WO2019147522A2 - Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays - Google Patents

Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2019147522A2
WO2019147522A2 PCT/US2019/014442 US2019014442W WO2019147522A2 WO 2019147522 A2 WO2019147522 A2 WO 2019147522A2 US 2019014442 W US2019014442 W US 2019014442W WO 2019147522 A2 WO2019147522 A2 WO 2019147522A2
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
electrically coupled
line
select transistor
synapse
output
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2019/014442
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2019147522A3 (en
Inventor
Seung-Hwan Song
Ji Hye Hur
Sang-Soo Lee
Original Assignee
Anaflash Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201862620947P priority Critical
Priority to US62/620,947 priority
Priority to US201862655074P priority
Priority to US62/655,074 priority
Priority to US16/196,617 priority patent/US20190164044A1/en
Priority to US16/196,617 priority
Priority to US16/252,640 priority patent/US20190164046A1/en
Priority to US16/252,640 priority
Application filed by Anaflash Inc. filed Critical Anaflash Inc.
Publication of WO2019147522A2 publication Critical patent/WO2019147522A2/en
Publication of WO2019147522A3 publication Critical patent/WO2019147522A3/en

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Computing arrangements based on biological models using neural network models
    • G06N3/06Physical realisation, i.e. hardware implementation of neural networks, neurons or parts of neurons
    • G06N3/063Physical realisation, i.e. hardware implementation of neural networks, neurons or parts of neurons using electronic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Computing arrangements based on biological models using neural network models
    • G06N3/04Architectures, e.g. interconnection topology
    • G06N3/0481Non-linear activation functions, e.g. sigmoids, thresholds
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Computing arrangements based on biological models using neural network models
    • G06N3/06Physical realisation, i.e. hardware implementation of neural networks, neurons or parts of neurons
    • G06N3/063Physical realisation, i.e. hardware implementation of neural networks, neurons or parts of neurons using electronic means
    • G06N3/0635Physical realisation, i.e. hardware implementation of neural networks, neurons or parts of neurons using electronic means using analogue means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Computing arrangements based on biological models using neural network models
    • G06N3/08Learning methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/54Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using elements simulating biological cells, e.g. neuron
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0023Address circuits or decoders
    • G11C13/0028Word-line or row circuits
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/003Cell access
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/004Reading or sensing circuits or methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0069Writing or programming circuits or methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0097Erasing, e.g. resetting, circuits or methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • G11C11/5614Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency using conductive bridging RAM [CBRAM] or programming metallization cells [PMC]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • G11C11/5685Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency using storage elements comprising metal oxide memory material, e.g. perovskites
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00, or G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0069Writing or programming circuits or methods
    • G11C2013/0092Write characterized by the shape, e.g. form, length, amplitude of the write pulse
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C2213/00Indexing scheme relating to G11C13/00 for features not covered by this group
    • G11C2213/70Resistive array aspects
    • G11C2213/79Array wherein the access device being a transistor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C2213/00Indexing scheme relating to G11C13/00 for features not covered by this group
    • G11C2213/70Resistive array aspects
    • G11C2213/82Array having, for accessing a cell, a word line, a bit line and a plate or source line receiving different potentials

Abstract

A synapse circuit of a non-volatile neural network. The synapse includes: an input signal line (265); a reference signal line (265); an output line (266), and a cell (2032) for generating the output signal (203). The cell (2032) includes: an upper select transistor (311) having a gate that is electrically coupled to the input signal line (265); and a resistive changing element (313) having one end connected to the upper select transistor (311) in series and another end electrically coupled to the reference signal line (264). The value of the resistive changing element (311) is programmable to change the magnitude of an output signal (203). The drain of the upper select transistor (311) is electrically coupled to the output line (266).

Description

NEURAL NETWORK CIRCUITS HAVING NON-VOLATILE SYNAPSE ARRAYS
Background
A. Technical Field
[0001] The present invention relates to neural network circuits, and more particularly, to neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays using analog values.
B. Background of the Invention
[0002] An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a neural network that mimics a computational model of the human brain. A neural network can be described as many neurons connected with each other through synapses between them. The strengths of the connections, or the weight parameter of each synapse, can be adjusted through a learning process as a trainable parameter. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) using ANNs have been applied to various fields, such as visual and audio detection/recognition, language translation, gaming, medical decision-making, financial or weather forecasting, drones, autonomous driving cars, and etc.
[0003] Traditionally, computation of neural networks requires high performance cloud servers having multiple central processing units (CPUs) and/or graphics processing units (GPUs), since the complexity of computation prohibits mobile devices from running AI program locally due to the limited power and computation resource of the mobile devices. Other existing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) approaches that accelerate computation of neural network with dedicated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic can be power efficient compared to such generic CPU and GPU based approaches, but still wastes unnecessary power and latency to move data to and from the separate off-chip non-volatile memory (NVM) where the trained weight parameters are stored. As such, there is a need for neural network circuits that consume significantly less computational resources.
Summary of the disclosure
[0004] In one aspect of the present invention, a synapse circuit of a non-volatile neural network includes: an input signal line, a reference signal line, an output line, and a cell for generating the output signal. The cell includes: an upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the input signal line, and a resistive changing element having one end connected to the upper select transistor in series and another end electrically coupled to the reference signal line. The value of the resistive changing element is programmable to change the magnitude of an output signal. The drain of the upper select transistor is electrically coupled to the output line.
[0005] In another aspect of the present invention, a synapse circuit includes: a first and second input signal lines, a reference signal line, first and second output signal lines, first and second cells, and a cross-coupled latch circuit. The cross-coupled latch circuit includes first and second inverters, and first and second signal nodes. The input terminal of the first inverter is coupled to the output terminal of the second inverter at the first signal node and the input terminal of the second inverter is connected to the output terminal of the first inverter at the second signal node. Each of the cells include a first upper select transistor, that is electrically coupled to the first input signal line at its gate, and a second upper select transistor coupled to the second input signal line. The source terminals of the first and second upper select transistor are coupled to a common node. In the first cell, the drain terminals of the first and second upper select transistors are coupled to the first and second output signal lines respectively. In the second cell, the drain terminals are reversed with the first upper select transistor connected to the second output line, and the second upper select transistor connected to the first output line. The common node of the first cell is connected to the first signal node of the cross-coupled latch circuit and the common node of the second cell is connected to the second signal node of the cross-coupled latch circuit. The reference signal line is coupled to the first and second inverters of the cross-coupled latch circuit.
Brief Description of the Drawings
[0006] References will be made to embodiments of the invention, examples of which may be illustrated in the accompanying figures. These figures are intended to be illustrative, not limiting. Although the invention is generally described in the context of these embodiments, it should be understood that it is not intended to limit the scope of the invention to these particular embodiments.
[0007] FIG. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a neural network according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0008] FIG. 2 shows a schematic diagram of an array of synapses according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0009] FIG. 3 shows a schematic diagram of a synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure. [0010] FIG. 4 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0011] FIG. 5 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0012] FIG. 6 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0013] FIG. 7 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0014] FIG. 8 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0015] FIGS. 9A-9B show comparison of conventional methods for programming the threshold voltage (VTH) to a method according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0016] FIGS. 10A-10B show another method for programming a threshold voltage (VTH) of a floating gate node according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0017] FIG. 11 shows a flow chart of an illustrative process for programming a threshold voltage (VTH) of a floating gate node according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0018] FIGS. 12A-12C illustrates differential signaling according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0019] FIG. 13 shows a schematic diagram of a chip that includes a neural network according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0020] FIG. 14 shows a schematic diagram of a neural network that includes a non-volatile synapse array according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0021] FIG. 15 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0022] FIG. 16 shows a table illustrating the signals on the input and output lines of FIG. 15 to implement binary multiplication according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0023] FIG. 17 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0024] FIG. 18 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure. [0025] FIG. 19 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0026] FIG. 20 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0027] FIG. 21 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0028] FIG. 22 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0029] FIG. 23 shows a schematic diagram of the conventional neural network system in the prior art.
[0030] FIG. 24 shows a schematic diagram of a layered neural network computing system consisting of an SoC including an on-chip non-volatile neural network and an external neural network accelerator device according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0031] FIG. 25 shows a schematic diagram of a distributed neural network system consisting of multiple SoCs according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0032] FIG. 26 shows a schematic diagram of a logic friendly NVM integrated neural network system according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0033] FIG. 27 shows a schematic diagram of another logic friendly NVM integrated neural network system according to embodiments of the present disclosure.
Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments
[0034] In the following description, for the purposes of explanation, specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of the disclosure. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that the disclosure can be practiced without these details. One skilled in the art will recognize that embodiments of the present disclosure, described below, may be performed in a variety of ways and using a variety of means. Those skilled in the art will also recognize additional modifications, applications, and embodiments are within the scope thereof, as are additional fields in which the disclosure may provide utility. Accordingly, the embodiments described below are illustrative of specific embodiments of the disclosure and are meant to avoid obscuring the disclosure.
[0035] A reference in the specification to“one embodiment” or“an embodiment” means that a particular feature, structure, characteristic, or function described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the disclosure. The appearance of the phrase“in one embodiment,”“in an embodiment,” or the like in various places in the specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment.
[0036] FIG. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a neural network 100 according to embodiments of the present disclosure (like reference numerals denote like elements throughout the specification). As depicted, the neural network 100 may include five neuron array layers (or shortly, neuron layers) 110, 130, 150, 170 and 190, and synapse array layers (or shortly, synapse layers) 120, 140, 160 and 180. Each of the neuron layers (e.g., 110) may include a suitable number of neurons. In FIG. 1, only five neuron layers and four synapse layers are shown. However, it should be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that the neural network 100 may include other suitable numbers of neuron layers and a synapse layer may be disposed between two adjacent neuron layers.
[0037] It is noted that each neuron (e.g., 112a) in a neuron layer (e.g., 110) may be connected to one or more of the neurons (e.g., 132a - 132m) in the next neuron array layer (e.g., 130) through m synapses in a synapse layer (e.g., 120). For instance, if each of the neuron in the neuron layer 110 is electrically coupled to all the neurons in the neuron layer 130, synapse layer 120 may include n x m synapses. In embodiments, each synapse may have a trainable weight parameter (w) that describes the connection strength between two neurons.
[0038] In embodiments, the relationship between input neuron signals (Ain) and output neuron signals (Aout) may be described by an activation function with the following equation:
Aout = f ( W x Ain + Bias ). (1)
where, Ain and Aout are matrices representing input signals to a synapse layer and output signals from the synapse layer, respectively, W is a matrix representing the weights of synapse layer, and Bias is a matrix representing the bias signals for Aout. In embodiments, W and Bias may be trainable parameters and stored in a logic friendly non-volatile memory (NVM). For instance, a training/machine leaning process may be used with known data to determine W and Bias. In embodiments, the function f may be a non-linear function, such as sigmoid, tanh, ReLU, leaky ReLU, etc. In embodiments, Aout may be activated when (W x Ain + Bias) is greater than a certain threshold.
[0039] By way of example, the relationship described in equation (1) may be illustrated for neuron layer 110 having two neurons, synapse layer 120, and neuron layer 130 having three neurons. In this example, Ain representing output signals from the neuron array layer 110 may be expressed as a matrix of 2 rows by 1 column; Aout representing output signals from the synapse layer 120 may be expressed as a matrix of 3 rows by 1 column; W representing the weights of the synapse layer 120 may be expressed as a matrix of 3 rows by 2 columns, having six weight values; and Bias representing bias values added to the neuron layer 130 may be expressed as a 3 rows by 1 column matrix. A non-linear function f applied to each element of (W x Ain + Bias) in equation (1) may determine the final values of each element of Aout. By way of another example, the neuron array layer 110 may receive input signals from sensors and the neuron array layer 190 may represent response signals.
[0040] In embodiments, there may be numerous neurons and synapses in the neural network 100, and matrix multiplication and summation in equation (1) may be a process that may consume a large amount of computing resources. In conventional processing-in- memory computing approaches, a computing device performs the matrix multiplication within an NVM cell array using analog electrical values rather than using the digital logic and arithmetic components. These conventional designs aim to reduce the computational load and reduce power requirements by reducing the communication between CMOS logic and NVM components. These conventional approaches, however, are prone to have large variations on current input signals to each synapse because of large parasitic resistance on the current input signal path in a large scale NVM cell array. Also, sneak currents through half-selected cells in a large array change the programmed resistance values, resulting in unwanted program disturbance and degradation of neural network computation accuracy.
[0041] Unlike the conventional approaches, in embodiments, a power efficient neural network may be based on logic friendly non-volatile synapses with a differential architecture, where the differential architecture may include a select transistor and a logic friendly NVM. In embodiments, a fully differential synapse architecture may widen the operational range of the synapse circuit as a multiplier. Compared to conventional architectures, in embodiments, the slight multiplication error may be beneficial for compensating certain levels of quantization noise of the trained weight parameters.
[0042] As discussed below in detail, in embodiments, input signal to each synapse in the synapse layers 120, 140, 160, and 180 may be directed to the gate terminal of the select transistor of the synapse, suppressing multiplication noise. In embodiments, the multiplier current may be approximately the gate terminal voltage times the resistance level of variable resistor or NVM. [0043] FIG. 2 shows a schematic diagram of an array of synapses 200 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the array of synapses 200 may include: non-volatile synapses 210 arranged into rows and columns; positive output current lines (Bit Lines) 266 that are electrically coupled to column selection transistors 263, respectively; negative output current lines (Bit Line Bar lines) 267 that are electrically coupled to column selection transistors 268, respectively. In embodiments, the drain terminals of the column selection transistors 263 may be electrically coupled to the positive current port 241 of sensing circuit 250, and the drain terminals of the column selection transistors 268 may be electrically coupled to the negative current port 242 of the sensing circuit 250.
[0044] In embodiments, each non-volatile synapse 210 may store one positive weight value and one negative weight value. In embodiments, each non-volatile synapse 210 may be electrically coupled to: a signal line (or, equivalently reference signal line) (e.g., SL1) 264 to receive a reference voltage input 201; a word line (or, equivalently, input signal line) (e.g., WL1) 265 to receive a signal voltage input 202; a positive output line (e.g., BL1) 266 to output a positive current output 203; and a negative output line (e.g., BLB 1) 267 to output a negative current output 204.
[0045] In embodiments, each of the signal voltage input 202 and reference voltage input 201 may be associated with both the positive and the negative weight values, respectively, and the positive current output 203 may be associated with the positive weight value, and the negative current output 204 may be associated with the negative weight value.
[0046] In embodiments, the positive (or negative) weight value that is stored in each non-volatile synapse 210 may be represented as a reciprocal of variable resistance value, and the signal voltage input 202 and the reference voltage input values 201 may be electrical voltage values. In embodiments, the value of the positive current output 203 may be the result of a multiplication of the positive weight value times the signal voltage input 202, and the value of the negative current output 204 may be the result of a multiplication of the negative weight value times the signal voltage input 202.
[0047] As depicted in Figure 2, each row of the non-volatile synapses array 200 may share a reference voltage line, SL, 264 and a signal voltage line, WL, 265, where each SL may provide reference voltage inputs 201 to the non-volatile synapses in the corresponding row, and each WL may provide signal voltage inputs 202 to the non-volatile synapses in the corresponding row, such that the non-volatile synapses in a row may receive substantially the same signal voltage input and the same reference voltage input. [0048] As discussed above, each column of the non-volatile synapses array 200 may share a positive output current line (BL) 266 and a negative output current line (BL-Bar) 267, i.e., each positive current output 203 of the synapses of the column may be collected by a corresponding BL 266 and each negative current output 204 of the synapses of the column may be collected by a corresponding BL-bar lines 267. As such, the electrical current on the BL line 266 may be the summation of the positive electrical output currents 203 from the synapses of the column. Similarly, in embodiments, the electrical current value on the BL-bar lines 267 may be the summation of the negative electrical output currents 204 from the synapses of the column.
[0049] In embodiments, each positive output current line (BL) 266 may be electrically coupled to the source terminal of a corresponding column selection transistor 263, and each negative output current line (BL-Bar) 267 may be electrically coupled to the source terminal of a corresponding column selection transistor 268. In embodiments, the column selection transistors of a pair of BL and BL-Bar lines 263 and 268 may receive the same column selection signal at the gate terminals from an external column selection circuit (not shown in FIG. 2). In embodiments, the lines from the drain terminals of the column selection transistors 263 may be electrically coupled to the positive current input 241 of the sensing circuit 250. In embodiments, the lines from the drain terminals of the column selection transistors 268 may be electrically coupled to the negative current input 242.
[0050] In embodiments, the electrical current value (IBL) 261 of the positive current port 241 may be the value on the positive output current BL 266 that receives a column selection signal on its respective column selection transistor 263. Likewise, the electrical current value (IBL-bar) 262 of the negative current input 242 may be the negative output current line BL-Bar 267 that receives a column selection signal on its respective column selection transistor 268.
[0051] In embodiments, one or more of the rows of the synapses 210 may have a fixed input signal voltage on the WLs 265 and the synapses on such rows may store bias values for their columns. In embodiments, the array of synapses may implement the matrix multiplication in equation (1)
W x Ain + Bias
where, W may be the synapse array, and Ain the matrix representing the WL inputs.
[0052] In embodiments, each non-volatile synapse 210 may have two circuits (or equivalently cells) that store negative and positive weights. In embodiments, as discussed above, the weight values may be represented by the reciprocal value of a variable resistance, l/Rn = W_neg, and l/Rp = W_pos, respectively. Each row of synapses in the array 200 may receive an input signal as an electrical voltage, Ain. In response to the input signal, each synapse in the array 200 may produce a positive output current through BL (e.g., BL0 266) and a negative output current through BLB (e.g., 267), where the value of the positive output current BLc may be expressed as: BLc = Ain x W_pos and the negative output current BLBc may be expressed as: BLBc = Ain x W neg.
[0053] In embodiments, the weight values, W, for each synapse layer of the neural network 100 may be determined (calculated and adjusted) in a separate training phase. Then, input signals, Ain, may be applied to the neural network 100 during the inference phase, where the pre-determined weights may be used to produce output values. In embodiments, the weight values that may be determined during the training phase may not change during the inference stage.
[0054] In embodiments, as discussed above, a BL (e.g., BLi) may be electrically coupled to all of the output lines of the synapses in a column of the synapse array 200, and the BL-bar line (e.g., BLBi) may be electrically coupled to all of the output lines of the synapses of the synapse array 200. Such configuration may make the current value on each BL 266 (or BLB 267) be the summation of the individually calculated current values of the corresponding column of synapses in the array 200. In embodiments, the output current on a line, BLn, and a line, BLBn, may be expressed as:
BLn = å(W _pos-row x Ain-row), for the rows of column-n (2a)
BLBn = å(W_neg-row x Ain-row), for the rows of column-n (2b)
[0055] In embodiments, one or more of the rows of the array 200 may have a fixed input signal voltage and the synapses on such rows may store bias values for their columns. In such a case, the total electric current on BLn and BLBn may be expressed as:
BLn = å(W_pos-row x Ain-row) + bias_pos (3a)
BLBn = å(W_neg-row x Ain-row) + bias_neg (3b)
[0056] In embodiments, in the sensing circuit 250, the current input signal (ISig=IBL 261 or IBLB 262) from the synapse array may be converted to a voltage signal (VSig) using a Capacitive Trans Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) and further processed to produce a digital signal using an Analog Digital Converter (ADC). In embodiments, the ADC may have a single-slope column ADC architecture using an offset cancelling column comparator and a counter. Such design may use minimal area and power dissipation compared to other ADC architectures, such as pipelined or successive approximation ADCs.
[0057] In embodiments, each synapse layer (e.g., 120) in the neural network 100 may have electrical components (not shown in FIG. 2) that may be electrically coupled to BL 266 and BLB 267 and electrically process the output currents on the BL and BLB lines. For instance, the electrical components may provide differential sensing, convert the output current signals to voltage signals, further convert to digital signals and summate the digital signals in an accumulator. In another example, the electrical components may perform other various processing operations, such as normalization and activation, to the accumulated value, to thereby implement the activation function for Aout of equation (1). In embodiments, the final Aout may be stored in a data buffer and used to generate the input signals for the next neural array layer in the neural network 100.
[0058] It is noted that, in embodiments, separate circuits (not shown in FIG. 2) may be included in the neural network 100 to perform auxiliary functions such as: (1) a router/controller that maps the logical neuron-synapse structure of the neural network 100 to the physical address mapping of the synapse array 200, (2) a driving circuit that drives the input signals to the appropriate rows of synapses of a configuration, (3) a selection circuit that provides column selection for the sensing circuits that are shared by more than one column of synapses, (4) a voltage generator that generates reference voltages used to select synapses, and (5) a storage that stores the configurations for the router controller and sensing circuits 250.
[0059] FIG. 3 shows a schematic diagram of a synapse 300 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 300 may be used as the synapse 210 in FIG. 2. As depicted, the synapse 300 may include: a pair of input transistors 311 and 312; and a pair of non-volatile resistive changing elements, R_p 313 and R_n 314 (hereinafter, the term “non-volatile resistive changing element” and “resistor” are used interchangeably). Stated differently, the synapse 300 may have a pair of 1T-1R (one-transistor one-resistor) structure. In embodiments, the resistors R_p 313 and R_n 314 may be logic friendly non-volatile resistive changing elements. In embodiments, the synapse 300 may be considered to have two cells 332 and 334, where each cell may have one input transistor 311 (or 312) and a resistor R_p 312 (or R_n 314).
[0060] In embodiments, the logic friendly non-volatile resistive changing element, R_p 313 (or R_n 314) may be associated with the positive (or negative) weight parameter that the synapse 300 may remember/store. In embodiments, each resistor may be electrically coupled to the source terminal of the input transistor (e.g., 311) and the reference signal line 264 may apply a reference signal to the resistor. In embodiments, the word line (WL) 265 may apply an input signal voltage to the gate terminal of the input transistor (e.g., 311).
[0061] In embodiments, the resistance value R (= R_p or R_n) may be programmed into the resistive changing element in a training phase. When the synapse input signal is applied on WL 265, the synapse output current may approximate the multiplication of the weight (represented by l/R) by input value Ain from the previous neuron, where Ain may be represented by a voltage on WL 265.
[0062] In embodiments, the neural network parameters that are stored in the synapse array 200 may have about similar number of positive and negative weight parameters. Unused resistive elements in the array 200 may be programmed to have a resistance value higher than a preset value. The electrical current through each unused resistive element should substantially be zero, so that the output current of the cell substantially does not add to the output current on the BL (or BLB) of the cell. Therefore, the effect of the unused resistive elements on the computation is minimized, and power consumption is reduced. Trained weight parameters may be quantized and programmed into the resistive changing elements without much accuracy degradation of neural network computation. When the resistance value, R, of the resistor R_p 313 (or R_n 314) is programmed in the training phase and a scaled synapse input signal WLs is applied through WL 265, the synapse output current, IC, on BL 266 (or BLB 267) may be described by equations (4) and (5):
dIC/dWL = ~ gm / (1 + gm*R) = ~ l/R (when R is greater enough than l/gm) (4) where, gm is the conductance of the input transistor, and
IC = ~ WL / R = ~ w Ain (where w = l/R, Ain = WL) (5)
where w and Ain may produce their multiplication result IC approximately.
[0063] As indicated in equation (5), the output current IC may approximate the multiplication of the input signal (input voltage Ain) times the weight (w). Unlike the conventional systems, this analog multiplication operation of equation (5), which occurs in the synapse 300, does not require the use of complex digital logic gates, significantly reducing the complexity of synapse structure and usage of computational resources.
[0064] In embodiments, the input signal Ain may be an output signal from a previous neuron (as shown in FIG. 1) and driven to the gate of the input transistor 311 (or 312). Driving the input signal Ain to the gate may minimize the noise generated by parasitic resistance in a large array of synapse since there is no static on-current into the gate of the select transistor. In contrast, in conventional systems, input signals are driven to the selector or resistive changing element of the synapse, which is prone to have large variations on current input signals to each synapse because of large parasitic resistance in a large array and static current flow during operation.
[0065] In conventional systems, when programming resistive changing elements, sneak currents through half-selected cells in a large array can change previously programmed resistance values, resulting in unwanted program disturbances. In contrast, in embodiments, the input transistor 311 (or 312) may be enabled for a program pulse to be driven only to the selected resistor 313 (or 314) in a large array. Therefore, in embodiments, unselected synapses may not disturb the programming of selected synapses, where selected synapses may be programmed by applying suitable bias conditions to the BL (or BLB) and SL nodes.
[0066] By way of an example and not limitation, the array of synapse 200 may be located in a synapse layer 120, where the output signals from a previous neuron (e.g., 112a) in the neuron array layer 110 may be input to a synapse 300 of the synapse array 200 and the output signals from BL 266 and BLB 267 of the synapse 300 may be input to one or more of the next neurons (e.g., 132a - 132m) in the neuron array layer 130.
[0067] In embodiments, the resistor 313 (or 314) may be implemented with various circuits (or memories), such as non-volatile MRAM, RRAM, or PRAM or single-poly embedded flash memory, where the circuit may be programmed to remember (store) an associate parameter that may be represented by a reciprocal of resistance. It is noted that, in embodiments, the multiplication operation may be completed within the synapse with analog values, without the use of digital logic and arithmetic circuits.
[0068] FIG. 4 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse 400 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 400 may show an exemplary implementation of the resistors 313 and 314 in FIG. 3. Stated differently, in embodiments, the resistor 313 may be implemented by the components in the box 452 in FIG. 4.
[0069] As depicted in FIG. 4, the synapse 400 includes a pair of a logic compatible embedded flash memory cells 432 and 434, where the floating gate nodes, FG_p and FG_n, in the flash memory cells may be associated with the positive and negative weight parameters respectively that this synapse 400 remembers/stores.
[0070] In embodiments, the synapse input signal on WL 420 may be shared between the two branches that may draw differential synapse output currents (IBL and IBLB) on BL 406 and BLB 407. In embodiments, the program word line (or, shortly program line, PWL) 418, write word line (or, shortly write line, WWL) 416, and erase word line (or, shortly erase line, EWL) 414 may be used to provide additional control signals for program, write and erase operations of the logic compatible embedded flash memory cells 432 and 434.
[0071] In embodiments, the memory cells 432 and 434 may include logic transistors, obviating any additional process overhead beyond standard logic process. In embodiments, the coupling transistor 422 (and 423) directly connected to PWL 418 may be upsized for higher coupling of the floating gate nodes (FG p and FG_n) to the control signal provided through PWL 418. In embodiments, the coupling transistor 422 (or 423) directly coupled to PWL 418 may be relatively larger than the write transistor 424 (or 425). With high program voltages driven to PWL 418 and WWL 416, the memory cell 432 (or 434) may be selected and programmed by injecting electrons into FG p while applying 0 volt to BL 406 (or BLB 407), whereas the unselected cell 434 (or 432) may be program-inhibited by applying VDD to BLB 407 (or BL 406) and applying VDD to WL 420 to thereby turn off the select transistor of the unselected cell 434 (or 432). Hereinafter, the term select transistor refers to a transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the BL 406 or BLB 407.
[0072] In embodiments, with high erase voltage driven only to WWL 416, the selected WL may be erased by ej ecting electrons from FG. Unselected WLs may not be driven to any higher voltage than VDD during program and erase operation; therefore, there is no disturbance in the unselected WLs. In embodiments, FG node voltage may be a function of signals on PWL 418, WWL 416 and stored number of electrons in the FG node. Conductance of the read transistors (e.g., 462) electrically coupled to the FG may be programmable by controlling voltages at PWL 418 and WWL 416 and the electrical charge stored at the FG node.
[0073] In embodiments, when the threshold voltage of the embedded flash cell 432 (or 434) is programmed, and when a scaled synapse input signal is provided through WL 420, there may be a certain range of the threshold voltage such that the equation (5) may be approximately met where cell output currents (=IBL and IBLB) are proportional to the programmed weight parameter as well as the input signal.
[0074] In embodiments, neural network 100 may be robust to the random errors or small variation of weight parameters. In embodiments, when the pre-trained weight parameters, W, are quantized during computation of the neural network 100, neural network performance or inference accuracy may be optimized with the slight multiplication error from equation (5) as long as the multiplication error is within a certain range. Furthermore, the slight multiplication error from the proposed approximate multiplier may compensate quantization noise of the trained weight parameters of the neural network 100. Nevertheless, to avoid severe cell retention error caused by large cell threshold voltage shift after repetitive training of the neural network, an intentional self-healing current may be applied through WWL 416, as the intentional self-healing current may cure the damaged gate oxide of the device electrically coupled to WWL 416 of embedded flash memory cells 432 and 434. In embodiments, applying the self-healing current may not be required with every training or inference, and therefore has minimal effect on performance or power consumption.
[0075] In embodiments, each cell (e.g., 432) may include coupling transistor 422, write transistor 424 and upper (or first) select transistor 460, read transistor 462, and lower select transistor 464. It is noted that the single-poly embedded flash memory in the synapse 400 may be used as the resistive changing element, and the conductance of the read transistors (e.g., 462) that are electrically coupled to the floating gate (FG) of the flash, may serve as the resistive changing element. In embodiments, the conductance of the read transistors (e.g., 462) may be determined by the threshold voltage VTH of their respective FG nodes, FG p or FG_n. The VTH of the FG nodes FG_p or FG_n may be first coarsely programmed using a balanced step pulse programming method, then subsequent constant pulse programming steps with reduced voltages can fine tune the VTH value to accurately program the weight value to be stored in the synapse 400. The programming steps are described in conjunction with FIGS. 10A-10B.
[0076] FIG. 5 shows a schematic diagram of a synapse 500 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 500 may be used as the synapse 210 in FIG. 2. As depicted, the synapse 500 may have three pairs of lT-lRs, where the three word lines, WLa, WLb, and WLc, may be electrically coupled to the gates of the six transistors. It is noted that the synapse 500 may have other suitable number of input transistors and resistors as well as word lines that are electrically coupled to the input transistors. For instance, in embodiments, the synapse 500 may be modified so that the word line WLa and the components in the 1T-1R units 550 and 551 may be deleted, i.e., each cell may have two pairs of lT-lRs. In another example, in embodiments, the synapse 500 may be modifies so that each cell may have four pairs of lT-lRs and four word lines (input signal lines) WLs.
[0077] In embodiments, the SL, BL and BLB of the synapse 500 may have similar functions as the SL, BL and BLB in the synapse 300 of the synapse 300. The difference between the synapse 300 and synapse 500 is that the synapse 500 may receive input signals from the previous neuron through the three word lines, WLa, WLb and WLc. More specifically, the signal from each WL may be driven to a gate terminal of a corresponding input transistor.
[0078] It is noted that each synapse 500 may be electrically coupled to three word lines WLa, WLb and WLc, while each synapse 210 in FIG. 2 is shown to be coupled to one word line 265. Thus, it is noted that each word line 265 in FIG. 2 collectively refers to one or more word lines that are electrically coupled to a synapse that includes one or more input transistors.
[0079] In embodiment, the synapse 500 may be considered to have two cells 532 and 534, where each cell may have three pairs of 1T-1R (one transistor-one resistor and each 1T-1R pair may be electrically coupled to WL and SL.
[0080] It is noted that each resistor in the synapse 500 may be implemented by various circuits (or memories), such as non-volatile MRAM, RRAM, or PRAM or single-poly embedded flash memory, where the circuit may be programmed to remember (store) an associated parameter that may be represented by a resistance. In embodiments, each resistor in the synapse 500 may be implemented by the components in the box 452 in FIG. 4, where each synapse 500 may be electrically connected to PWL, WWL and EWL in the manner similar to the synapse 400.
[0081] FIG. 6 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse 600 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 600 may be used as the synapse 210 in FIG. 2. As depicted, each of the cells 632 and 634 may include two transistors (e.g., 602 and 606) and one resistor (e.g., 613) and electrically coupled to two input signal (or word) lines, word line (WL) and word line bar (WLB), and one reference signal line, SL. It is noted that each synapse 600 may be electrically coupled to the two word lines, while each synapse 210 in FIG. 2 is shown to be coupled to one word line 265. Thus, as discussed above, each word line 265 in FIG. 2 collectively refers to one or more word lines that are electrically coupled to a synapse that includes one or more input transistors.
[0082] In embodiments, the synapse resistors R_p 613 and R_n 614, the reference signal line SL, output current lines BL and BLB may have similar functions as the corresponding components of the synapse 230 in FIG 3. For instance, the input selection transistors 602 and 604, which are electrically coupled to WL and the respective resistors R_p 613 and R_n 614, may correspond to input selection transistors 211 and 212 respectively.
[0083] Compared with the synapse 300 in FIG 3, the synapse 600 may be electrically coupled to another input signal line, WLB, where WLB may provide a differential input signal voltage relative to WL. In embodiments, additional input selection transistors 606 and 608 may be electrically coupled to WLB through their gate terminals. In embodiments, the source terminals of input selection transistors 606 and 608 may be electrically coupled to the resistors R p 613 and R_n 614 respectively. In embodiments, the drain terminal of the transistor 602 may be electrically coupled to BL and the drain terminal of the transistor 606 may be electrically coupled to BLB. Likewise, the drain terminals of the transistor 604 may be electrically coupled to BLB and the drain terminal of the transistor 608 may be electrically coupled to BL.
[0084] In embodiments, the synapse 600 may receive differential input signals, where WL provides a positive input signal voltage (to the common mode reference), a_pos, and WLB provides a negative input signal voltage (to the common mode reference), a neg. In embodiments, R_p 613 may store a positive weight w_pos and R_n 614 may store a negative weight w neg. Thus, in embodiments, the output signal currents (BLo) on BL may be the sum of two output signals from the two cells 532 and 534:
BLo = a_pos x w_pos + a neg x w neg (6)
Likewise, the output signal current (BLBo) on BLB may be the sum of two output signals from the two cells 532 and 534:
BLBo = a_pos x w neg + a neg x w_pos. (7)
[0085] Thus, some embodiments with differential signaling on WL and WLB as depicted, may have a greater range of output currents on BL and BLB compared to the other embodiments with single-ended signaling on the WL of synapse 300 depicted in FIG. 3. In addition, embodiments with differential input signaling as depicted may suppress transistor offset noise as well as common mode noise from variations in supply voltage or temperature.
[0086] It is noted that each resistor in the synapse 600 may be implemented by various circuits (or memories), such as non-volatile MRAM, RRAM, or PRAM or single-poly embedded flash memory, where the circuit may be programmed to remember (store) an associated parameter. FIG. 7 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse 700 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 700 may show an exemplary implementation of the resistors 613 and 614 in FIG. 6. Stated differently, the components in the box 752 may correspond to the resistor 613 in FIG. 6.
[0087] As depicted in FIG. 7, the synapse 700 may include two cells 732 and 734. In embodiments, the cell 732 (or 734) may be similar to the cell 432 (or 434) of the synapse 400, with the difference that the cell 732 (or 734) may include an additional upper select transistor 720 (or 722) and an additional input signal line WLB. In embodiments, the gate of the transistor 720 (or 722) may be electrically coupled to the input signal line WLB and the drain of the transistor 720 (or 722) may be electrically coupled to the output signal line BLB.
[0088] FIG. 8 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse 800 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In embodiments, the synapse 800 may be used as the synapse 210 in FIG. 2. As depicted, the synapse 800 may include two cells 832 and 834, where each cell may include three resistors and six transistors. The synapse 800 may have the 2T-1R structure, i.e., each cell may include three sets of 2T-1R unit 802. The synapse 800 may be electrically coupled to six input signal lines: three word lines, WLa, WLb, and WLc; and three word Line Bars, WLaB, WLbB, and WLcB. It is noted that each cell of the synapse 800 may include other suitable number of 2T-1R units 802. -In embodiments, each pair of WL and WLB (e.g., WLa and WLaB) may provide differential input signals to the cells 832 and 834.
[0089] In embodiments, the reference signal lines, SL, may provide a reference signal to the cells 832 and 834. In embodiments, each of the output signal lines, BL and BLB, may collect the output signals from the drain terminals of three transistors in the cell 832 and the drain terminals of three transistors in the cell 834. In embodiments, the synapse 800 may receive differential input signals, where each WLi provides a positive input signal voltage, a pos i, and each WLBj provides a negative input signal voltage, a neg j . In embodiments, each R_p may store a positive weight w pos i and each R_n may store a negative weight w negj . In embodiments, the output signal currents (BLo) on BL may be the sum of six output signals from the two cells 832 and 834:
BLo = å (a_pos_i x w_pos_i) + å (a_negj x w_negj) (8)
Likewise, the output signal current (BLBo) on BLB may be the sum of six output signals from the two cells 832 and 834:
BLBo = å (a_pos_i x w_neg j + å (a_neg j x w_pos_i). (9)
[0090] It is noted that each resistor in the synapse 800 may be implemented by various circuits (or memories), such as non-volatile MRAM, RRAM, or PRAM or single-poly embedded flash memory, where the circuit may be programmed to remember (store) an associated parameter. In embodiments, each resistor in the synapse 800 may be implemented by the components in the box 752 in FIG. 7, where each synapse 800 may be electrically connected to PWL, WWL and EWL in the manner similar to the synapse 700.
[0091] In general, the conductance of a read transistor (e.g., 462) may be changed by injecting electrons into the floating gate. FIG. 9A-9B show a comparison of two conventional methods for programming the threshold voltage (VTH) of a floating gate node (column 910 and 914) to the method according to the embodiments (column 912). FIG. 9A shows a table 900 that includes the voltage heights and widths of signals applied to the terminals PWL and WWL during program operation of the floating gate cell (432), thus injecting electrons into the floating gate. As depicted, the table 900 includes three columns 910, 912 and 914 that correspond to three approaches for applying voltage signals, respectively.
[0092] The column 910 shows a conventional incremental step pulse programming method where each subsequent program step increases program voltage from the previous step by an amount delta with a constant pulse width (T _pulse). The column 912 shows a balanced step pulse programming method according to the embodiments where the first step has a longer programming pulse width by certain design parameter (m) compared to the programming method in column 910. The column 914 shows a conventional constant pulse programming method where every step has the same program voltage and program pulse width.
[0093] FIG. 9B shows the plots of VTH 950 of the floating gate cell (432 or 434) according to the three methods in FIG. 9A. In FIG. 9B, the three plots 960, 962, and 964 correspond to the three methods 910, 912, and 914, respectively, and each plot in FIG. 9B shows the VTH of the floating gate cell (432 or 434) after each step of the corresponding method in FIG. 9A.
[0094] Based on the plots 950, the balanced step pulse programming method according to embodiments of the present disclosure may be preferred among these three methods. Each step increases the VTH by approximately the same amount, delta, thus the VTH may be programmed accurately, resulting in a narrower VTH variation than the other methods.
[0095] FIG. 10A-10B show another method for programming the threshold voltage (VTH) of a floating gate cell (432 or 434) according to embodiments of the present disclosure. FIG. 10A shows a table 1000 that includes the voltage heights and widths of signals applied to the terminals PWL and WWL during program operation of the floating gate cell (432 or 434), thus injecting electrons into the floating gate. FIG. 10B shows a plot 1050 of the VTH stored in the floating gate cell (432 or 434) at each step in FIG. 10B.
[0096] As depicted, for several initial steps (here, up to step 4), the balanced step pulse programming method (also mentioned in conjunction with FIGS. 9A and 9B) may be used to coarsely program the cell VTH to a value that does not exceed the target VTH. In some embodiments, the target VTH may be achieved up to these initial steps (up to steps 4) with acceptable margin. In some other embodiments, more precise programming to the target VTH may be necessary. In these embodiments, the difference between the current VTH and target VTH may be less than the available increasement of the VTH at each step (delta in FIG. 10B). Then, subsequent constant pulse programming steps are applied further to accurately program the VTH.
[0097] In embodiments, the subsequent constant pulse programming steps use a reduced programming pulse height (by alpha in FIG. 10A) but an increased pulse width (T_pulse*n, n is not less than 1.0), to set the VTH at the target. As a result, the programming scheme in FIGS. 10A-10B can control the final programmed cell threshold voltage below available voltage step (=delta) generated from on-chip voltage references from the target VTH.
[0098] FIG. 11 shows a flow chart 1100 of an illustrative process for programming threshold voltage (VTH) of a floating gate node according to embodiments of the present disclosure. At step 1102, a voltage pulse (e.g., step 1 in FIG. 10A) having a first height (e.g., VPGM) and the first width (T_pulse * m, m is not less than 1.0) may be applied to the PWL and WWL terminals of a floating gate cell (432 or 434), thus injecting electrons into the floating gate. At step 1104, a first sequence of voltage pulses (such as steps 2 - 4 in FIG. 10A) may be applied to the PWL and WWL terminals while increasing the height of each pulse from the previous pulse by a preset value (e.g., delta).
[0099] At step 1106, it may be determined whether the target VTH was reached after applying the first sequence of pulses. If the answer to the determination is positive, the process proceeds to step 1108. At step 1108, the process stops. Otherwise, at step 1110, a second sequence of voltage pulses (such as steps 5 - 19 in FIG. 10A) may be applied to the PWL and WWL terminals. In embodiments, each pulse of the second sequence of pulses may have a width (T_pulse * n, n is not less than 1.0) that is not narrower than the pulse in the previous steps (T pulse). In embodiments, the second sequence of pulses have a height that is lower than the first height (VPGM - alpha), and the second sequence of pulses have a width (T pulse * n) that is not narrower than the second width (T pulse). In embodiments, by way of example, the values may be m=9.0, n=5.0, alpha=0.8V, delta=0.lV, and VPGM=7.2V.
[00100] It is noted that the methods for programming VTH of the floating gate node in FIGS. 9A - 11 may be applied to the cells 732 and 734. More specifically, the method associated with column 912 in FIG. 9A and/or the method described in conjunction with FIGS. 10A - 10B may be used to program VTH of the cells 732 and 734.
[00101] Each synapse in FIGS. 3-8 may generate two output signals through two output signal lines BL and BLB, where the differential signaling technique may be applied to generate the two output signals. The differential signaling may reduce the sensitivity to transistor offsets and common mode noise from supply voltage and temperature variations that can introduce serious errors to the output current in prior art designs of synapses or devices for weighted sum computations.
[00102] FIG. 12A-12C illustrates differential signaling according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted in FIG. 12A, the IBL line 1212 and IBL-Bar line 1214 may be the output currents through the output signal lines BL (e.g., 106) and BLB (e.g., 107) of a synapse, respectively. By way of example, each output current may range from a minimum of 0.5 (A.U.) to a maximum of 1.5 (A.U.), depending on the resistance values of R_p and R_n. In the embodiments, IBL line 1212 may be a sum of a first current signal 1224 and an offset current signal 1220, while the IBL line 1214 may be a sum of the offset current 1220 and the second current signal 1226. As depicted, the offset current 1220 may include transistor offsets and common mode noise.
[00103] As depicted in FIG. 12B, by applying the differential signaling technique on the two output signal lines 1212 and 1214, the offset current 1220 may be canceled, and the values of output current signals 1224 and 1226 may be obtained. By way of example, the output current signals 1224 and 1226 may range from 0.0 (A.U.) to 1.0 (A.U.).
[00104] Furthermore, in embodiments, the first current signal 1224 may have an opposite polarity to the second current signal 1226. By using differential signaling on the two output currents, as depicted in FIG. 12C, the difference between the two signals, IBL - IBL-Bar 1216, may range from the minimum of -1.0 to a maximum of +1.0, i.e., the range of the combined signal may be twice as large as the range of a single output.
[00105] FIG. 13 shows a schematic diagram of a chip 1300 that includes a neural network according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the chip 1300 may have a system-on-chip (SoC) structure and include: non-volatile neural network 1316; a CPU 1312 for controlling the elements on the chip 1300; a sensor 1314 for providing input signals to the non-volatile neural network 1316; and a memory 1318. In embodiments, the neural network 1316 may be similar to the neural network 100 in FIG. 1. In embodiments, the chip 1300 may be a silicon chip and the components 1312 - 1318 may be integrated on the chip 1300
[00106] FIG. 14 shows a schematic diagram of a system 1400 for operating a non volatile synapse array according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the system 1400 may include: a non-volatile synapse array 1410; a reference generator 1402; a configuration storage 1404; a row driver 1406 for selecting a row of synapses among the non volatile synapse array 1410; a router/controller 1408; a column selector 1412 for selecting a column of synapses among the non-volatile synapse array 1410; a sensing circuit 1414; an accumulator 1416 for collecting output values from the non-volatile synapse array 1410; normalization / activation / pooling function block 1418; and a data buffer 1420 for buffering data from the non-volatile synapse array 1410. In embodiments, the non-volatile synapse array 1410 may be similar to the non-volatile synapse array 200, and the sensing circuit 1414 may be similar to the sensing circuit 250 in FIG. 2.
[00107] The reference generator 1402 provides the voltage levels required by reference signals (e.g., SL in FIGs 2-8) and input signal lines (e.g., WL in FIGs 2-8) used by the row driver 1406. The configuration storage 1404 stores data for a finite state machine used by router/controller 1408, the physical mapping of weight parameters to synapse location within synapse array 200, as well as other configuration parameters for sensing circuits. In the embodiments, the configuration storage may be implemented as an on-chip non-volatile memory. The router/controller 1408 implements a finite state machine to control the row selection sequences by the row driver 1406. Sensing circuits 1414 include voltage regulators and analog-digital converters to convert the output current signals from the selected columns into voltage signals and further into digital values. The result from a sensing circuit is summated in an accumulator 1416. Normalization / activation / pooling function blocks 1418 perform required signal processing operation on the accumulator value. Multiple dedicated DSPs or embedded CPU cores can be included to perform such numerical operations in parallel.
[00108] In some embodiments, the neural network design may binarize the values of the weight and input parameter to be either 1 or -1. In such embodiments, the synapse 600 may be modified so that a cross-coupled latch circuit may be used instead of a pair of non volatile resistive changing elements. FIG. 15 shows a schematic diagram of another synapse 1500 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the synapse 1500 may include a cross-coupled latch circuit 1510, where the cross-coupled latch circuit 1510 may include an inverter 1514 which has its input terminal electrically coupled to the output terminal of a second inverter 1518, and vice-versa. In embodiments, the cross-coupled latch may store digital signals on the S node, which is located between the output of 1518 and input of 1514, and the SB node, which is located between the output of 1514 and the input of 1518. In embodiments, when the S node has an electric signal value, the SB node may have the complementary signal value, and vice-versa due to the inverter coupling. [00109] As depicted in FIG. 15, each of the cells 1532 and 1534 of synapse 1500 may include two input selection transistors (e.g., 1502 and 1506) electrically coupled to two input signal (or word) lines, word line (WL) and word line bar (WLB), at their gate terminals. The source terminals of the input selection transistors may be electrically coupled to a common node which is further electrically coupled to a node of a cross-coupled latch circuit 1510. Cell 1532 may be electrically coupled to the SB node of the cross-coupled latch 1510 and cell 1534 is electrically coupled to the S node of 1510.
[00110] In embodiments, the drain terminal of the transistor 1502 may be electrically coupled to output line BL and the drain terminal of the transistor 1506 may be electrically coupled to output line BLB. Likewise, the drain terminals of the transistors 1504 and 1508 may be electrically coupled to BLB and BL respectively.
[00111] In embodiments, the reference signal line SL may be electrically coupled to each of the inverters 1514 and 1518 of the cross-coupled latch 1510 and reference voltage input signal 201 may be provided to the inverters 1514 and 1518.
[00112] It is noted that the cross-coupled latch 1510 may be implemented by various circuits (or memories), such as non-volatile components, or if a power source (such as a battery) is available, it may be implemented with volatile memory components.
[00113] FIG. 16 shows a table showing the relationship between the input voltage values on WL and WLB, weight values represented by the voltage signal on the S and SB nodes, and the output represented by the current values on BL and BLB lines. For the input in the table, (WL=High, WLB=Low) may be 1 and (WL=Low, WLB=High) may be -1. For the weights in the table, (SB=High, S=Low) may be 1, and (SB=Low, S=High) may be -1. The“Low” voltage value for the inputs and the weights in the table is a lower voltage value than the“High” voltage value. For the output in the table, (BL=Low, BLB=High) may be 1, and (BL=High, BLB=Low) may be -1. For the output in the table, the“Low” current value is a lower current value than the“High” current value.
[00114] In the table, the output on BL and BLB may represent the multiplication of the input (WL, WLB) and weight (SB, S) where lxl = 1, lx-l=-l, -lxl=-l, and -lx-l=l . Therefore, the multiplication operation between the binarized inputs and weights may yield arithmetically correct results.
[00115] FIGS. 17, 18, and 19 show schematic diagrams of synapses 1700, 1800, and 1900, respectively, according to the embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted in FIG. 17, the synapse 1700 may only include the cell 1732 which may correspond to cell 632 in synapse 600 in FIG. 6. Similarly, FIG. 18 depicts synapse 1800 that may only include cell 1832 which may correspond to cell 732 in synapse 700 depicted in FIG. 7. Synapse 1900 in FIG. 19 may include only cell 1932 which may correspond to cell 832 in synapse 800 of FIG 8. In synapses 1700, 1800, and 1900, the negative weights w neg may equal zero, i.e., the negative weights may have been eliminated from the synapses 600, 700 and 800, respectively. The BLB line may be retained since the WLB signal may provide negative input signals to the BLB line.
[00116] In embodiments, the output signal current BLBo for synapses 1700 and 1800 may be:
BLBo = a neg x w_pos. (10)
Likewise, the output current signal BLBo for synapse 1900 may be:
BLBo = å(a_neg j x w_pos_i). (11)
[00117] FIG. 20 shows a schematic diagram of the synapse 2000 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the synapse 2000 may be similar to the synapse 300, with the differences that only the positive weight in cell 2032, which may correspond to cell 332 in FIG. 3, may be included in the synapse 2000 and that the cell 334 and the BLB line 267 in FIG. 3 may be eliminated.
[00118] FIG. 21 shows a schematic diagram of the synapse 2100 according to embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the synapse 2100 may be similar to the synapse 400, with the difference that only one cell 2132, which may correspond to cell 432 of FIG. 4, may be used and that the cell 434 and the BLB output line of FIG. 4 may be eliminated.
[00119] FIG. 22 shows schematic diagram of a synapse 2200 according to the embodiments of the present disclosure. As depicted, the synapse 2200 may be similar to the synapse 500 in FIG. 5, with the difference that only cell 2232, which corresponds to cell 532 of FIG. 5, may be used and that cell 534 and the BLB output line in FIG. 5 may be eliminated.
[00120] It is noted that synapses in FIGS. 17-22 may be arranged in a two- dimensional array format, as shown in FIG. 2, i.e., synapses in FIGS. 17-22 may correspond to synapse 210.
[00121] According to the present invention, logic friendly NVM in the embodiments refers to non-volatile memory components (with zero-standby power) that can be produced with fewer processing steps than conventional NVM components such as split-gate flash memory or EEPROM. Because the NVM in the embodiments may only require a few additional processing steps compared to the logic components in CPUs or neural network computation engines, it is feasible to embed the NVM in the embodiments on the same chip as the CPU or neural network engine. In contrast, it is not feasible to embed conventional NVM components on the same chips as CPUs or neural network engines due to the excessive additional processing that would be required to produce such chips.
[00122] Examples of logic friendly NVM used in the embodiments include STT- MRAM, RRAM, PRAM, or FeFET components which may require only a few more processing steps than logic components. Another example of a logic friendly NVM in the embodiments are single-poly embedded flash memory. Single-poly flash memory does not require any further processing compared to logic components, and is particularly suited for embedding on the same chips as the CPU, neural network engine. Logic friendly NVMs, like conventional NVMs, can sustain the stored data when the power is off.
[00123] With a conventional neural network system shown in Fig 23, the external NVM chip 2319 is separately attached to a system-on-chip (SoC) 2310 integrating various circuit blocks such as a CPU 1312, a sensor 1314, and a neural network computing engine 2320 that are connected through a system bus 2330. The CPU 1312 and sensor 1314 correspond to the similarly numbered components in FIG. 13. Neural network weight parameters are stored in the external NVM chip 2319 when the system power is turned off. Accessing the external NVM chip 2319 is slow because the performance of system bus 2330 is limited by the pin count of SoC 2310. Accessing the external NVM also consumes large amounts of power due to the external wire capacitance. Additionally, security is an issue when privacy related neural network parameters are transferred between the SoC 2310 and external NVM 2319.
[00124] Fig. 24 illustrates a layered system for a neural network according to the present invention consisting of the SoC 1300 described in FIG. 13 and an external neural network accelerator device 2470. In the embodiments, an on-chip non-volatile neural network module 1316 is integrated with the CPU 1312, sensor 1314, and memory 1318 blocks within an SoC 1300 through a high-performance system bus 2430.
[00125] In the embodiments, the width of the high-performance system bus 2430 is not limited by the pin count of the SoC 1300. Therefore, communications through the high- performance system bus 2430 is much faster than that of system bus 2330 in the prior art design of FIG. 23. The external neural network accelerator device 2470 can be connected through an off-chip interconnection 2480 which can be locally wired or remotely accessed. Locally wired approach may include TSV, 3D-stacking, wire bonding, or wired through PCB. Remotely accessed approach may include LAN, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth. The external neural network accelerator device can contain its own CPU and high-density memory (DRAM, Flash Memory, SCM, etc.) and may be located at a cloud server.
[00126] In the embodiments, by splitting the entire neural network into the SoC 1300 and the external neural network accelerator device 2470, certain critical layers can be executed within the SoC 1300 using the non-volatile neural network module 1316, while other remaining layers may be executed using the off-chip accelerator 2470. The external neural network accelerator device 2470 can use low-cost and high-density memory such as 3D- NAND. For example, the early layers of the neural network may be processed with the on- chip and the remaining layers can be processed with the external neural network accelerator device 2470. Because only extracted or coded features from the on-chip non-volatile neural network are communicated off-chip, and the amount of externally communicated data may be reduced compared to the case that there is no neural network module within the SoC. Intermediate results from the on-chip neural network can provide low latency partial results which may be useful for early prediction of the final result, since necessary parameters for execution are stored in the on-chip non-volatile neural network 1316. Privacy concerns are significantly reduced by communicating off-chip with coded information only between the SoC 1300 and external neural network accelerator device 2470.
[00127] Fig. 25 illustrates a distributed neural network system that consists of multiple dies of SoC 1300a and 1300b according to the present invention. In the embodiments, the SoCs 1300a and 1300b are similar to the SoC 1300 described in FIG. 13 and 24 according to the present invention. The off-chip interconnection 2480 is similar to that of FIG. 24. By partitioning the entire neural network into multiple SoC devices, computation of neural network can be conducted in parallel, improving performance. For example, some of the early layers can be processed with the on-chip neural network module of one SoC while the remaining layers can be processed with another SoC. Only extracted or coded features from the first SoC are communicated off-chip. Intermediate results from the first SoC can provide low latency partial results which may be useful for early prediction of the final result, since necessary parameters for execution are stored in each of on-chip non-volatile neural networks 1316. Privacy concerns are significantly reduced by communicating off-chip with coded information only between SoCs 1300a and 1300b.
[00128] Fig 26 shows a system-on-chip where a logic friendly NVM 2619 is integrated in the SoC 2600 with other circuit blocks such as a CPU 1312, sensor 1314, and neural network computing engine 2320 and connected through a high-performance system bus 2430 according to the present invention. Similarly numbered components represent corresponding components to FIG. 23. By integrating the logic friendly NVM 2619 in the SoC with a moderate density neural network computing engine in the embodiments, energy dissipation, latency overhead may be improved compared to the prior art design in FIG. 23. Also, the security concerns incurred by external NVM access are reduced. The single logic chip solution of the embodiments is cost-effective and attractive for IoT applications featuring logic-compatible embedded flash that stores neural network parameters securely.
[00129] In the embodiments, the bus width is not limited by the available pin count of the chip. Therefore, wide I/O and low latency memory interface can be used for communicating between logic friendly NVM and other blocks in SoC 2600 Thus, the neural network computing engine 2320 can quickly access data from logic friendly NVM 2619 compared to prior art systems that use external flash memory.
[00130] Fig 27 shows a neural network system of the present invention in which the logic friendly NVM 2719 is integrated in the SoC 2700 within a neural network engine 2720 The neural network computing engine 2720 is similar to the neural network computing engine 2620 in FIG. 26. The neural network computing engine 2720 can access the logic friendly NVM 2719 without CPU intervention for improved performance and power efficiency compared to the prior art in FIG. 23.
[00131] The proposed architecture of the present inventions with on-chip non volatile neural networks described in FIGS 24-27 have various advantages such as lower power consumption and higher performance compared to the prior art. Also, privacy concerns are significantly reduced by limiting off-chip access when personal user data is used for executing a neural network in the embodiments.
[00132] Such privacy-enhanced neural networks in the embodiments may be used for creative personal devices. For example, new tasks, questions, or answers to the individual can be created interactively from the hand-held educational devices or smart toys that use the on-chip non-volatile neural networks in the embodiments. The embodiments may be useful for identifying individuals through image or sound recognition while limiting off-chip access. Especially, home or child-care devices may not require highly complex neural network models because of the limited number of persons whose voice sounds the network must recognize. However, such devices may require high levels of personalization and have strict requirements about privacy. Also, the on-chip non-volatile neural networks in the embodiments can improve security of military devices or network firewalls, since the key neural network layers for this type of application can be executed without any off-chip communication of critical information.
[00133] In other aspect of the present invention, the proposed on-chip non-volatile neural network system may be used in secured personalized vision/motion/voice recognition devices by storing and computing personalized information on-chip. For example, a device may recognize a specific person’s gesture or voice without transferring any personally trained neural network parameters off-chip since all neural network computations are computed on- chip. Such vision/motion/voice recognition neural network devices may replace bulky user interface devices (for example, keyboard or mouse of the PC, remote controller of the television). For example, key board touch display may be replaced with a neural network engine that can recognize the device owner’s hand gestures for each text character. By having personalized information stored in an on-chip non-volatile neural network, only a specific person can interact with the device.
[00134] Also, the proposed on-chip non-volatile neural network can be utilized to enhance performance and reliability of the other SoC building blocks such as CPU, memory and sensor. For example, operation voltage and frequency need to be adaptively controlled through the lifetime of the SoC because of the aging effect of the transistors and the varying operation condition such as temperature. Manual adjustment of such parameters is a difficult task that a neural network may optimize. However, an off-chip neural network accelerator may not meet the performance requirements and require excessive additional power. A non volatile neural network may be used to optimize such parameters of the other components of its own chip for given performance and power requirements.
[00135] While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific examples thereof have been shown in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the invention is not to be limited to the particular forms disclosed, but to the contrary, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1. A non-volatile synapse circuit, comprising:
a first input signal line for providing a first input signal;
a reference signal line for providing a reference signal;
a first output line for carrying an output signal therethrough; and
a cell for generating the output signal, the cell including:
a first upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the first input signal line; and
a first resistive changing element having one end connected to the first upper select transistor in series and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal, wherein a drain of the first upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line.
2. The non-volatile synapse circuit of claim 1, further comprising:
a program line for providing a programming signal;
a write line for providing a writing signal; and
an erase line for providing an erasing signal;
wherein the first resistive changing element includes:
coupling and write transistors arranged to have a floating gate node, the coupling transistor electrically coupled to the program line, the write transistor being electrically coupled to the write line; and
a read transistor and a lower select transistor that are arranged in series with the upper select transistor, the lower select transistor having a source electrically coupled to the reference signal line and a gate electrically coupled to the erase line, the read transistor having a gate electrically coupled to the floating gate node.
3. The non-volatile synapse circuit of claim 1, further comprising:
a second input signal line for providing a second input signal;
wherein the cell further includes:
a second upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the second input signal line; and
a second resistive changing element having one end connected to the second upper select transistor in series and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the second resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal,
wherein a drain of the second upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line.
4. The non-volatile synapse circuit of claim 1, further comprising:
a second input signal line for providing a second input signal;
a second output signal line for providing a second output signal;
wherein the cell further includes:
a second upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the second input signal line; and
the second upper select transistor having a source that is electrically coupled to the first resistive changing element, the source of the first upper select transistor and the source of the second upper select transistor being directly connected to a first common node,
wherein a drain of the second upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the second output line.
5. The non-volatile synapse circuit of claim 4, further comprising:
a program line for providing a programming signal;
a write line for providing a writing signal; and
an erase line for providing an erasing signal;
wherein the first resistive changing element includes:
coupling and write transistors arranged to have a floating gate node, the coupling transistor electrically coupled to the program line, the write transistor being electrically coupled to the write line; and
a read transistor and a lower select transistor that are arranged in series, the lower select transistor having a source electrically coupled to the reference signal line and a gate electrically coupled to the erase line, the read transistor having a gate electrically coupled to the floating gate node and a source directly connected to the first common node.
6. The non-volatile synapse circuit of claim 4, further comprising:
a third input signal line for providing a third input signal;
a fourth input signal line for providing a fourth input signal; wherein the cell further includes:
a third upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the third input signal line; and
a fourth upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the fourth input signal line, the source of the third upper select transistor and the source of the fourth upper select transistor being directly connected to a second common node, a second resistive changing element having one end connected to the second common node and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the second resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal,
wherein a drain of the third upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line
wherein a drain of the fourth upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the second output line.
7. A synapse circuit comprising:
a first input signal line for providing a first input signal;
a second input signal line for providing a second input signal;
a reference signal line for providing a reference signal;
first and second output lines for carrying first and second output signals therethrough; a cross-coupled latch circuit for storing an electrical signal, including:
first and second inverters that each have input and output terminals, the input terminal of the first inverter being connected to the output terminal of the second inverter at a first signal node, the input terminal of the second inverter being connected to the output terminal of the first inverter at a second signal node; and
first and second cells for generating the first and second output signals, respectively, each of the first and the second cells including:
a first upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the first input signal line;
a second upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the second input signal line; and
a source of the first upper select transistor and a source of the second upper select transistor being directly connected to a common node, the common node of the first cell is electrically coupled to the first signal node of the cross-coupled latch circuit, and the common node of the second cell is electrically coupled to the second signal node of the cross-coupled latch circuit,
wherein:
a drain of the first upper select transistor of the first cell is electrically coupled to the first output line and a drain of the first upper select transistor of the second cell is electrically coupled to the second output line,
a drain of the second upper select transistor of the first cell is electrically coupled to the second output line and a drain of the second upper select transistor of the second cell is electrically coupled to the first output line, and
the first and second inverters of the cross-coupled latch circuit are electrically coupled to the reference signal line.
8. The synapse circuit of claim 7 wherein, the cross-coupled latch circuit is implemented as a non-volatile memory circuit.
9. A neural network chip, comprising:
a central processing unit for controlling elements on the neural network chip;
a sensor for providing input signals;
a memory unit for storing data;
a non-volatile neural network unit;
wherein the central processing unit, the sensor, the memory unit, and the non-volatile neural network unit are electrically coupled, and the non-volatile neural network unit, further comprising:
a synapse array including a plurality of non-volatile synapses, each of the non-volatile synapses including:
a first input signal line for providing a first input signal;
a reference signal line for providing a reference signal;
a first output line for carrying output signals therethrough; and
a cell for generating the output signal, the cell including:
a first upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the first input signal line; and
a first resistive changing element having one end connected to the first upper select transistor in series and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the first resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal,
wherein a drain of the first upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line.
10. The neural network chip of claim 9, wherein each non-volatile synapse in the synapse array layer further includes:
a program line for providing a programming signal;
a write line for providing a writing signal; and
an erase line for providing an erasing signal;
wherein the first resistive changing element includes:
coupling and write transistors arranged to have a floating gate node, the coupling transistor electrically coupled to the program line, the write transistor being electrically coupled to the write line; and
a read transistor and a lower select transistor that are arranged in series with the upper select transistor, the lower select transistor having a source electrically coupled to the reference signal line and a gate electrically coupled to the erase line, the read transistor having a gate electrically coupled to the floating gate node.
11. The neural network chip of claim 9, wherein each non-volatile synapse in the synapse array layer further includes:
a second input signal line for providing a second input signal;
wherein the cell further includes:
a second upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the second input signal line; and
a second resistive changing element having one end connected to the second upper select transistor in series and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the second resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal,
wherein a drain of the second upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line.
12. The neural network chip of claim 9, wherein each non-volatile synapse in the synapse array layer further includes: a second input signal line for providing a second input signal;
a second output signal line for providing a second output signal;
wherein the cell further includes:
a second upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the second input signal line; and
the second upper select transistor having a source that is electrically coupled to the first resistive changing element, the source of the first upper select transistor and the source of the second upper select transistor being directly connected to a first common node,
wherein a drain of the second upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the second output line.
13. The non-volatile neural network of claim 12, wherein each non-volatile synapse in the synapse array layer further includes:
a program line for providing a programming signal;
a write line for providing a writing signal; and
an erase line for providing an erasing signal;
wherein the first resistive changing element includes:
coupling and write transistors arranged to have a floating gate node, the coupling transistor electrically coupled to the program line, the write transistor being electrically coupled to the write line; and
a read transistor and a lower select transistor that are arranged in series, the lower select transistor having a source electrically coupled to the reference signal line and a gate electrically coupled to the erase line, the read transistor having a gate electrically coupled to the floating gate node and a source directly connected to the first common node.
14. The non-volatile neural network of claim 12, wherein each non-volatile synapse in the synapse array layer further includes:
a third input signal line for providing a third input signal;
a fourth input signal line for providing a fourth input signal;
wherein the cell further includes:
a third upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the third input signal line; and a fourth upper select transistor having a gate that is electrically coupled to the fourth input signal line, the source of the third upper select transistor and the source of the fourth upper select transistor being directly connected to a second common node, a second resistive changing element having one end connected to the second common node and an other end electrically coupled to the reference signal line, a value of the second resistive changing element being programmable to change a magnitude of an output signal,
wherein a drain of the third upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the first output line
wherein a drain of the fourth upper select transistor of the cell is electrically coupled to the second output line.
15 A neural network system-on-chip comprising:
a central processing unit;
a sensor unit;
a neural network engine;
a logic friendly non-volatile memory unit;
wherein the central processing unit, the sensor unit, the logic friendly non-volatile memory unit, and the neural network engine are coupled by a system bus, and
the neural network engine can execute without transmitting the data stored in the logic friendly non-volatile memory outside the chip.
16. The neural network system-on-chip of claim 15, wherein the logic friendly non volatile memory unit is embedded in the neural network engine, and
the neural network engine can access the data stored in the logic friendly non-volatile memory without intervention from the central processing unit.
17. A neural network chip, comprising:
a central processing unit for controlling elements on the chip;
a non-volatile neural network unit;
a sensor for providing input signals to the non-volatile neural network;
a memory unit;
wherein the central processing unit, the sensor, the memory unit, and the non-volatile neural network unit are electrically coupled, and the non-volatile neural network unit adaptively controls the operating parameters such as voltage and frequency of the central processing unit, the memory unit, and the sensor.
PCT/US2019/014442 2017-11-29 2019-01-22 Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays WO2019147522A2 (en)

Priority Applications (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201862620947P true 2018-01-23 2018-01-23
US62/620,947 2018-01-23
US201862655074P true 2018-04-09 2018-04-09
US62/655,074 2018-04-09
US16/196,617 2018-11-20
US16/196,617 US20190164044A1 (en) 2017-11-29 2018-11-20 Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays
US16/252,640 US20190164046A1 (en) 2017-11-29 2019-01-20 Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays
US16/252,640 2019-01-20

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201980009706.5A CN111656371A (en) 2018-01-23 2019-01-22 Neural network circuit with non-volatile synapse array
KR1020207024195A KR20200110701A (en) 2018-01-23 2019-01-22 Neural network circuit with nonvolatile synaptic arrangement
EP19744289.0A EP3743857A4 (en) 2018-01-23 2019-01-22 Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2019147522A2 true WO2019147522A2 (en) 2019-08-01
WO2019147522A3 WO2019147522A3 (en) 2020-04-09

Family

ID=67395562

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2019/014442 WO2019147522A2 (en) 2017-11-29 2019-01-22 Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP3743857A4 (en)
KR (1) KR20200110701A (en)
CN (1) CN111656371A (en)
TW (1) TWI751403B (en)
WO (1) WO2019147522A2 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2021144646A1 (en) * 2020-01-16 2021-07-22 International Business Machines Corporation Synapse weight update compensation
CN113325909A (en) * 2020-02-12 2021-08-31 力旺电子股份有限公司 Product accumulation circuit applied to binary neural network system

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4956564A (en) * 1989-07-13 1990-09-11 Intel Corporation Adaptive synapse cell providing both excitatory and inhibitory connections in an associative network
US5353382A (en) * 1990-10-15 1994-10-04 California Institute Of Technology Programmable synapse for neural network applications
JP3119392B2 (en) * 1992-06-03 2000-12-18 直 柴田 Semiconductor device
US5336937A (en) * 1992-08-28 1994-08-09 State University Of New York Programmable analog synapse and neural networks incorporating same
AU2003243137A1 (en) * 2002-03-22 2003-10-08 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Floating-gate analog circuit
EP3695782A3 (en) * 2004-10-04 2020-12-16 SpiroFriends Technology ApS Handheld home monitoring sensors network device and method
US7167392B1 (en) * 2005-07-15 2007-01-23 National Semiconductor Corporation Non-volatile memory cell with improved programming technique
US9645919B2 (en) * 2013-03-14 2017-05-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory systems and methods including training, data organizing, and/or shadowing
US9934831B2 (en) * 2014-04-07 2018-04-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Apparatuses and methods for storing and writing multiple parameter codes for memory operating parameters
US9760533B2 (en) * 2014-08-14 2017-09-12 The Regents On The University Of Michigan Floating-gate transistor array for performing weighted sum computation
US10019631B2 (en) * 2015-11-05 2018-07-10 Qualcomm Incorporated Adapting to appearance variations when tracking a target object in video sequence
WO2017200883A1 (en) * 2016-05-17 2017-11-23 Silicon Storage Technology, Inc. Deep learning neural network classifier using non-volatile memory array
US20190164044A1 (en) * 2017-11-29 2019-05-30 Anaflash Inc. Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2021144646A1 (en) * 2020-01-16 2021-07-22 International Business Machines Corporation Synapse weight update compensation
CN113325909A (en) * 2020-02-12 2021-08-31 力旺电子股份有限公司 Product accumulation circuit applied to binary neural network system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
TW201937413A (en) 2019-09-16
TWI751403B (en) 2022-01-01
WO2019147522A3 (en) 2020-04-09
KR20200110701A (en) 2020-09-24
EP3743857A4 (en) 2021-12-29
EP3743857A2 (en) 2020-12-02
CN111656371A (en) 2020-09-11

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20190164046A1 (en) Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays
US11074982B2 (en) Memory configured to perform logic operations on values representative of sensed characteristics of data lines and a threshold data value
EP3680907A1 (en) Neural network arithmetic circuit using non-volatile semiconductor memory element
US20200202207A1 (en) Neural network computation circuit including non-volatile semiconductor memory element
EP3743857A2 (en) Neural network circuits having non-volatile synapse arrays
US20200202203A1 (en) Neural network computation circuit including semiconductor storage elements
CN110729011B (en) In-memory arithmetic device for neural network
US10002658B1 (en) Dynamic random-access memory with embedded artificial neural network functionality
US11157810B2 (en) Resistive processing unit architecture with separate weight update and inference circuitry
CN108154227B (en) Neural network chip using analog computation
Lee et al. Novel Method Enabling Forward and Backward Propagations in NAND Flash Memory for On-Chip Learning
US10249360B1 (en) Method and circuit for generating a reference voltage in neuromorphic system
Wang et al. A Weight Importance Analysis Technique for Area-and Power-Efficient Binary Weight Neural Network Processor Design
CN111581141B (en) Memory device and operation method thereof
US10861551B2 (en) Memory cells configured to generate weighted inputs for neural networks
US20210319293A1 (en) Neuromorphic device and operating method of the same
US20210125048A1 (en) Neuromorphic package devices and neuromorphic computing systems
Valentian et al. SPIRIT: A First Mixed-Signal SNN Using Co-integrated CMOS Neurons and Resistive Synapses

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 19744289

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A2

NENP Non-entry into the national phase

Ref country code: DE

ENP Entry into the national phase

Ref document number: 20207024195

Country of ref document: KR

Kind code of ref document: A

ENP Entry into the national phase

Ref document number: 2019744289

Country of ref document: EP

Effective date: 20200824