nodes; traverse the results of the first matching, and eliminate those that do not meet the material coding matching principle Associate, complete the second matching process;
 the work package instantiation process is the process in which the work package template is divided according to the construction space where the corresponding building components are located; each group of building components after the division corresponds to a work package; work package reorganization It is to traverse all building components and determine whether their attributes meet the usage conditions of each quota of its associated work package; then get the specific quota combination corresponding to each building component. When a certain quota combination completely matches the building component, it will be generated A new work package.
 the work package instantiation process is: (1) traverse all work package templates to obtain work package template t; (2) traverse all building components associated with work package template t to obtain building component b; (3) obtain building For the construction area A of component b, judge whether there is a corresponding work package in the construction area A, if yes, the work package corresponding to the facility area A is w, and go to step (4); if there is no work package template for the construction area A t’s work package w, go to step (4); (4) associate the building component b with the work package w, and determine whether there is a next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise go to step (5); 5) Judge whether there is the next work package template, if there is, return to step (1), otherwise end.
 the work package reorganization process is: (1) traverse all work packages to obtain work package w; (2) traverse all building components related to work package w to obtain building component b; (3) traverse quotas to obtain work package w; The quota combination q that the component b conforms to, and determine whether the quota combination set s includes the quota combination q; if included, the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b, otherwise, the quota combination q is added to the quota combination set s, and then the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b; (4) Determine whether there is the next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise, create a work package for each quota combination q in the quota combination set s, and add the work The package is associated with all building components related to the quota combination q.
 the work package logic generation specifically includes the following steps: (1) establish a work package attribute set ⁇ ; (2) traverse all work packages to obtain work package w; (3) traverse all work packages w For all attributes, get the attribute t, judge whether the attribute t belongs to the attribute set ⁇ , then go to step (4), otherwise, add the attribute t to the attribute set ⁇ and go to step (4); (4) generate the attribute t and work package The association between w, and judge whether there is still work package w, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise, go to step (5); (5) Traverse all the rules to get the rule r, from the relevant attributes in the rule r , By querying the association between the attribute set ⁇ and the work package set, the previous work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 are obtained; (6) The sequence relationship between the previous work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 is established: Add all the work reports in s1 to the predecessor task set of all work packages in
 the constraint conditions include interprocess relationship constraints, milestone constraints, resource availability constraints, process internal constraints and resource mode constraints.
 Interprocess relationship constraints For process i, use T i to represent the start time SS i or end time SF i of process i. The difference between the key time attributes of each process has a lower limit and an upper limit, then This relationship is:
 T i represents the SS i or SF i of the previous step i
 T j represents the SS j or SF j of the subsequent step j
 minLag represents the shortest interval
 maxLag represents the longest interval
 Milestone constraint single process completion time constraints; single step completion time constraints mainly completion time for step i SF i programs, which must be earlier than the predetermined milestone M i, is expressed as:
 Resource availability constraint at any point in time t, the total demand RD kt of resource k should be less than the total supply RS kt :
 the total demand should be equal to the maximum value of the sum of the demands of the processes in progress at all times before:
 d ik represents the demand of process i for resource k
 DA t ⁇ i
 the total demand should be the sum of the demands of the various started processes:
 ASA t ⁇ i
 the unit of qr ik is person multiplied by time, that is, 1 person needs to spend qr ik days, or qr ik individual needs 1 day to complete process i;
 MI iu is used to calculate d ik to ensure that all resource requirements belong to a certain group:
 the RCPSP model takes the total construction period and total cost as the objective function, and the specific calculation method is as follows:
 the total construction period TD is calculated using the following equation:
 SS is the start time
 direct cost DC is the synthesis of the product of resource quantity and price, namely:
 p k is the price of resource k
 the indirect cost IC includes loan interest, site lease, design cost, change cost and supervision cost; only the indirect cost related to the construction period is considered, and it is considered to be linearly related to the construction period:
 dc is the daily overhead consumption.
 the present invention has the following advantages due to the above technical solutions: 1.
 the present invention supports the integration of all construction schedule resource optimization related information, can support the data requirements of multiple schedule resource optimization models, and can use BIM and a small number of data sources to automatically generate constraints based on constraints. Plan the schedule resource optimization model and automatically solve the model to obtain an optimized construction plan, which can greatly improve the efficiency of data integration and construction optimization.
 the present invention establishes a multimode RCPSP model that can simultaneously consider the process length, multimode, fronttoback relationship, contracting time and milestones, resource availability, resource reusable type, and cost, and makes up for the completeness of the existing RCPSP for engineering construction Sexual issues. 3.
 the present invention introduces BIM and knowledge data based on the work package database, and provides an automated information integration method to make up for the lack of technical data acquisition links in the construction of RCPSP solution, and solves the problem that existing knowledge and technology cannot be used for actual project schedule resource optimization Therefore, the application efficiency is improved.
 An automatic construction and solution method for establishing a schedule resource optimization model based on BIM is proposed. By using data sources from the current specifications, it avoids excessive requirements on the data format, and can automatically generate a RCPSP model with good versatility, and automatically Solving the optimization model solves the problem of the low level of automation in the existing technology, can greatly save the optimization model construction and solution time, and reduce manual input.
 Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the overall flow of the present invention
 Figure 2 is a structure diagram of the work package template database
 Figure 3 is a flowchart of a coding tree generation method
 Figure 4 is a flowchart of the association between work packages and components
 Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the instantiation of the work package based on the construction area
 Figure 6 is an example of work package reorganization based on quota
 Figure 7a is a schematic diagram of the association of rules, attributes and work packages
 Figure 7b is a flow chart of a rulebased work package sequence logic generation method
 Figure 8 is the resource model and selection index of the process
 Figure 9 is a flowchart of the CP model generation and solution method
 Figure 10 is the work package and sequence logic corresponding to the 7th layer
 Figure 11 is a schematic diagram of resource constraints in Example 3.
 Figure 12 is the total construction period and total cost of the schedule optimization results
 Figure 13 is the process time length of 7 layers in the schedule optimization result
 Figure 14 shows the demand for resource 2 in the results of calculation example 1 and calculation example 2;
 Figure 15 shows the demand for resources 38 in the results of calculation examples 1 and 3;
 Figure 16a is a semiautomatic establishment of RCPSP and progress optimization in the project using the method provided by the present invention
 Figure 16b is an existing general RCPSP application process.
 the present invention provides a method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on a building information model.
 the method is based on a work package to provide an overall structure for data integration and provide support for subsequent optimization of construction schedule resources.
 the building information model is composed of five types of core entities, which are building components, work packages, quotas, quota items, and resources.
 building components come from BIM
 the other 4 types of entities come from the work package template database.
 the basic data should include the volume, area, length and weight of the building component; element types and main materials are used to search for related work package templates , Can be expressed using a unified classification and coding standard.
 the work package template database stores a series of work package templates.
 Each work package template includes the following data: building element types, several quotas, basic units of each quota, usage conditions, quota items, resources and quota amounts for each quota item .
 the quota data can come from national and local quota standards. Among them, the quota refers to the engineering quantity quota, which is the consumption of various construction resources in the construction process obtained by the state or local through investigation and statistics; the quota item refers to the demand for a certain resource in a construction work.
 the present invention includes the following steps:
 a work package includes multiple quotas, each quota includes multiple quota items, and each quota item corresponds to a resource.
 the basis of data integration is two unified classification and coding systems, which respectively indicate the type of building components and the type of materials.
 Building component types can use OmniClass table 21 or Uniclass table Ef
 material types can use Omniclass table 23 or Uniclass table Pr.
 the building components in the default BIM database are attached with their component types and corresponding codes of key materials.
 the work package templates in the default work package template database all have codes corresponding to the types of building components, and the types of material resources in the resource list all have corresponding material codes.
 the data integration method is:
 step e Judge whether the child node of the tree root node curnode contains the layer code n, if it does, go to step e); if it does not, create a child node n for the tree root node curnode and go to step e);
 step f) Judge whether n has the next layer, if so, return to step c), otherwise associate the template t with the tree root node curnode, and go to step g).
 the automatic association of work packages and building components includes the following four steps: first matching of building components and work package templates, second matching of building components and work package templates, work package instantiation and work package reorganization.
 the first matching is that each building component is matched step by step from the root node and is associated with the work package template associated with all the matched nodes. Traverse the results of the first matching, and eliminate the associations that do not meet the material coding matching principle, and then the second matching process can be completed.
 the corresponding relationship between the work package template and the building component has been established.
 This relationship means that the building component can be constructed using the work package template. Normally, the result is manytomany. Different building components will use the same work package template for construction, and a building component may also have multiple work package templates for selection.
 the work package instantiation process is a process in which the work package template is divided according to the construction space where the corresponding building components are located. Each group of building components after division corresponds to a work package, as shown in Figure 5.
 the specific process is:
 step (3) Obtain the construction area A of the building component b, and determine whether the construction area A has a corresponding work package. If yes, the work package corresponding to the facility area A is w, and go to step (4); if there is no work package, it is the construction area A creates the work package w of the work package template t and proceeds to step (4);
 Work package reorganization is to traverse all building components and determine in turn whether their attributes meet the usage conditions of each quota of its associated work package; then the specific quota combination corresponding to each building component can be obtained.
 the quota combination may be 2 n 1.
 a new work package is generated. As shown in Figure 6, the specific process is:
 step (2) Determine whether there is the next building component. If there is, return to step (2). Otherwise, create a work package for each quota combination q in the quota combination set s, and associate the work package with the quota combination q All building components are connected.
 the sequence logic is generated based on the rules.
 the definition of this rule is mainly realized based on the attributes of the work package.
 the attributes of the work package involved include information such as spatial location, component type and engineering specialty.
 the basic form of the rule is that the construction of a work package with a certain attribute (or attribute combination) should be performed before or after the work package with another attribute (or attribute combination) (as shown in Figure 7a).
 related work packages can be queried through the attributes of the work packages, and then the logical sequence of the work packages is automatically generated according to the predefined rules.
 the work package logic generation specifically includes the following steps:
 the schedule resource optimization model is automatically generated, and automatically solved to complete the optimization of construction schedule resources;
 Constraints include the following five types of constraints: interprocess relationship constraints, milestone constraints, resource availability constraints, process internal constraints and resource model constraints.
 the first three are constraints that are generally used in CP solving RCPSP, and the latter two define a new multimode RCPSP.
 one model corresponds to the duration and cost of a process.
 the duration and cost of each model in the problem model are calculated by r ik and q i , which can be compared with the actual project quota and each process. The amount of work is directly linked.
 r ik represents the quantity ratio of resource k in process i, and represents the quantity of resource k that needs to be consumed per unit basic quantity.
 q i represents the basic quantity of the final result of process i, such as volume, area, weight, etc.
 T i represents the SS i or SF i of the previous step i
 T j represents the SS j or SF j of the subsequent step j
 minLag represents the shortest interval
 maxLag represents the longest interval.
 Milestone constraints time constraints for the completion of a single process
 the total demand RD kt of resource k should be less than the total supply RS kt , namely:
 the calculation method of total demand is related to whether resources can be reused. For reusable resources such as labor and machinery, the total demand should be equal to the maximum value of the sum of the demands of the processes in progress at all times before:
 d ik represents the demand of process i for resource k, which is a quantity that does not change with the progress of the optimization process, which is the setting of most RCPSPs.
 DA t ⁇ i
 the total demand should be the sum of the demands of the various started processes:
 ASA t ⁇ i
 dik is a quantity that does not change with the progress of the optimization process.
 the resource quantity qr ik of the labor resource k required by the process i is inversely proportional to the process duration SDi, namely
 the unit of qr ik is person times time, that is, it takes qr ik days for one person, or one day for qr ik individuals to complete process i.
 the duration of each process has a clear correlation with the amount of allocated labor resources dik. Equation (6) is just a typical duration function, it can also be in other forms.
 the resource cost of each process is related to the selection of resources.
 the process of schedule optimization it is necessary to perform a single selection among the groups of resources owned by a work package. Different choices affect the cost and duration, which will directly affect the results of the schedule.
 MI iu an indicator variable that marks whether the resource is selected, as shown in Figure 8, where diku represents the demand for resource k in the uth group of resources in process i. This variable is equal to 0 or 1, and satisfies the following formula:
 MI iu is used in the calculation of d ik to ensure that all resource requirements belong to a certain group:
 the RCPSP model simply considers the total construction period and total cost as the objective function (different objective functions can be used in the specific implementation process, and the overall method of the present invention does not need to be changed), and the specific calculation method is as follows:
 the total construction period TD is calculated using the following equation:
 SS is the start time.
 the direct cost DC is the synthesis of the product of resource quantity and price, namely:
 p k is the price of resource k.
 the indirect cost IC includes loan interest, site lease, design cost, change cost, supervision cost, etc. Because this part of the cost is very complicated and has a small correlation with the schedule arrangement, when the schedule is optimized, generally only the overhead related to the construction period is considered, and it is considered to be linearly related to the construction period:
 dc is the daily overhead consumption.
 each work package template is composed of four parts, namely basic information, classification, process flow and resources.
 the classification and resources are related to the information integration process.
 the resource part includes several quotas, and each quota includes several quota items.
 Each quota item corresponds to a resource in the resource database.
 the resources in a quota that can reflect the characteristics of the process are designated as the main material, and their codes can be used to complete the second matching process.
 the data of these quotas and resources are collected from the consumption quota of prefabricated construction projects (TY 0101(01)2016).
 first and second rules define the spatial sequence, and the rest define the interprocess sequence. These rules are restricted to the construction area (floor), so each floor defines a rule.
 the first category defines 22 rules in total, and the remaining 5 categories define 23 rules, totaling 137 rules.
 a connection is established between the architectural elements in BIM and the work package template.
 the number of architectural elements that may be associated with the work package template in the whole process is divided by element type, which is listed in Table 2.
 the first matching process can complete the screening of components by category, so after the first screening, except for the walls and boards related to the process template library, other components are not related.
 the second matching process some walls that did not conform to the construction materials in the process template were excluded from the model through the material type. It is worth noting that in the first time, part of the panels and walls were not associated with the process template, because the process type was not added to these components during the coding process.
 Table 3 counts the number of components associated with each process template in the twostep matching process.
 the number of components associated with the process template associated with the same component type is the same, and equal to the sum of the number of corresponding component types in Table 2. This result is consistent with the theory and verifies the correctness of the first matching algorithm.
 the components are further divided according to the material properties.
 the 4600 related wall components there are 1831 precast concrete walls, 1946 castinplace concrete walls and 382 other types of walls (such as masonry walls).
 the three work package templates related to the insitu concrete casting process are not bound, since the same type code and the material code corresponding to each work package template are added to each related building element, they can all be connected with each other. Formwork engineering, steel reinforcement engineering and concrete engineering are related, and there is nothing missing.
 Example 1 is the control group. Case 2 has less constraints on resources 2 than Case 1, Case 3 tidies up the timevarying resource constraints, and Case 4 chooses to minimize the total cost as the optimization goal.
 Figure 14 shows the demand for resource 2 in case 1 and case 2.
 the reduction in the supply of reusable resources not only caused a reduction in daily usage, but also extended the total construction period. This is the same as when labor and mechanical equipment are constrained in actual engineering.
 Figure 15 shows the comparison of the demand for resources 38 between calculation example 1 and calculation example 3.
 the resource 38 is restricted, the resource usage decreases and the total construction period increases. This can happen when a material is entered in batches at different time periods.
 the application process is performed 10 times, and the average duration of each time is calculated.
 Table 5 calculates the average time consumption of the application process in Figure 16a.
 8 work package templates need to be established in task 1.
 adding basic information takes up to 5 minutes, and it takes 40 minutes in total.
 the quota needs to be added, and the time is mainly consumed in adding resources and filling in the quota value. Assuming that it takes an average of 15 seconds to complete a resource, a total of 204 resources will take 51 minutes.
 Task 2 can be considered as a twostep cycle. First, filter the components by category, and then add corresponding codes to all the components in the filtering result. During the verification process, 26 filterings were performed. Assuming that each time takes 1 minute, task 2 will total 26 minutes.
 Task 5 includes 6 types of rules. Assuming that each type of rule takes 5 minutes, the total is 30 minutes.
 the time required for task 7 is negligible and is conservatively set to 5 minutes.
 the control group used the general RCPSPbased problem modeling and schedule optimization process, as shown in Figure 16b.
 All calculations are considered to be automatically completed by the computer, and only the time for data entry is considered, so the total timeconsuming obtained is relatively small compared with the real application scenario.
 Task 1 is to establish a WBS with a process as a leaf node, and establish a contextual relationship. In this task, you can first establish a layer of WBS, and then establish a complete WBS and the pre and postrelationship by copying. Since the relationship between WBS and the front and rear in this study is relatively simple, it will take about 5 minutes to consider.
 Task 2 is to determine the total engineering quantity of related components in each process through manual screening. In this task, each process needs to be processed once, and it takes about 2 minutes to process one time, and 189 processes take a total of 398 minutes.
 Task 4 is the same as task 7 in Figure 15a, assuming it takes 5 minutes.
 the time consumed by the application process proposed by the present invention is conservatively estimated, which is less than 1/7 of the time consumed by the general RCPSPbased problem modeling and schedule optimization process. It is also worth noting that the model established by the latter is not as complicated as the former, for example, a process has only one set of resource requirements.
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Abstract
The invention relates to a method for automated construction progress resource optimization employing a building information model, the method comprising the following steps: preparing a building information model comprising a building element type and a main resource type, and adding necessary information to a work package template database to form multiple required work package templates; performing data integration on the basis of a building component type and material type; using an RCPSP constraint condition and an objective function to generate a progress resource optimization model, and solving to complete construction progress resource optimization. The invention substantially improves data integration and construction optimization efficiency, and reduces the time required for construction optimization from days to hours.
Description
本发明涉及一种资源优化方法，特别是关于一种基于建筑信息模型的施工进度资源自动优化方法。The invention relates to a resource optimization method, in particular to a construction schedule resource automatic optimization method based on a building information model.
资源约束项目调度问题(resourceconstrained project scheduling problem，RCPSP)是施工进度资源优化的重要数学模型。RCPSP是NP问题，研究者们使用众多的启发式算法以解决这些问题，包括基于优先级规则的启发式算法如精简分支定界法、局部搜索技术等，以及元启发式算法，例如遗传算法、粒子群算法以及禁忌搜索。对于建筑项目，有很多研究通过建立更复杂的问题模型以满足实际需求，如考虑多项目、不断变化的资源约束、同时考虑资源约束与时间资源均衡(timecost tradeoff，TCT)问题。一般而言，这些问题都可以统一为RCPSP的形式。尽管RCPSP的数学模型可以描述实际工程需求并且在合理的时间内完成求解，但现有相关研究很少考虑数据的获取难度，并且所需数据的复杂程度高，因此RCPSP求解技术在实际应用中仍面临效率低下、实际应用困难等问题。Resourceconstrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) is an important mathematical model for resource optimization of construction schedule. RCPSP is an NP problem. Researchers use many heuristic algorithms to solve these problems, including heuristic algorithms based on priority rules such as simplified branch and bound method, local search technology, etc., and metaheuristic algorithms, such as genetic algorithm, Particle swarm algorithm and tabu search. For construction projects, many studies have established more complex problem models to meet actual needs, such as considering multiple projects and changing resource constraints, as well as resource constraints and timecost tradeoff (TCT) issues. Generally speaking, these issues can be unified into the form of RCPSP. Although the mathematical model of RCPSP can describe the actual engineering requirements and complete the solution within a reasonable time, the existing related research rarely considers the difficulty of data acquisition and the complexity of the required data. Therefore, the RCPSP solution technology is still in practical applications. Facing problems such as low efficiency and difficulty in practical application.
1)资源受限的施工项目优化调度问题1) Resourceconstrained construction project optimization scheduling problem
最基本的RCPSP中定义了一系列互为前后关系的工序，每个工序在进行时占用若干可重用资源，而这些资源的可用性在整个项目期受到常数上限的约束。在此基础上，可以衍生出各类更加完备的RCPSP模型。对近期的24个研究进行分析可以发现，工序时长、前后置关系以及资源可用量是基本RCPSP模型求解的必需信息，而也有较多研究考虑多模式以及成本等约束。但仅有1项研究考虑了不同资源的可重用类型。进一步统计分析可知，进度资源优化问题涉及工序时长、多模式、前后置关系、发包时间与里程碑、资源可用量、资源可重用类型、成本等7类信息，但上述24个研究中，往往只考虑5种或以下数量的因素，并未见到同时考虑这7类信息的RCPSP模型。此外，有关研究多将工序时长设置为固定的值，或者通过多模式表示资源用量或工序成本对时长的影响。但并不考虑资源的单价和前后置任务的时间间隔，对成本的考虑也比较简单。因此，现有优化 模型难以反映真实施工过程的资源优化场景。The most basic RCPSP defines a series of processes that are related to each other. Each process occupies several reusable resources during the process, and the availability of these resources is constrained by a constant upper limit during the entire project period. On this basis, various more complete RCPSP models can be derived. An analysis of 24 recent studies reveals that process duration, prepost and postrelationships, and resource availability are necessary information for the solution of the basic RCPSP model, and many studies consider constraints such as multimode and cost. But only one study considered the reusable types of different resources. Further statistical analysis shows that the problem of schedule resource optimization involves 7 types of information such as process duration, multiple modes, pre and postrelationships, contracting time and milestones, resource availability, resource reusable types, and costs. However, in the above 24 studies, only consideration is often given. There are no RCPSP models that consider these 7 types of information at the same time for 5 or less factors. In addition, related studies often set the process duration to a fixed value, or express the impact of resource usage or process cost on duration through multiple modes. However, the unit price of resources and the time interval of pre and posttasks are not considered, and the consideration of cost is relatively simple. Therefore, the existing optimization models cannot reflect the resource optimization scenarios of the real construction process.
2)基于BIM(建筑信息模型，Building Information Modeling)的施工进度资源优化方法2) Construction schedule resource optimization method based on BIM (Building Information Modeling)
当前，已有大量研究探索利用BIM生成进度优化问题的模型。包括利用BIM模型据导出进度计划、结合BIM模型和离散事件仿真、集成BIM与粒子群优化方法等等，有关研究也试图考虑空间约束等条件。也有研究通过设置一系列简单规则来自动生成进度和资源计划，并进行优化。不过，有关研究和方法均假设BIM模型中已包含完整的进度、资源与成本数据，且相应数据之间的关联关系也已具备。然而，这个假设并不正确，当前进度、资源、成本等数据的集成和关联仍然高度依赖手工，存在自动化水平低、耗时长等问题。同时，有关研究并未将标准施工工艺等积累的工程知识纳入到资源优化过程，难以利用既有工程经验、知识。最后，有关研究往往需将BIM模型的数据进行人工抽取和转换之后，构建进度资源优化模型，并进行资源优化问题求解，最终再根据优化结果人工调整BIM模型，整个过程需要投入大量人力，效率低下且容易产生错漏。At present, there have been a lot of studies exploring the use of BIM to generate models for scheduling optimization problems. Including the use of BIM models to derive schedules, combining BIM models and discrete event simulations, integrating BIM and particle swarm optimization methods, etc. Relevant studies have also tried to consider conditions such as space constraints. There are also studies that set up a series of simple rules to automatically generate progress and resource plans and optimize them. However, relevant research and methods assume that the BIM model already contains complete schedule, resource, and cost data, and the correlation between the corresponding data is also available. However, this assumption is not correct. The integration and correlation of current progress, resources, cost and other data is still highly dependent on manual work, and there are problems such as low level of automation and long time consumption. At the same time, relevant research has not incorporated the accumulated engineering knowledge such as standard construction techniques into the resource optimization process, and it is difficult to use existing engineering experience and knowledge. Finally, related studies often need to manually extract and convert the data of the BIM model, build a schedule resource optimization model, and solve the resource optimization problem, and finally adjust the BIM model manually according to the optimization results. The entire process requires a lot of manpower and is inefficient. And it is prone to errors and omissions.
综上，现有技术存在以下问题：In summary, the existing technology has the following problems:
1)RCPSP模型不够完备，并未完全考虑施工资源优化的7类信息。1) The RCPSP model is not complete enough to fully consider the 7 types of information for construction resource optimization.
2)数据集成、关联过程高度依赖手工，效率低、易出错。2) Data integration and correlation processes are highly dependent on manual work, which is inefficient and errorprone.
3)不能充分利用标准工艺等既有工程知识或经验。3) Cannot make full use of existing engineering knowledge or experience such as standard processes.
4)进度资源优化模型构建过程需手工介入，繁琐易出错，浪费大量时间。4) The construction process of schedule resource optimization model requires manual intervention, which is cumbersome and errorprone, and wastes a lot of time.
发明内容Summary of the invention
针对上述问题，本发明的目的是提供一种基于建筑信息模型的施工进度资源自动优化方法，其能大幅提升数据整合、施工优化的效率，将施工方案优化的时间缩短，从几天降低到几小时。In view of the above problems, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on building information models, which can greatly improve the efficiency of data integration and construction optimization, and shorten the time for optimization of construction plans from several days to several hour.
为实现上述目的，本发明采取以下技术方案：一种基于建筑信息模型的施工进度资源自动优化方法，其包括以下步骤：1)准备具备建筑元素类别以及主资源类别的建筑信息模型，并在工作包模板数据库中录入或导入需要的工作包模板，利用工作包模板生成工作包，每个工作包与建筑构件之间是多对多关联；2)以建筑构件类型以及材料类型为基础进行数据 集成；3)以数据集成形成的信息模型为基础，利用RCPSP的约束条件和目标函数，自动生成进度资源优化模型，并自动求解，完成施工进度资源的优化。In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions: A method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on building information models, which includes the following steps: 1) Prepare building information models with building element categories and main resource categories, and work Enter or import the required work package templates in the package template database, and use the work package templates to generate work packages. Each work package and the building components are manytomany associations; 2) Data integration is based on the types of building components and materials 3) Based on the information model formed by data integration, using the constraints and objective function of RCPSP, the schedule resource optimization model is automatically generated and solved automatically to complete the optimization of the construction schedule resource.
进一步，所述步骤2)中，数据集成方法为：2.1)基于建筑构件类型的分类编码，遍历各工作包模板建立编码树；2.2)将工作包与建筑构件自动关联；2.3)生成基于规则的工作包逻辑：在工作包与建筑构件完成关联后，基于规则生成顺序逻辑，该规则的定义基于工作包的属性实现，工作包属性包括空间位置、构件类型和工程专业；规则的基本形式是具备某个属性或属性组合的工作包的施工应先于或晚于具备另一个属性或属性组合的工作包；在预定义这些规则后，通过工作包的属性查询到相关的工作包，进而按照预定义的规则自动生成工作包的逻辑顺序。Further, in the step 2), the data integration method is: 2.1) Based on the classification and coding of building component types, traverse each work package template to establish a coding tree; 2.2) Automatically associate work packages with building components; 2.3) Generate rulebased Work package logic: After the work package is associated with the building component, the sequence logic is generated based on the rules. The definition of the rule is realized based on the attributes of the work package. The attributes of the work package include spatial location, component type and engineering specialty; the basic form of the rule is to have The construction of a work package with a certain attribute or attribute combination should be earlier or later than a work package with another attribute or attribute combination; after these rules are predefined, the relevant work package can be queried through the attributes of the work package, and then according to the predefined The defined rules automatically generate the logical sequence of work packages.
进一步，所述步骤2.1)中，对于每个工作包模板中建筑构件类型编码的每个层级，若该层级并不被编码树包含，则将该节点添加至编码树，将整个编码对应的编码树节点与工作包模板进行关联；具体过程为：a)遍历所有的工作包模板得到模板t，设模板t的编码为c；b)设建筑构件的树根节点为curnode；c)遍历c的每一层，得到层代码n；d)判断树根节点curnode的子节点中是否包含层代码n，若包含，则进入步骤e)；若不包含，则为树根节点curnode创建子节点n，进入步骤e)；e)为树根节点curnode赋值为子节点中的n；f)判断n是否存在下一层，若存在，则返回步骤c)，否则将模板t与树根节点curnode关联，进入步骤g)；g)重复上述步骤直至不存在下一模板，完成编码树建立。Further, in the step 2.1), for each level of the building component type code in each work package template, if the level is not included in the coding tree, the node is added to the coding tree, and the code corresponding to the entire code The tree node is associated with the work package template; the specific process is: a) Traverse all the work package templates to get the template t, set the code of the template t as c; b) set the tree root node of the building component as curnode; c) traverse the c For each layer, get the layer code n; d) Determine whether the child node of the tree root node curnode contains the layer code n, if it does, go to step e); if not, create the child node n for the tree root node curnode, Go to step e); e) assign the tree root node curnode to n in the child node; f) determine whether n exists in the next layer, if it exists, return to step c), otherwise associate the template t with the tree root node curnode, Go to step g); g) repeat the above steps until there is no next template, and complete the establishment of the coding tree.
进一步，所述步骤2.2)中，工作包与建筑构件自动关联包括4个步骤：建筑构件与工作包模板第一次匹配、建筑构件与工作包模板第二次匹配、工作包实例化与工作包重组；第一次匹配为各建筑构件从根节点逐级匹配并与匹配到的所有节点中所关联的工作包模板建立关联；遍历第一次匹配的结果，通过剔除不满足材料编码匹配原则的关联，完成第二次匹配过程；工作包实例化过程是工作包模板按其对应的建筑构件所处的施工空间被划分的过程；划分后的每组建筑构件即对应一个工作包；工作包重组是通过遍历所有建筑构件，依次判断其属性是否符合其关联工作包的各个定额的使用条件；然后得到各建筑构件具体所对应的定额组合，当某个定额组合与建筑构件完全匹配时，就生成一个新的工作包。Further, in the step 2.2), the automatic association of the work package and the building component includes 4 steps: the first matching of the building component and the work package template, the second matching of the building component and the work package template, the instantiation of the work package and the work package Reorganization; the first matching is that each building component is matched step by step from the root node and is associated with the work package template associated with all the matched nodes; traverse the results of the first matching, and eliminate those that do not meet the material coding matching principle Associate, complete the second matching process; the work package instantiation process is the process in which the work package template is divided according to the construction space where the corresponding building components are located; each group of building components after the division corresponds to a work package; work package reorganization It is to traverse all building components and determine whether their attributes meet the usage conditions of each quota of its associated work package; then get the specific quota combination corresponding to each building component. When a certain quota combination completely matches the building component, it will be generated A new work package.
进一步，所述工作包实例化过程为：(1)遍历所有工作包模板得到工作包模板t；(2)遍历与工作包模板t关联的所有建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(3)获取建筑构件b的施工区域A，判断该施工区域A是否有对应的工作包，有，则设施工区域A对应的工作包为w，并进入步骤(4)；没有则为施工区域A创建工作包模板t的工作包w，进入步骤(4)；(4)将建筑构件b与工作包w关联，并判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之进入步骤(5)；(5)判断是否有下一个工作包模板，有则返回步骤(1)，反之结束。Further, the work package instantiation process is: (1) traverse all work package templates to obtain work package template t; (2) traverse all building components associated with work package template t to obtain building component b; (3) obtain building For the construction area A of component b, judge whether there is a corresponding work package in the construction area A, if yes, the work package corresponding to the facility area A is w, and go to step (4); if there is no work package template for the construction area A t’s work package w, go to step (4); (4) associate the building component b with the work package w, and determine whether there is a next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise go to step (5); 5) Judge whether there is the next work package template, if there is, return to step (1), otherwise end.
进一步，所述工作包重组过程为：(1)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(2)遍历所有与工作包w相关的建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(3)遍历定额，得到与建筑构件b符合的定额组合q，并判断定额组合集合s中是否包括定额组合q；包括则将定额组合q与建构组件b关联，反之，将定额组合q加入定额组合集合s中，然后将定额组合q与建构组件b关联；(4)判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之，则为定额组合集合s中的每一个定额组合q建立一个工作包，并将该工作包与定额组合q相关的所有建筑构件关联。Further, the work package reorganization process is: (1) traverse all work packages to obtain work package w; (2) traverse all building components related to work package w to obtain building component b; (3) traverse quotas to obtain work package w; The quota combination q that the component b conforms to, and determine whether the quota combination set s includes the quota combination q; if included, the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b, otherwise, the quota combination q is added to the quota combination set s, and then the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b; (4) Determine whether there is the next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise, create a work package for each quota combination q in the quota combination set s, and add the work The package is associated with all building components related to the quota combination q.
进一步，所述步骤2.3)中，工作包逻辑生成具体包括以下步骤：(1)建立一个工作包属性集合φ；(2)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(3)遍历所有工作包w的所有属性，得到属性t，判断属性t是否属于属性集合φ，属于则进入步骤(4)，反之，在属性集合φ中添加属性t，进入步骤(4)；(4)生成属性t与工作包w之间的关联，并判断是否仍有工作包w，若有则返回步骤(2)，反之则进入步骤(5)；(5)遍历所有的规则得到规则r，从规则r中的相关属性，通过查询属性集合φ与工作包集合的关联，得到前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2；(6)建立前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2之间的顺序关系：为s2中的所有工作包的前置任务集合中添加s1中的所有工作报告。Furthermore, in the step 2.3), the work package logic generation specifically includes the following steps: (1) establish a work package attribute set φ; (2) traverse all work packages to obtain work package w; (3) traverse all work packages w For all attributes, get the attribute t, judge whether the attribute t belongs to the attribute set φ, then go to step (4), otherwise, add the attribute t to the attribute set φ and go to step (4); (4) generate the attribute t and work package The association between w, and judge whether there is still work package w, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise, go to step (5); (5) Traverse all the rules to get the rule r, from the relevant attributes in the rule r , By querying the association between the attribute set φ and the work package set, the previous work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 are obtained; (6) The sequence relationship between the previous work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 is established: Add all the work reports in s1 to the predecessor task set of all work packages in s2.
进一步，所述步骤3)中，约束条件包括工序间关系约束、里程碑约束、资源可用性约束、工序内部约束和资源模式约束。Further, in the step 3), the constraint conditions include interprocess relationship constraints, milestone constraints, resource availability constraints, process internal constraints and resource mode constraints.
进一步，所述五种约束分别为：工序间关系约束：对于工序i，用T
_{i}代表工序i的开始时间SS
_{i}或结束时间SF
_{i}，各工序的关键时间属性之差有下限与上限，则此关系为：
Further, the five types of constraints are: Interprocess relationship constraints: For process i, use T _{i to} represent the start time SS _{i} or end time SF _{i} of process i. The difference between the key time attributes of each process has a lower limit and an upper limit, then This relationship is:
minLag≤T
_{j}T
_{i}≤maxLag
minLag≤T _{j} T _{i} ≤maxLag
其中，T
_{i}代表前序工序i的SS
_{i}或SF
_{i}，T
_{j}代表后续工序j的SS
_{j}或SF
_{j}，minLag代表最短间隔，maxLag代表最长间隔；
Among them, T _{i} represents the SS _{i} or SF _{i of the} previous step i, T _{j} represents the SS _{j} or SF _{j of the} subsequent step j, minLag represents the shortest interval, and maxLag represents the longest interval;
里程碑约束：单一工序完成时间约束；单一工序完成时间约束主要针对工序i的计划完成时间SF
_{i}，其必须早于预先设定的里程碑M
_{i}，表示为：
Milestone constraint: single process completion time constraints; single step completion time constraints mainly completion time for step i SF _{i} programs, which must be earlier than the predetermined milestone M _{i,} is expressed as:
SF
_{i}≤M
_{i}；
SF _{i} ≤M _{i} ;
资源可用性约束：在任意时间点t，资源k的总需求RD
_{kt}应小于总供给RS
_{kt}：
Resource availability constraint: at any point in time t, the total demand RD _{kt of} resource k should be less than the total supply RS _{kt} :
RD
_{kt}≤RS
_{kt}
RD _{kt} ≤RS _{kt}
对于可重用资源，总需求应等于之前所有时刻正在进行的工序的需求总和的最大值：For reusable resources, the total demand should be equal to the maximum value of the sum of the demands of the processes in progress at all times before:
其中，d
_{ik}表示工序i对于资源k的需求量，DA
_{t}＝{iSS
_{i}≤t≤SF
_{i}}，表示t时刻正在进行的工序集合；
Among them, d _{ik} represents the demand of process i for resource k, DA _{t} ={iSS _{i} ≤t≤SF _{i} }, which represents the set of processes in progress at time t;
而对于不可重用资源，其总需求应为各个已经开始的工序的需求总和：For nonreusable resources, the total demand should be the sum of the demands of the various started processes:
其中ASA
_{t}＝{it≥SS
_{i}}，表示t时刻已经开始的工序集合；
Where ASA _{t} = {it≥SS _{i} }, which represents the set of processes that have started at time t;
工序内部约束：工序i所需的人工资源k的资源量qr
_{ik}与工序时长SDi成反比：
_{Process internal constraints: the resource quantity qr ik} of the labor resource k required for process i is inversely proportional to the process duration SDi:
qr
_{ik}＝d
_{ik}SD
_{i}
qr _{ik} ＝d _{ik} SD _{i}
其中，qr
_{ik}的单位是人乘以时间，即1个人需要花费qr
_{ik}天，或者qr
_{ik}个人需要花费1天来完成工序i；
Among them, _{the unit of qr ik} is person multiplied by time, that is, 1 person needs to spend qr _{ik} days, or qr _{ik} individual needs 1 day to complete process i;
资源模式约束：引入一个标志资源是否选中的指标变量MI
_{iu}，d
_{iku}代表工序i的第u组资源中资源k的需求量；该变量等于0或者1，并且满足下式：
Resource mode constraints: Introduce an indicator variable MI _{iu} that _{indicates whether the resource is selected, diku} represents the demand for resource k in the uth group of resources in process i; this variable is equal to 0 or 1, and satisfies the following formula:
MI
_{iu}用于d
_{ik}的计算，确保所有的资源的需求量都属于某一组：
MI _{iu is} used _{to calculate d ik} to ensure that all resource requirements belong to a certain group:
进一步，所述步骤3)中，RCPSP模型将总工期与总成本作为目标函数，具体计算方式如下：Further, in the step 3), the RCPSP model takes the total construction period and total cost as the objective function, and the specific calculation method is as follows:
(1)总工期(1) Total construction period
总工期TD采用以下方程计算：The total construction period TD is calculated using the following equation:
TD＝max(SF
_{i})SS
TD=max(SF _{i} )SS
其中，SS是开工时间；Among them, SS is the start time;
(2)总成本(2) Total cost
包括直接成本和间接成本，直接成本DC是资源量与价格乘积的综合，即：Including direct cost and indirect cost, direct cost DC is the synthesis of the product of resource quantity and price, namely:
其中，p
_{k}为资源k的价格；
Among them, p _{k} is the price of resource k;
间接成本IC包括贷款利息、场地租赁、设计费用、变更费用和监理费用；仅考虑与工期有关的间接费，并认为其与工期线性相关：The indirect cost IC includes loan interest, site lease, design cost, change cost and supervision cost; only the indirect cost related to the construction period is considered, and it is considered to be linearly related to the construction period:
IC＝TD·dcIC=TD·dc
其中，dc是每天间接费消耗。Among them, dc is the daily overhead consumption.
本发明由于采取以上技术方案，其具有以下优点：1、本发明支持集成所有施工进度资源优化相关信息，可支持多种进度资源优化模型的数据需求，可利用BIM以及少量数据源自动生成基于约束规划的进度资源优化模型并自动对模型进行求解得到优化的施工方案，可大幅提升数据整合、施工优化的效率。2、本发明建立了可以同时考虑工序时长、多模式、前后置关系、发包时间与里程碑、资源可用量、资源可重用类型、成本的多模式RCPSP模型，针对工程施工弥补了现有RCPSP的完备性问题。3、本发明引入BIM以及基于工作包数据库的知识数据，并提供自动化信息集成方法,弥补工程施工RCPSP求解技术数据获取环节缺失的问题，并解决了现有知识技术无法用于实际工程进度资源优化的问题，因此提高了应用效率。4、提出了基于BIM建立进度资源优化模型的自动构建与求解方法，通过使用来自于现行规范的数据源避免了对数据格式的过高要求，可自动生成具备良好通用性的RCPSP模型，并自动进行优化模型求解，解决了现有技术自动化水平低的问题，可大幅节约优化模型构建与求解时间，减少人工投入。The present invention has the following advantages due to the above technical solutions: 1. The present invention supports the integration of all construction schedule resource optimization related information, can support the data requirements of multiple schedule resource optimization models, and can use BIM and a small number of data sources to automatically generate constraints based on constraints. Plan the schedule resource optimization model and automatically solve the model to obtain an optimized construction plan, which can greatly improve the efficiency of data integration and construction optimization. 2. The present invention establishes a multimode RCPSP model that can simultaneously consider the process length, multimode, fronttoback relationship, contracting time and milestones, resource availability, resource reusable type, and cost, and makes up for the completeness of the existing RCPSP for engineering construction Sexual issues. 3. The present invention introduces BIM and knowledge data based on the work package database, and provides an automated information integration method to make up for the lack of technical data acquisition links in the construction of RCPSP solution, and solves the problem that existing knowledge and technology cannot be used for actual project schedule resource optimization Therefore, the application efficiency is improved. 4. An automatic construction and solution method for establishing a schedule resource optimization model based on BIM is proposed. By using data sources from the current specifications, it avoids excessive requirements on the data format, and can automatically generate a RCPSP model with good versatility, and automatically Solving the optimization model solves the problem of the low level of automation in the existing technology, can greatly save the optimization model construction and solution time, and reduce manual input.
图1是本发明的整体流程示意图；Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the overall flow of the present invention;
图2是工作包模板数据库结构图；Figure 2 is a structure diagram of the work package template database;
图3是编码树生成方法流程图；Figure 3 is a flowchart of a coding tree generation method;
图4是工作包与构件关联流程图；Figure 4 is a flowchart of the association between work packages and components;
图5是以施工区域为划分依据的工作包实例化示意图；Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the instantiation of the work package based on the construction area;
图6是以定额为依据的工作包重组示例；Figure 6 is an example of work package reorganization based on quota;
图7a是规则、属性与工作包的关联示意图；Figure 7a is a schematic diagram of the association of rules, attributes and work packages;
图7b是基于规则的工作包顺序逻辑生成方法流程图；Figure 7b is a flow chart of a rulebased work package sequence logic generation method;
图8是工序的资源模式以及选择索引；Figure 8 is the resource model and selection index of the process;
图9是CP模型生成与求解方法流程图；Figure 9 is a flowchart of the CP model generation and solution method;
图10是对应于7层的工作包以及顺序逻辑；Figure 10 is the work package and sequence logic corresponding to the 7th layer;
图11是算例3中的资源约束示意图；Figure 11 is a schematic diagram of resource constraints in Example 3;
图12是进度优化结果之总工期与总成本；Figure 12 is the total construction period and total cost of the schedule optimization results;
图13是进度优化结果中7层的工序时长；Figure 13 is the process time length of 7 layers in the schedule optimization result;
图14是算例1与算例2的结果中对资源2的需求；Figure 14 shows the demand for resource 2 in the results of calculation example 1 and calculation example 2;
图15是算例1与算例3的结果中对资源38的需求；Figure 15 shows the demand for resources 38 in the results of calculation examples 1 and 3;
图16a是采用本发明提供的方法在工程中半自动建立RCPSP并进行进度优化；Figure 16a is a semiautomatic establishment of RCPSP and progress optimization in the project using the method provided by the present invention;
图16b是现有一般的RCPSP应用流程。Figure 16b is an existing general RCPSP application process.
本发明最佳实施方式Best embodiment of the invention
下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进行详细的描述。The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings and embodiments.
如图1所示，本发明提供一种基于建筑信息模型的施工进度资源自动优化方法，该方法以工作包为基础，为数据集成提供整体架构，并为后续施工进度资源优化提供支持。As shown in Figure 1, the present invention provides a method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on a building information model. The method is based on a work package to provide an overall structure for data integration and provide support for subsequent optimization of construction schedule resources.
如图2所示，建筑信息模型由5类核心实体构成，5类核心实体为建筑构件、工作包、定额、定额项以及资源。其中，建筑构件来自BIM，其他4类实体来自工作包模板数据库。对每个建筑构件，都需包含基本数据、元素类型和主要材料属性；相应的，基本数据应包括建筑构件的体积、面 积、长度和重量；元素类型和主要材料用于搜索相关的工作包模板，可以使用统一的分类编码标准表示。工作包模板数据库则存储了一系列工作包模板，每个工作包模板都包括以下数据：建筑元素类别、若干定额、各定额的基本单位、使用条件、定额项、各定额项的资源与定额量。定额量的数据可来自于国家以及地方的定额标准。其中，定额指工程量定额，是国家或地方通过调查统计得到的施工过程中各项工作对各项施工资源的消耗量；定额项指的是一项施工工作中某一资源的需求情况。As shown in Figure 2, the building information model is composed of five types of core entities, which are building components, work packages, quotas, quota items, and resources. Among them, building components come from BIM, and the other 4 types of entities come from the work package template database. For each building component, it needs to include basic data, element type and main material properties; correspondingly, the basic data should include the volume, area, length and weight of the building component; element types and main materials are used to search for related work package templates , Can be expressed using a unified classification and coding standard. The work package template database stores a series of work package templates. Each work package template includes the following data: building element types, several quotas, basic units of each quota, usage conditions, quota items, resources and quota amounts for each quota item . The quota data can come from national and local quota standards. Among them, the quota refers to the engineering quantity quota, which is the consumption of various construction resources in the construction process obtained by the state or local through investigation and statistics; the quota item refers to the demand for a certain resource in a construction work.
如图1和图2所示，本发明包括以下步骤：As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the present invention includes the following steps:
1)数据准备：准备具备建筑元素类别以及主资源类别的建筑信息模型，并在工作包模板数据库中录入或导入需要的工作包模板，然后，利用工作包模板生成工作包，每个工作包与建筑构件之间是多对多关联。1) Data preparation: Prepare a building information model with building element categories and main resource categories, and enter or import the required work package templates in the work package template database, and then use the work package templates to generate work packages. Each work package is related to There is a manytomany relationship between building components.
一个工作包中包括多个定额，每个定额中包括多个定额项，每个定额项对应一个资源。A work package includes multiple quotas, each quota includes multiple quota items, and each quota item corresponds to a resource.
2)数据集成：以建筑构件类型以及材料类型为基础进行数据集成；2) Data integration: data integration based on building component types and material types;
数据集成的基础是两个统一的分类编码体系，分别表示建筑构件类型以及材料类型。建筑构件类型可使用OmniClass的表21或Uniclass的表Ef，材料类型可使用Omniclass的表23或者Uniclass的表Pr。在数据集成前，默认BIM数据库中的建筑构件上附有其构件类型以及关键材料对应的编码。默认工作包模板数据库中的工作包模板均拥有对应建筑构件类别的编码，并且资源列表中材料资源的类型均拥有对应的材料编码。The basis of data integration is two unified classification and coding systems, which respectively indicate the type of building components and the type of materials. Building component types can use OmniClass table 21 or Uniclass table Ef, and material types can use Omniclass table 23 or Uniclass table Pr. Before data integration, the building components in the default BIM database are attached with their component types and corresponding codes of key materials. The work package templates in the default work package template database all have codes corresponding to the types of building components, and the types of material resources in the resource list all have corresponding material codes.
数据集成方法为：The data integration method is:
2.1)基于建筑构件类型的分类编码，遍历各工作包模板建立编码树；2.1) Based on the classification and coding of building component types, traverse each work package template to establish a coding tree;
如图3所示，对于每个工作包模板中建筑构件类型编码的每个层级，若该层级并不被编码树包含，则将该节点添加至编码树。将整个编码对应的编码树节点与工作包模板进行关联。具体过程为：As shown in Figure 3, for each level of building component type coding in each work package template, if the level is not included in the coding tree, the node is added to the coding tree. Associate the code tree node corresponding to the entire code with the work package template. The specific process is:
a)遍历所有的工作包模板得到模板t，设模板t的编码为c；a) Traverse all work package templates to get template t, and set the code of template t to c;
b)设建筑构件的树根节点为curnode；b) Let the tree root node of the building component be curnode;
c)遍历c的每一层，得到层代码n；c) Traverse each layer of c to get the layer code n;
d)判断树根节点curnode的子节点中是否包含层代码n，若包含，则进入步骤e)；若不包含，则为树根节点curnode创建子节点n，进入步骤e)；d) Judge whether the child node of the tree root node curnode contains the layer code n, if it does, go to step e); if it does not, create a child node n for the tree root node curnode and go to step e);
e)为树根节点curnode赋值为子节点中的n；e) Assign the value of n in the child node to the tree root node curnode;
f)判断n是否存在下一层，若存在，则返回步骤c)，否则将模板t与树根节点curnode关联，进入步骤g)。f) Judge whether n has the next layer, if so, return to step c), otherwise associate the template t with the tree root node curnode, and go to step g).
g)重复上述步骤直至不存在下一模板，完成编码树建立。g) Repeat the above steps until there is no next template, and complete the establishment of the coding tree.
2.2)将工作包与建筑构件自动关联；2.2) Automatically associate work packages with building components;
如图4所示，工作包与建筑构件自动关联包括以下4个步骤：建筑构件与工作包模板第一次匹配、建筑构件与工作包模板第二次匹配、工作包实例化与工作包重组。As shown in Figure 4, the automatic association of work packages and building components includes the following four steps: first matching of building components and work package templates, second matching of building components and work package templates, work package instantiation and work package reorganization.
其中，第一次匹配为各建筑构件从根节点逐级匹配并与匹配到的所有节点中所关联的工作包模板建立关联。遍历第一次匹配的结果，通过剔除不满足材料编码匹配原则的关联，即可以完成第二次匹配过程。Among them, the first matching is that each building component is matched step by step from the root node and is associated with the work package template associated with all the matched nodes. Traverse the results of the first matching, and eliminate the associations that do not meet the material coding matching principle, and then the second matching process can be completed.
两次匹配完成后，已经为工作包模板与建筑构件建立了对应关系，这个关系意味着这个建筑构件可以采用该工作包模板进行施工。通常情况下，结果是多对多的，不同的建筑构件会采用相同的工作包模板进行施工，而一个建筑构件也可能会有多个工作包模板供选择。After the two matches are completed, the corresponding relationship between the work package template and the building component has been established. This relationship means that the building component can be constructed using the work package template. Normally, the result is manytomany. Different building components will use the same work package template for construction, and a building component may also have multiple work package templates for selection.
工作包实例化过程是工作包模板按其对应的建筑构件所处的施工空间被划分的过程。划分后的每组建筑构件即对应一个工作包，如图5所示，具体过程为：The work package instantiation process is a process in which the work package template is divided according to the construction space where the corresponding building components are located. Each group of building components after division corresponds to a work package, as shown in Figure 5. The specific process is:
(1)遍历所有工作包模板得到工作包模板t；(1) Traverse all the work package templates to get the work package template t;
(2)遍历与工作包模板t关联的所有建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(2) Traverse all building components associated with the work package template t to obtain building component b;
(3)获取建筑构件b的施工区域A，判断该施工区域A是否有对应的工作包，有，则设施工区域A对应的工作包为w，并进入步骤(4)；没有则为施工区域A创建工作包模板t的工作包w，进入步骤(4)；(3) Obtain the construction area A of the building component b, and determine whether the construction area A has a corresponding work package. If yes, the work package corresponding to the facility area A is w, and go to step (4); if there is no work package, it is the construction area A creates the work package w of the work package template t and proceeds to step (4);
(4)将建筑构件b与工作包w关联，并判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之进入步骤(5)；(4) Associate the building component b with the work package w, and judge whether there is the next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise go to step (5);
(5)判断是否有下一个工作包模板，有则返回步骤(1)，反之结束。(5) Judge whether there is the next work package template, if there is, return to step (1), otherwise end.
工作包重组是通过遍历所有建筑构件，依次判断其属性是否符合其关联工作包的各个定额的使用条件；然后可以得到各建筑构件具体所对应的定额组合。对于一个包含了n个定额的工作包，其定额组合有2
^{n}1中可能，当某个定额组合与建筑构件完全匹配时，就生成一个新的工作包。如图6所示，具体过程为：
Work package reorganization is to traverse all building components and determine in turn whether their attributes meet the usage conditions of each quota of its associated work package; then the specific quota combination corresponding to each building component can be obtained. For a work package containing n quotas, the quota combination may be 2 ^{n} 1. When a certain quota combination completely matches the building component, a new work package is generated. As shown in Figure 6, the specific process is:
(1)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(1) Traverse all work packages to get work package w;
(2)遍历所有与工作包w相关的建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(2) Traverse all building components related to work package w to obtain building component b;
(3)遍历定额，得到与建筑构件b符合的定额组合q，并判断定额组合集合s中是否包括定额组合q；包括则将定额组合q与建构组件b关联，反之，将定额组合q加入定额组合集合s中，然后将定额组合q与建构组件b关联；(3) Traverse the quota, get the quota combination q that matches the building component b, and determine whether the quota combination set s includes the quota combination q; if it does, associate the quota combination q with the construction component b, otherwise, add the quota combination q to the quota In the combination set s, then the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b;
(4)判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之，则为定额组合集合s中的每一个定额组合q建立一个工作包，并将该工作包与定额组合q相关的所有建筑构件关联。(4) Determine whether there is the next building component. If there is, return to step (2). Otherwise, create a work package for each quota combination q in the quota combination set s, and associate the work package with the quota combination q All building components are connected.
2.3)生成基于规则的工作包逻辑；2.3) Generate rulebased work package logic;
在工作包与建筑构件完成关联后，基于规则生成顺序逻辑。该规则的定义主要基于工作包的属性实现，涉及的工作包属性包括空间位置、构件类型和工程专业等信息。规则的基本形式是具备某个属性(或属性组合)的工作包的施工应先于或晚于具备另一个属性(或属性组合)的工作包(如图7a所示)。在预定义这些规则后，通过工作包的属性可查询到相关的工作包，进而按照预定义的规则自动生成工作包的逻辑顺序。After the work package is associated with the building component, the sequence logic is generated based on the rules. The definition of this rule is mainly realized based on the attributes of the work package. The attributes of the work package involved include information such as spatial location, component type and engineering specialty. The basic form of the rule is that the construction of a work package with a certain attribute (or attribute combination) should be performed before or after the work package with another attribute (or attribute combination) (as shown in Figure 7a). After predefining these rules, related work packages can be queried through the attributes of the work packages, and then the logical sequence of the work packages is automatically generated according to the predefined rules.
如图7b所示，工作包逻辑生成具体包括以下步骤：As shown in Figure 7b, the work package logic generation specifically includes the following steps:
(1)建立一个工作包属性集合φ；(1) Establish a work package attribute set φ;
(2)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(2) Traverse all work packages to get work package w;
(3)遍历所有工作包w的所有属性，得到属性t，判断属性t是否属于属性集合φ，属于则进入步骤(4)，反之，在属性集合φ中添加属性t，进入步骤(4)；(3) Traverse all the attributes of all work packages w to get the attribute t, judge whether the attribute t belongs to the attribute set φ, then go to step (4), otherwise, add the attribute t to the attribute set φ and go to step (4);
(4)生成属性t与工作包w之间的关联，并判断是否仍有工作包w，若有则返回步骤(2)，反之则进入步骤(5)；(4) Generate the association between the attribute t and the work package w, and judge whether there is still work package w, if there is, go back to step (2), otherwise go to step (5);
(5)遍历所有的规则得到规则r，从规则r中的相关属性，通过查询属性集合φ与工作包集合的关联，得到前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2；(5) Traverse all the rules to get the rule r. From the relevant attributes in the rule r, by querying the association between the attribute set φ and the work package set, the preorder work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 are obtained;
(6)建立前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2之间的顺序关系：即为s2中的所有工作包的前置任务集合中添加s1中的所有工作报告。(6) Establish the sequence relationship between the preorder work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2: that is, add all the work reports in s1 to the pretask set of all work packages in s2.
3)以数据集成形成的信息模型为基础，利用RCPSP的约束条件和目标函数，自动生成进度资源优化模型，并自动求解，完成施工进度资源的 优化；3) Based on the information model formed by data integration, using the constraints and objective function of RCPSP, the schedule resource optimization model is automatically generated, and automatically solved to complete the optimization of construction schedule resources;
约束条件包括以下五种约束：工序间关系约束、里程碑约束、资源可用性约束、工序内部约束和资源模式约束。在这些约束中，前三个为CP求解RCPSP中一般均会使用的约束，而后两个定义了一种新的多模式RCPSP。传统的问题模型中，一个模式对应了一个工序时长以及成本，而本发明中问题模型内各模式的时长与成本均由r
_{ik}及q
_{i}计算而得，即可以与工程实际的定额和各工序的工程量直接挂钩。其中，r
_{ik}表示工序i中资源k的量比，表示单位基本量需要消耗的资源k的量。q
_{i}表示工序i最终成果的基本量，如体积、面积、重量等。
Constraints include the following five types of constraints: interprocess relationship constraints, milestone constraints, resource availability constraints, process internal constraints and resource model constraints. Among these constraints, the first three are constraints that are generally used in CP solving RCPSP, and the latter two define a new multimode RCPSP. In the traditional problem model, one model corresponds to the duration and cost of a process. In the present invention, the duration and cost of each model in the problem model are _{calculated by r ik} and q _{i} , which can be compared with the actual project quota and each process. The amount of work is directly linked. Among them, r _{ik} represents the quantity ratio of resource k in process i, and represents the quantity of resource k that needs to be consumed per unit basic quantity. q _{i} represents the basic quantity of the final result of process i, such as volume, area, weight, etc.
五种约束分别具体为：The five constraints are specifically:
3.1)工序间关系约束：对于工序i，用T
_{i}代表工序i的开始时间SS
_{i}或结束时间SF
_{i}，那么工序间关系的主要体现是各工序的关键时间属性之差。这个差值可以有下限与上限，则此关系可以表示为：
3.1) Interprocess relationship constraints: For process i, use T _{i to} represent the start time SS _{i} or end time SF _{i} of process i, then the main manifestation of the interprocess relationship is the difference between the key time attributes of each process. This difference can have a lower limit and an upper limit, then this relationship can be expressed as:
minLag≤T
_{j}T
_{i}≤maxLag (1)
minLag≤T _{j} T _{i} ≤maxLag (1)
其中，T
_{i}代表前序工序i的SS
_{i}或SF
_{i}，T
_{j}代表后续工序j的SS
_{j}或SF
_{j}，minLag代表最短间隔，maxLag代表最长间隔。在本实施例中，生成的工序间关系基本不包括maxLag，并且大部分情况minLag＝0。
Among them, T _{i} represents the SS _{i} or SF _{i of the} previous step i, T _{j} represents the SS _{j} or SF _{j of the} subsequent step j, minLag represents the shortest interval, and maxLag represents the longest interval. In this embodiment, the generated interprocess relationship basically does not include maxLag, and minLag=0 in most cases.
3.2)里程碑约束：单一工序完成时间约束3.2) Milestone constraints: time constraints for the completion of a single process
在进度管理中，对关键工序设置deadline控制进度的一般且有效的方法。单一工序完成时间约束主要针对工序i的计划完成时间SF
_{i}，其必须早于预先设定的里程碑M
_{i}，所以表示为：
In schedule management, it is a general and effective method to set deadlines to control schedules for key processes. Single process completion time constraints mainly completion time for step i SF _{i} programs, which must be earlier than the predetermined milestone M _{i,} it is expressed as:
SF
_{i}≤M
_{i} (2)
SF _{i} ≤M _{i} (2)
3.3)资源可用性约束3.3) Resource availability constraints
在任意时间点t，资源k的总需求RD
_{kt}应小于总供给RS
_{kt}，即：
At any point in time t, the total demand RD _{kt of} resource k should be less than the total supply RS _{kt} , namely:
RD
_{kt}≤RS
_{kt} (3)
RD _{kt} ≤RS _{kt} (3)
总需求的计算方式与资源是否可重用有关。对于人工、机械等可重用资源，总需求应等于之前所有时刻正在进行的工序的需求总和的最大值：The calculation method of total demand is related to whether resources can be reused. For reusable resources such as labor and machinery, the total demand should be equal to the maximum value of the sum of the demands of the processes in progress at all times before:
其中，d
_{ik}表示工序i对于资源k的需求量，是一个不随进度优化过程变化的量，这是大部分RCPSP的设定。DA
_{t}＝{iSS
_{i}≤t≤SF
_{i}}，表示t时刻正 在进行的工序集合。
Among them, d _{ik} represents the demand of process i for resource k, which is a quantity that does not change with the progress of the optimization process, which is the setting of most RCPSPs. DA _{t} ={iSS _{i} ≤t≤SF _{i} }, representing the set of processes in progress at time t.
而对于不可重用资源，如大部分材料，其总需求应为各个已经开始的工序的需求总和：For nonreusable resources, such as most materials, the total demand should be the sum of the demands of the various started processes:
其中ASA
_{t}＝{it≥SS
_{i}}，表示t时刻已经开始的工序集合。在本实施例中，假设d
_{ik}是一个不随进度优化过程变化的量。
Where ASA _{t} = {it≥SS _{i} }, which represents the set of processes that have started at time t. In this embodiment, it is assumed that _{dik} is a quantity that does not change with the progress of the optimization process.
3.4)工序内部约束3.4) Process internal constraints
工序i所需的人工资源k的资源量qr
_{ik}与工序时长SDi成反比，即
_{The resource quantity qr ik} of the labor resource k required by the process i is inversely proportional to the process duration SDi, namely
qr
_{ik}＝d
_{ik}SD
_{i} (6)
qr _{ik} = d _{ik} SD _{i} (6)
其中，qr
_{ik}的单位是人乘以时间，即1个人需要花费qr
_{ik}天，或者qr
_{ik}个人需要花费1天来完成工序i。各工序的持续时间与所分配人工资源的量d
_{ik}有较为明确的相关性。式(6)只是一个典型的时长函数，它也可以是其他的形式。
Among them, _{the unit of qr ik} is person times time, that is, it takes qr _{ik} days for _{one person, or one day for qr ik} individuals to complete process i. The duration of each process has a clear correlation with the amount of allocated labor resources _{dik.} Equation (6) is just a typical duration function, it can also be in other forms.
3.5)资源模式约束3.5) Resource model constraints
在本实施例中，每个工序的资源成本与资源的选择有关。在进度优化过程中，需要在一个工作包所拥有的各组资源中进行单选。不同的选择影响了成本与持续时间，因而会直接影响进度安排的结果。为此，需要引入一个标志资源是否选中的指标变量MI
_{iu}，如图8所示，其中d
_{iku}代表工序i的第u组资源中资源k的需求量。该变量等于0或者1，并且满足下式：
In this embodiment, the resource cost of each process is related to the selection of resources. In the process of schedule optimization, it is necessary to perform a single selection among the groups of resources owned by a work package. Different choices affect the cost and duration, which will directly affect the results of the schedule. To this end, it is necessary to introduce an indicator variable MI _{iu} that marks whether the resource is selected, as shown in Figure 8, where _{diku} represents the demand for resource k in the uth group of resources in process i. This variable is equal to 0 or 1, and satisfies the following formula:
MI
_{iu}用于d
_{ik}的计算，从而确保所有的资源的需求量都属于某一组：
MI _{iu is} used _{in the calculation of d ik} to ensure that all resource requirements belong to a certain group:
在本实施例中，RCPSP模型简单考虑将总工期与总成本作为目标函数(具体实施过程可采用不同目标函数，本发明的整体方法不需变化)，具体计算方式如下：In this embodiment, the RCPSP model simply considers the total construction period and total cost as the objective function (different objective functions can be used in the specific implementation process, and the overall method of the present invention does not need to be changed), and the specific calculation method is as follows:
(1)总工期(1) Total construction period
总工期TD采用以下方程计算：The total construction period TD is calculated using the following equation:
TD＝max(SF
_{i})SS (9)
TD=max(SF _{i} )SS (9)
其中，SS是开工时间。Among them, SS is the start time.
(2)总成本(2) Total cost
包括直接成本和间接成本。直接成本DC是资源量与价格乘积的综合，即：Including direct costs and indirect costs. The direct cost DC is the synthesis of the product of resource quantity and price, namely:
其中，p
_{k}为资源k的价格。
Among them, p _{k} is the price of resource k.
间接成本IC包括贷款利息、场地租赁、设计费用、变更费用、监理费用等。由于这部分费用非常复杂，并且与进度排布的相关度较小，因而在进度优化时，一般仅考虑与工期有关的间接费，并认为其与工期线性相关：The indirect cost IC includes loan interest, site lease, design cost, change cost, supervision cost, etc. Because this part of the cost is very complicated and has a small correlation with the schedule arrangement, when the schedule is optimized, generally only the overhead related to the construction period is considered, and it is considered to be linearly related to the construction period:
IC＝TD·dc (11)IC = TD dc (11)
其中，dc是每天间接费消耗。Among them, dc is the daily overhead consumption.
基于上述定义，如图9所示，CP求解模型的方法为：Based on the above definition, as shown in Figure 9, the CP solution method is:
(1)创建CP对象。(1) Create a CP object.
(2)将所有创建的变量与目标函数的计算表达式均放入CP对象中。(2) Put all the created variables and calculation expressions of the objective function into the CP object.
(3)先确定求解参数(如求解时限，设置CP对象求解时的配置)。(3) First determine the solution parameters (such as the solution time limit, set the configuration when the CP object is solved).
(4)从数据模型中获取数据，生成资源优化模型输入所需的关键数据类以及其他相关数据类的一系列对象，这些数据类和对象与前述创建的CP对象所包含的变量与目标函数的计算表达式参数相对应。(4) Obtain data from the data model and generate a series of objects of key data classes and other related data classes required for the input of resource optimization model. These data classes and objects are related to the variables and objective functions contained in the CP object created above. The calculation expression parameters correspond.
(5)利用公式(1)至公式(11)将约束变量、目标函数及生成的数据对象链接和关联到一起，构建各变量和参数的相关关系，最终调用CP对象的Solve()方法实现模型的自动求解。(5) Use formula (1) to formula (11) to link and correlate constraint variables, objective functions, and generated data objects to build the correlation between variables and parameters, and finally call the Solve() method of the CP object to implement the model Automatic solution.
1)数据准备1) Data preparation
使用数据准备方法，创建了相关的工作包模板。考虑到施工资源的区别，将现浇混凝土施工作业分解为了模板工程、钢筋工程以及混凝土工程三个工作包模板。同时，也为预制混凝土墙与预制混凝土板分别建立了一个工作包模板。所以，供试验验证的工作包模板共计8个。每个工作包模板是由四个部分组成的，分别是基本信息、分类、工艺流程以及资源。其中，与信息集成过程相关的是分类与资源部分。目前分类中仅有一个建筑元素编码，用于核心模型集成过程中的第一次匹配。资源部分包括若干定 额，每个定额包括若干定额项。每个定额项对应资源数据库中的一个资源。将一个定额中的能反应工序特征的资源指定为主材，可利用它们的编码完成第二次匹配过程。这些定额和资源的数据均采集自装配式建筑工程消耗量定额(TY 0101(01)2016)。Using data preparation methods, related work package templates were created. Taking into account the difference in construction resources, the castinplace concrete construction work is divided into three work package templates, namely formwork engineering, steel reinforcement engineering and concrete engineering. At the same time, a work package template was established for the precast concrete wall and the precast concrete slab. Therefore, there are a total of 8 work package templates for test verification. Each work package template is composed of four parts, namely basic information, classification, process flow and resources. Among them, the classification and resources are related to the information integration process. At present, there is only one architectural element code in the classification, which is used for the first matching in the core model integration process. The resource part includes several quotas, and each quota includes several quota items. Each quota item corresponds to a resource in the resource database. The resources in a quota that can reflect the characteristics of the process are designated as the main material, and their codes can be used to complete the second matching process. The data of these quotas and resources are collected from the consumption quota of prefabricated construction projects (TY 0101(01)2016).
2)数据集成2) Data integration
为了建立工作包之间的顺序逻辑，建立了如表所示的6种施工顺序规则。其中，第1与第2种规则定义了空间顺序，其余定义了工艺间顺序。这些规则均受限于施工区域(楼层)，因此每层均定义一个规则。第1种共定义了22个规则，剩余5种分别定义了23个规则，总计定义了137个规则。In order to establish the sequence logic between work packages, six construction sequence rules as shown in the table were established. Among them, the first and second rules define the spatial sequence, and the rest define the interprocess sequence. These rules are restricted to the construction area (floor), so each floor defines a rule. The first category defines 22 rules in total, and the remaining 5 categories define 23 rules, totaling 137 rules.
表1施工顺序规则Table 1 Construction sequence rules
通过两步匹配过程，BIM中的建筑元素以及工作包模板之间建立了关联。将整个过程中可能与工作包模板建立关联的建筑元素的数量按元素类型划分，列于表2。理论上，第一次匹配过程可以按类别完成构件的筛选，因此在第一次筛选后，除了与工序模板库中相关的墙与板，其他构件并未产生关联。而第二次匹配过程中，通过材料类型将不符合工序模板中施工材料的一些墙体剔除在了模型之外。值得注意的是，第一次中部分板和墙并未与工序模板发生关联，这是因为在编码过程中并没有为这些构件添加工序类型。此外，表3统计了两步匹配过程中与各工序模板关联的构件数量。在完成了第一次之后，与相同构件类型关联的工序模板所关联的构件数量是一致的，并等于表2中对应构件类型数量的总和。该结果与理论相 符，验证了第一次匹配算法的正确性。而第二次匹配完成后，相对于上一步的结果，根据材料性质对构件进行了进一步划分。4600个相关的墙构件中，分为了1831个预制混凝土墙、1946个现浇混凝土墙以及382个其他类型墙体(如砌体墙)。混凝土现浇工艺相关的三个工作包模板虽然并未绑定，但由于在每个相关的建筑元素中均添加了相同的类型编码以及与各工作包模板对应的材料编码，它们均能够分别与模板工程、钢筋工程与混凝土工程发生关联，且并无缺失。Through a twostep matching process, a connection is established between the architectural elements in BIM and the work package template. The number of architectural elements that may be associated with the work package template in the whole process is divided by element type, which is listed in Table 2. In theory, the first matching process can complete the screening of components by category, so after the first screening, except for the walls and boards related to the process template library, other components are not related. In the second matching process, some walls that did not conform to the construction materials in the process template were excluded from the model through the material type. It is worth noting that in the first time, part of the panels and walls were not associated with the process template, because the process type was not added to these components during the coding process. In addition, Table 3 counts the number of components associated with each process template in the twostep matching process. After completing the first time, the number of components associated with the process template associated with the same component type is the same, and equal to the sum of the number of corresponding component types in Table 2. This result is consistent with the theory and verifies the correctness of the first matching algorithm. After the second matching is completed, compared to the result of the previous step, the components are further divided according to the material properties. Among the 4600 related wall components, there are 1831 precast concrete walls, 1946 castinplace concrete walls and 382 other types of walls (such as masonry walls). Although the three work package templates related to the insitu concrete casting process are not bound, since the same type code and the material code corresponding to each work package template are added to each related building element, they can all be connected with each other. Formwork engineering, steel reinforcement engineering and concrete engineering are related, and there is nothing missing.
表2建模过程中的各类建筑元素数量Table 2 The number of various architectural elements in the modeling process
表3工作包模板关联的建筑元素数量Table 3 Number of building elements associated with the work package template
在完成建筑元素与工作包模板之间的关联后，首先需要依据施工区域完成工作包实例化与重组。我们选择将该建筑的每一层作为一个施工区 域，因此如果该层存在相关的建筑元素，各工作包模板在该层会生成一个工作包。在这一步结束后，我们共得到167个工作包(1至22层，与表3相符，每层7个，加顶层6个)。此后，通过判断各构件能够符合条件的定额，完成了重分组过程，每层的预制剪力墙工作包被继续分解成了两个，其中一个对应的是该工作包中第0个定额，另一个对应的是第2、4个定额。1至21层的预制剪力墙工作包被分解了，每层多1个工作包，因此多了22个工作包，所以本次验证最终得到了189个工作包。After completing the association between the architectural elements and the work package template, it is first necessary to complete the instantiation and reorganization of the work package according to the construction area. We choose each floor of the building as a construction area, so if there are related architectural elements on this floor, each work package template will generate a work package on this floor. After this step, we got a total of 167 work packages (1 to 22 layers, consistent with Table 3, 7 for each layer, plus 6 for the top layer). After that, the regrouping process was completed by judging that each component can meet the requirements of the quota. The precast shear wall work package of each layer was continuously broken down into two, one of which corresponds to the 0th quota in the work package, and the other One corresponds to the second and fourth quotas. 1 to 21 floors of prefabricated shear wall work packages were decomposed, each layer has 1 work package, so there are 22 work packages, so this verification finally got 189 work packages.
针对这些工作包，基于表1中6类规则生成的工作包间前后关系如图10所示。其中虽存在冗余关系，但并无冲突。如此工作包相互关系以及与工作包相关的其他信息可以直接转化为基于IFC的核心模型。For these work packages, the relationship between the work packages generated based on the six types of rules in Table 1 is shown in Figure 10. Although there is a redundant relationship, there is no conflict. In this way, the relationship between work packages and other information related to work packages can be directly transformed into the core model based on IFC.
3)进度优化3) Progress optimization
设计了4个不同的进度优化算例，它们之间的资源约束或目标函数存在区别，如表4所示。算例1是对照组。算例2在资源2上的约束小于算例1，算例3整洁了随时间变化的资源约束，而算例4选择以总成本最小为优化目标。Four different schedule optimization calculation examples are designed, and their resource constraints or objective functions are different, as shown in Table 4. Example 1 is the control group. Case 2 has less constraints on resources 2 than Case 1, Case 3 tidies up the timevarying resource constraints, and Case 4 chooses to minimize the total cost as the optimization goal.
表4不同算例的进度优化设置Table 4 Progress optimization settings of different calculation examples
进度优化结果如图12所示，与理论相符。算例2与算例3由于比算例1有更严格的资源约束，所以总工期与总成本更高。而相对算例1，由于算例4以优化总成本为目标，因此其总成本更低，但总工期更长。The result of schedule optimization is shown in Figure 12, which is consistent with the theory. As the case 2 and case 3 have stricter resource constraints than case 1, the total construction period and total cost are higher. Compared with case 1, because case 4 aims to optimize the total cost, its total cost is lower, but the total construction period is longer.
进度优化结果中，工序时长的比较结果如图13所示。与算例1相比，算例2改变了资源2的约束。资源2是模板技工，同时被工序27和工序31使用。结果表明，工序27和工序31的时长在资源2的约束从30减少到20之后增加了，而其他工序的时长并没有发生变化。此外，与算例1相比，算例3中对资源38设置了随时间变化的约束，而该资源是工序24所需的预制混凝土外墙板，因此工序24的时长也发生了变化。在算例4中，由于优化目标的变化，多个工序的持续时间受影响。In the result of schedule optimization, the comparison result of process duration is shown in Figure 13. Compared with case 1, case 2 changes the constraint of resource 2. Resource 2 is a template mechanic and is used by both process 27 and process 31. The results show that the duration of process 27 and process 31 increased after the resource 2 constraint was reduced from 30 to 20, while the duration of other processes did not change. In addition, compared with the calculation example 1, in the calculation example 3, the resource 38 is set with timevarying constraints, and the resource is the precast concrete external wall panel required by the process 24, so the duration of the process 24 has also changed. In calculation example 4, due to the change of the optimization target, the duration of multiple processes is affected.
算例1与算例2对资源2的需求情况如图14所示。可重用资源的供应降低不仅造成了每日用量的减少，同时也延长了总工期。这与实际工程中人工与机械设备受到约束时的情况相同。Figure 14 shows the demand for resource 2 in case 1 and case 2. The reduction in the supply of reusable resources not only caused a reduction in daily usage, but also extended the total construction period. This is the same as when labor and mechanical equipment are constrained in actual engineering.
算例1与算例3对资源38的需求情况对比如图15所示。当资源38受到了限制后，资源使用情况下降，并且总工期增长。当一种材料分批在不同的时间段入场时，就可能产生此种情况。Figure 15 shows the comparison of the demand for resources 38 between calculation example 1 and calculation example 3. When the resource 38 is restricted, the resource usage decreases and the total construction period increases. This can happen when a material is entered in batches at different time periods.
4)实用效率估计4) Practical efficiency estimation
上述应用流程在工程项目中，应按图16a所示进行。整个流程包括9个任务，其中有4个需要人工处理，另外5个任务由计算机自动完成。由于存在人工完成的任务，并且工程的实际情况会影响流程所需时间，因此需要制定一些假设来估算应用流程的所需时间。这些假设包括：The above application process should be carried out as shown in Figure 16a in the engineering project. The whole process includes 9 tasks, of which 4 need to be processed manually, and the other 5 tasks are automatically completed by the computer. Because there are tasks to be completed manually and the actual situation of the project will affect the time required for the process, some assumptions need to be made to estimate the time required for the application process. These assumptions include:
使用上述数据作为数据基础。Use the above data as a data basis.
应用流程进行10次，计算平均每次时长。The application process is performed 10 times, and the average duration of each time is calculated.
先估计每条数据的耗时，再汇总为人工任务耗时。First estimate the timeconsuming of each piece of data, and then summarize it into the timeconsuming manual task.
自动完成的任务不计耗时。Tasks that are automatically completed do not count as timeconsuming.
进行5次进度优化。 Perform 5 progress optimizations.
表5计算了图16a中应用流程的平均耗时。其中，任务1中需建立8个工作包模板。每个工作包模板的创建过程中，添加基本信息最多需5分钟，则共需40分钟。之后需要添加定额，时间主要消耗在资源的添加以及定额值的填写上。假设完成一个资源平均需要15秒，则一共204个资源需要消耗51分钟。再计各定额的基本单位以及适用条件设置需要2分钟，则一共19个定额共需38分钟的时间。则任务1花费的时间总计129分钟。Table 5 calculates the average time consumption of the application process in Figure 16a. Among them, 8 work package templates need to be established in task 1. During the creation of each work package template, adding basic information takes up to 5 minutes, and it takes 40 minutes in total. After that, the quota needs to be added, and the time is mainly consumed in adding resources and filling in the quota value. Assuming that it takes an average of 15 seconds to complete a resource, a total of 204 resources will take 51 minutes. After calculating the basic unit of each quota and the setting of applicable conditions, it takes 2 minutes, and it takes 38 minutes for a total of 19 quotas. Then the total time spent in task 1 is 129 minutes.
任务2可考虑为2个步骤的循环，首先对构件按类别进行过滤，再对过滤结果中的所有构件添加对应的编码。验证过程中进行了26次过滤，假设 每次耗费1分钟，则任务2总计26分钟。 Task 2 can be considered as a twostep cycle. First, filter the components by category, and then add corresponding codes to all the components in the filtering result. During the verification process, 26 filterings were performed. Assuming that each time takes 1 minute, task 2 will total 26 minutes.
任务5中共包括6类规则，假设每类规则需要花费5分钟时间，则总计30分钟。 Task 5 includes 6 types of rules. Assuming that each type of rule takes 5 minutes, the total is 30 minutes.
任务7所需时间可忽略不计，保守设置为5分钟。The time required for task 7 is negligible and is conservatively set to 5 minutes.
综上，考虑任务1以及任务5在100次相似项目中只需完成1次，则平均完成1次应用流程所需时间估计为(129+30)÷10+26+5*5≈67分钟In summary, considering that Task 1 and Task 5 only need to be completed once out of 100 similar projects, the average time required to complete one application process is estimated to be (129+30)÷10+26+5*5≈67 minutes
表5实际项目中应用本专利方法的耗时估计Table 5 Estimated timeconsuming application of the patented method in actual projects
对照组使用一般的基于RCPSP的问题建模与进度优化流程，如图16b所示。整个流程的耗时估计中，所有的计算均考虑由计算机自动完成，仅考虑数据录入的时间，因而得到的总耗时相比真实应用场景是偏小的。The control group used the general RCPSPbased problem modeling and schedule optimization process, as shown in Figure 16b. In the timeconsuming estimation of the entire process, all calculations are considered to be automatically completed by the computer, and only the time for data entry is considered, so the total timeconsuming obtained is relatively small compared with the real application scenario.
任务1是建立以工序为叶节点的WBS，并建立前后置关系。这个任务中，可以先建立一层的WBS，之后通过复制建立完整的WBS以及前后置关系。由于本研究中的WBS与前后置关系较为简单，因此考虑大约会花费5分钟。 Task 1 is to establish a WBS with a process as a leaf node, and establish a contextual relationship. In this task, you can first establish a layer of WBS, and then establish a complete WBS and the pre and postrelationship by copying. Since the relationship between WBS and the front and rear in this study is relatively simple, it will take about 5 minutes to consider.
任务2是通过人工筛选，确定每个工序相关构件的总工程量。该任务中，每个工序均需要处理一遍，一次处理大约耗费2分钟，189个工序共耗费398分钟时间。 Task 2 is to determine the total engineering quantity of related components in each process through manual screening. In this task, each process needs to be processed once, and it takes about 2 minutes to process one time, and 189 processes take a total of 398 minutes.
任务3是为每个工序添加模式。每个工序中的每个定额中的每个模式包括一个唯一的时长，再结合定额、总工程量以及资源单价可以得到对应的成本。假设一个定额项的数据录入花费5s，则84个定额项，共需7分钟。由于仅考虑数据录入的时间，那么完成一个模式的计算消耗约10s。一个定额需要设置4个模式以尽可能保证结果的精确性，那么每层一共9个定额需要消耗10*4*9＝360s＝6分钟。则任务3消耗约13分钟。 Task 3 is to add patterns for each process. Each mode in each quota in each process includes a unique duration, and then the corresponding cost can be obtained by combining the quota, total engineering quantity and resource unit price. Assuming that the data entry of a quota item takes 5s, it takes 7 minutes for 84 quota items. Since only the time for data entry is considered, it takes about 10s to complete the calculation of a mode. A quota needs to be set with 4 modes to ensure the accuracy of the result as much as possible, so a total of 9 quotas for each layer needs to consume 10*4*9=360s=6 minutes. Then task 3 consumes about 13 minutes.
任务4与图15a中的任务7相同，假设消耗5分钟时间。综上，对照组的问题建模与进度优化流程平均完成一次的时间估计为5+398+7+6+5*5＝441 分钟。Task 4 is the same as task 7 in Figure 15a, assuming it takes 5 minutes. In summary, the average completion time for the problem modeling and schedule optimization process of the control group is estimated to be 5+398+7+6+5*5=441 minutes.
表6 RCPSP一般应用流程的耗时估计Table 6 Timeconsuming estimation of RCPSP general application process
通过对比可知，本发明提出的应用流程所消耗时间通过保守估计，低于一般的基于RCPSP的问题建模与进度优化流程所需消耗时间的1/7。另外值得注意的是，后者所建立的模型不如前者复杂，比如一个工序仅有一组资源需求。Through comparison, it can be seen that the time consumed by the application process proposed by the present invention is conservatively estimated, which is less than 1/7 of the time consumed by the general RCPSPbased problem modeling and schedule optimization process. It is also worth noting that the model established by the latter is not as complicated as the former, for example, a process has only one set of resource requirements.
上述各实施例仅用于说明本发明，各个步骤都是可以有所变化的，在本发明技术方案的基础上，凡根据本发明原理对个别步骤进行的改进和等同变换，均不应排除在本发明的保护范围之外。The foregoing embodiments are only used to illustrate the present invention, and each step can be changed. On the basis of the technical solution of the present invention, any improvement and equivalent transformation of individual steps based on the principles of the present invention should not be excluded Outside the protection scope of the present invention.
Claims (10)
 一种基于建筑信息模型的施工进度资源自动优化方法，其特征在于包括以下步骤：A method for automatically optimizing construction schedule resources based on a building information model is characterized by including the following steps:1)准备具备建筑元素类别以及主资源类别的建筑信息模型，并在工作包模板数据库中录入或导入需要的工作包模板，利用工作包模板生成工作包，每个工作包与建筑构件之间是多对多关联；1) Prepare building information models with building element categories and main resource categories, and enter or import required work package templates in the work package template database, and use the work package templates to generate work packages. There is a gap between each work package and the building components. Manytomany association;2)以建筑构件类型以及材料类型为基础进行数据集成；2) Data integration based on building component types and material types;3)以数据集成形成的信息模型为基础，利用RCPSP的约束条件和目标函数，自动生成进度资源优化模型，并自动求解，完成施工进度资源的优化。3) Based on the information model formed by data integration, using the constraints and objective function of RCPSP, the schedule resource optimization model is automatically generated and solved automatically to complete the optimization of the construction schedule resource.
 如权利要求1所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤2)中，数据集成方法为：5. The optimization method of claim 1, wherein in step 2), the data integration method is:2.1)基于建筑构件类型的分类编码，遍历各工作包模板建立编码树；2.1) Based on the classification and coding of building component types, traverse each work package template to establish a coding tree;2.2)将工作包与建筑构件自动关联；2.2) Automatically associate work packages with building components;2.3)生成基于规则的工作包逻辑：在工作包与建筑构件完成关联后，基于规则生成顺序逻辑，该规则的定义基于工作包的属性实现，工作包属性包括空间位置、构件类型和工程专业；规则的基本形式是具备某个属性或属性组合的工作包的施工应先于或晚于具备另一个属性或属性组合的工作包；在预定义这些规则后，通过工作包的属性查询到相关的工作包，进而按照预定义的规则自动生成工作包的逻辑顺序。2.3) Generating rulebased work package logic: After the work package is associated with the building component, the sequence logic is generated based on the rules. The definition of the rule is realized based on the attributes of the work package. The work package attributes include spatial location, component type and engineering specialty; The basic form of the rule is that the construction of a work package with a certain attribute or combination of attributes should be carried out before or later than the work package with another attribute or combination of attributes; after these rules are predefined, the relevant information can be found through the attributes of the work package. Work packages, and then automatically generate a logical sequence of work packages according to predefined rules.
 如权利要求2所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤2.1)中，对于每个工作包模板中建筑构件类型编码的每个层级，若该层级并不被编码树包含，则将该节点添加至编码树，将整个编码对应的编码树节点与工作包模板进行关联；具体过程为：2. The optimization method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in step 2.1), for each level of building component type coding in each work package template, if the level is not included in the coding tree, the node Add to the code tree, and associate the code tree node corresponding to the entire code with the work package template; the specific process is:a)遍历所有的工作包模板得到模板t，设模板t的编码为c；a) Traverse all work package templates to get template t, and set the code of template t to c;b)设建筑构件的树根节点为curnode；b) Let the tree root node of the building component be curnode;c)遍历c的每一层，得到层代码n；c) Traverse each layer of c to get the layer code n;d)判断树根节点curnode的子节点中是否包含层代码n，若包含，则进入步骤e)；若不包含，则为树根节点curnode创建子节点n，进入步骤e)；d) Judge whether the child node of the tree root node curnode contains the layer code n, if it does, go to step e); if it does not, create a child node n for the tree root node curnode and go to step e);e)为树根节点curnode赋值为子节点中的n；e) Assign the value of n in the child node to the tree root node curnode;f)判断n是否存在下一层，若存在，则返回步骤c)，否则将模板t与树根节点curnode关联，进入步骤g)；f) Judge whether n has the next layer, if so, return to step c), otherwise associate the template t with the tree root node curnode, and go to step g);g)重复上述步骤直至不存在下一模板，完成编码树建立。g) Repeat the above steps until there is no next template, and complete the establishment of the coding tree.
 如权利要求2所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤2.2)中，工作包与建筑构件自动关联包括4个步骤：建筑构件与工作包模板第一次匹配、建筑构件与工作包模板第二次匹配、工作包实例化与工作包重组；The optimization method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step 2.2), the automatic association of the work package and the building component includes 4 steps: the first matching of the building component and the work package template, the first time the building component and the work package template are matched Secondary matching, work package instantiation and work package reorganization;第一次匹配为各建筑构件从根节点逐级匹配并与匹配到的所有节点中所关联的工作包模板建立关联；遍历第一次匹配的结果，通过剔除不满足材料编码匹配原则的关联，完成第二次匹配过程；The first matching is that each building component is matched step by step from the root node and is associated with the work package template associated in all the matched nodes; traverse the results of the first matching, and eliminate the associations that do not meet the material coding matching principle. Complete the second matching process;工作包实例化过程是工作包模板按其对应的建筑构件所处的施工空间被划分的过程；划分后的每组建筑构件即对应一个工作包；The work package instantiation process is the process in which the work package template is divided according to the construction space where the corresponding building components are located; each group of building components after the division corresponds to a work package;工作包重组是通过遍历所有建筑构件，依次判断其属性是否符合其关联工作包的各个定额的使用条件；然后得到各建筑构件具体所对应的定额组合，当某个定额组合与建筑构件完全匹配时，就生成一个新的工作包。Work package reorganization is to traverse all building components and determine in turn whether their attributes meet the usage conditions of each quota of its associated work package; then get the specific quota combination corresponding to each building component, when a certain quota combination completely matches the building component , A new work package is generated.
 如权利要求4所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述工作包实例化过程为：5. The optimization method of claim 4, wherein the process of instantiating the work package is:(1)遍历所有工作包模板得到工作包模板t；(1) Traverse all the work package templates to get the work package template t;(2)遍历与工作包模板t关联的所有建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(2) Traverse all building components associated with the work package template t to obtain building component b;(3)获取建筑构件b的施工区域A，判断该施工区域A是否有对应的工作包，有，则设施工区域A对应的工作包为w，并进入步骤(4)；没有则为施工区域A创建工作包模板t的工作包w，进入步骤(4)；(3) Obtain the construction area A of the building component b, and determine whether the construction area A has a corresponding work package. If yes, the work package corresponding to the facility area A is w, and go to step (4); if there is no work package, it is the construction area A creates the work package w of the work package template t and proceeds to step (4);(4)将建筑构件b与工作包w关联，并判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之进入步骤(5)；(4) Associate the building component b with the work package w, and judge whether there is the next building component, if there is, return to step (2), otherwise go to step (5);(5)判断是否有下一个工作包模板，有则返回步骤(1)，反之结束。(5) Judge whether there is the next work package template, if there is, return to step (1), otherwise end.
 如权利要求4所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述工作包重组过程为：5. The optimization method of claim 4, wherein the work package reorganization process is:(1)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(1) Traverse all work packages to get work package w;(2)遍历所有与工作包w相关的建筑构件，得到建筑构件b；(2) Traverse all building components related to work package w to obtain building component b;(3)遍历定额，得到与建筑构件b符合的定额组合q，并判断定额组合集合s中是否包括定额组合q；包括则将定额组合q与建构组件b关联， 反之，将定额组合q加入定额组合集合s中，然后将定额组合q与建构组件b关联；(3) Traverse the quota, obtain the quota combination q that matches the building component b, and determine whether the quota combination set s includes the quota combination q; if it does, associate the quota combination q with the construction component b, otherwise, add the quota combination q to the quota In the combination set s, then the quota combination q is associated with the construction component b;(4)判断是否有下一个建筑构件，有则返回步骤(2)，反之，则为定额组合集合s中的每一个定额组合q建立一个工作包，并将该工作包与定额组合q相关的所有建筑构件关联。(4) Determine whether there is the next building component. If there is, return to step (2). Otherwise, create a work package for each quota combination q in the quota combination set s, and associate the work package with the quota combination q All building components are connected.
 如权利要求2所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤2.3)中，工作包逻辑生成具体包括以下步骤：3. The optimization method according to claim 2, wherein in step 2.3), the logic generation of the work package specifically includes the following steps:(1)建立一个工作包属性集合φ；(1) Establish a work package attribute set φ;(2)遍历所有工作包得到工作包w；(2) Traverse all work packages to get work package w;(3)遍历所有工作包w的所有属性，得到属性t，判断属性t是否属于属性集合φ，属于则进入步骤(4)，反之，在属性集合φ中添加属性t，进入步骤(4)；(3) Traverse all the attributes of all work packages w to get the attribute t, judge whether the attribute t belongs to the attribute set φ, then go to step (4), otherwise, add the attribute t to the attribute set φ and go to step (4);(4)生成属性t与工作包w之间的关联，并判断是否仍有工作包w，若有则返回步骤(2)，反之则进入步骤(5)；(4) Generate the association between the attribute t and the work package w, and judge whether there is still work package w, if there is, go back to step (2), otherwise go to step (5);(5)遍历所有的规则得到规则r，从规则r中的相关属性，通过查询属性集合φ与工作包集合的关联，得到前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2；(5) Traverse all the rules to get the rule r. From the relevant attributes in the rule r, by querying the association between the attribute set φ and the work package set, the preorder work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2 are obtained;(6)建立前序工作包集合s1与后续工作包集合s2之间的顺序关系：为s2中的所有工作包的前置任务集合中添加s1中的所有工作报告。(6) Establish the sequence relationship between the preorder work package set s1 and the subsequent work package set s2: add all the work reports in s1 to the pretask set of all work packages in s2.
 如权利要求1所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤3)中，约束条件包括工序间关系约束、里程碑约束、资源可用性约束、工序内部约束和资源模式约束。The optimization method according to claim 1, wherein in step 3), the constraint conditions include interprocess relationship constraints, milestone constraints, resource availability constraints, process internal constraints and resource mode constraints.
 如权利要求8所述优化方法，其特征在于，所述五种约束分别为：8. The optimization method of claim 8, wherein the five types of constraints are:工序间关系约束：对于工序i，用T _{i}代表工序i的开始时间SS _{i}或结束时间SF _{i}，各工序的关键时间属性之差有下限与上限，则此关系为： Relational constraints between processes: For process i, use T _{i to} represent the start time SS _{i} or end time SF _{i} of process i. The difference between the key time attributes of each process has a lower limit and an upper limit, then the relationship is:minLag≤T _{j}T _{i}≤maxLag minLag≤T _{j} T _{i} ≤maxLag其中，T _{i}代表前序工序i的SS _{i}或SF _{i}，T _{j}代表后续工序j的SS _{j}或SF _{j}，minLag代表最短间隔，maxLag代表最长间隔； Among them, T _{i} represents the SS _{i} or SF _{i of the} previous step i, T _{j} represents the SS _{j} or SF _{j of the} subsequent step j, minLag represents the shortest interval, and maxLag represents the longest interval;里程碑约束：单一工序完成时间约束；单一工序完成时间约束主要针对工序i的计划完成时间SF _{i}，其必须早于预先设定的里程碑M _{i}，表示为： Milestone constraint: single process completion time constraints; single step completion time constraints mainly completion time for step i SF _{i} programs, which must be earlier than the predetermined milestone M _{i,} is expressed as:SF _{i}≤M _{i}； SF _{i} ≤M _{i} ;资源可用性约束：在任意时间点t，资源k的总需求RD _{kt}应小于总供给RS _{kt}： Resource availability constraint: at any point in time t, the total demand RD _{kt of} resource k should be less than the total supply RS _{kt} :RD _{kt}≤RS _{kt} RD _{kt} ≤RS _{kt}对于可重用资源，总需求应等于之前所有时刻正在进行的工序的需求总和的最大值：For reusable resources, the total demand should be equal to the maximum value of the sum of the demands of the processes in progress at all times before:其中，d _{ik}表示工序i对于资源k的需求量，DA _{t}＝{iSS _{i}≤t≤SF _{i}}，表示t时刻正在进行的工序集合； Among them, d _{ik} represents the demand of process i for resource k, DA _{t} ={iSS _{i} ≤t≤SF _{i} }, which represents the set of processes in progress at time t;而对于不可重用资源，其总需求应为各个已经开始的工序的需求总和：For nonreusable resources, the total demand should be the sum of the demands of the various started processes:其中ASA _{t}＝{it≥SS _{i}}，表示t时刻已经开始的工序集合； Where ASA _{t} = {it≥SS _{i} }, which represents the set of processes that have started at time t;工序内部约束：工序i所需的人工资源k的资源量qr _{ik}与工序时长SDi成反比： _{Process internal constraints: the resource quantity qr ik} of the labor resource k required for process i is inversely proportional to the process duration SDi:qr _{ik}＝d _{ik}SD _{i} qr _{ik} ＝d _{ik} SD _{i}其中，qr _{ik}的单位是人乘以时间，即1个人需要花费qr _{ik}天，或者qr _{ik}个人需要花费1天来完成工序i； Among them, _{the unit of qr ik} is person multiplied by time, that is, 1 person needs to spend qr _{ik} days, or qr _{ik} individual needs 1 day to complete process i;资源模式约束：引入一个标志资源是否选中的指标变量MI _{iu}，d _{iku}代表工序i的第u组资源中资源k的需求量；该变量等于0或者1，并且满足下式： Resource mode constraints: Introduce an indicator variable MI _{iu} that _{indicates whether the resource is selected, diku} represents the demand for resource k in the uth group of resources in process i; this variable is equal to 0 or 1, and satisfies the following formula:MI _{iu}用于d _{ik}的计算，确保所有的资源的需求量都属于某一组： MI _{iu is} used _{to calculate d ik} to ensure that all resource requirements belong to a certain group:
 如权利要求8或9所述优化方法，其特征在于：所述步骤3)中，RCPSP模型将总工期与总成本作为目标函数，具体计算方式如下：The optimization method according to claim 8 or 9, characterized in that: in the step 3), the RCPSP model takes the total construction period and the total cost as the objective function, and the specific calculation method is as follows:(1)总工期(1) Total construction period总工期TD采用以下方程计算：The total construction period TD is calculated using the following equation:TD＝max(SF _{i})SS TD=max(SF _{i} )SS其中，SS是开工时间；Among them, SS is the start time;(2)总成本(2) Total cost包括直接成本和间接成本，直接成本DC是资源量与价格乘积的综合，即：Including direct cost and indirect cost, direct cost DC is the synthesis of the product of resource quantity and price, namely:其中，p _{k}为资源k的价格； Among them, p _{k} is the price of resource k;间接成本IC包括贷款利息、场地租赁、设计费用、变更费用和监理费用；仅考虑与工期有关的间接费，并认为其与工期线性相关：The indirect cost IC includes loan interest, site lease, design cost, change cost and supervision cost; only the indirect cost related to the construction period is considered, and it is considered to be linearly related to the construction period:IC＝TD·dcIC=TD·dc其中，dc是每天间接费消耗。Among them, dc is the daily overhead consumption.
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