WO2019042155A1 - Plasma heating-based temperature regulation method and device for blast furnace hot air system - Google Patents

Plasma heating-based temperature regulation method and device for blast furnace hot air system Download PDF

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WO2019042155A1
WO2019042155A1 PCT/CN2018/100980 CN2018100980W WO2019042155A1 WO 2019042155 A1 WO2019042155 A1 WO 2019042155A1 CN 2018100980 W CN2018100980 W CN 2018100980W WO 2019042155 A1 WO2019042155 A1 WO 2019042155A1
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hot air
blast furnace
temperature
gas
plasma
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PCT/CN2018/100980
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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陈义龙
张亮
韩旭
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武汉丰盈长江生态科技研究总院有限公司
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Publication of WO2019042155A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019042155A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B5/00Making pig-iron in the blast furnace
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B7/00Blast furnaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B9/00Stoves for heating the blast in blast furnaces

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the technical field of blast furnace hot air temperature regulation, in particular to a method and a device for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating.
  • the hot blast stove is the main process equipment for increasing the temperature of the furnace.
  • the existing hot blast stove uses the regenerative heat exchange method to continuously supply the blast furnace high temperature air through the blast furnace gas or the high calorific value gas combustion and the air supply alternately.
  • the basic requirement of the blast furnace for the hot blast stove is to provide stable high temperature wind.
  • each hot blast stove has the process of burning heat storage and supplying air to the blast furnace.
  • the conventional design scheme is equipped for each blast furnace. When three to four hot blast stoves are alternately operated, the high hot air can be maintained to float within a certain temperature range.
  • the object of the present invention is to provide a method and a device for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating, which can effectively regulate the temperature fluctuation of the hot air entering the smelting blast furnace.
  • the present invention provides a plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control method
  • the blast furnace hot air system includes a metal smelting blast furnace, a high temperature hot blast stove, and a hot air conveying main pipe connected therebetween;
  • the utility model relates to introducing at least one regulating gas heating bypass pipe in the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe, and a plasma heater for rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas conveyed by the regulating gas heating bypass pipe, and the following steps are included:
  • the plasma heater rapidly heats up the regulating gas as needed, and dynamically controls the heating power of the plasma heater and/or dynamically controls the flow rate of the regulating gas in the gas heating bypass pipe to reduce the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace with time. Volatility.
  • the heating power of the plasma heater can be controlled as follows: for the upstream hot air with large temperature fluctuation (refers to the hot air in the hot air conveying main pipe before mixing), when it is at a lower temperature, the plasma heating is adjusted.
  • the device is at a relatively large power. The lower the temperature, the higher the heating power until the ion heater reaches the maximum power. When it is at a higher temperature, the plasma heater is adjusted to be less powerful. The higher the temperature, the lower the heating power.
  • the upstream hot air temperature exceeds the regulation target temperature line, the power of the plasma heater is adjusted to be zero, that is, no heating.
  • the gas composition of the conditioning gas may be upstream hot air, outside air, steam, pure oxygen, or the like, or a mixed gas of two or more of them.
  • the regulating gas adopts outside air, and the outside air is first subjected to pressure treatment to overcome the system resistance and adapt to the subsequent system pressure demand; then preheating to 200-800 ° C, and then heating rapidly by the plasma heater.
  • the conventional heating method such as waste heat heat exchange and blast furnace gas combustion mode
  • the plasma heater has better heating efficiency and can provide higher temperature.
  • conventional control methods in which a portion of the cold air is blended to lower the overall temperature of the hot air entering the metal smelting blast furnace to achieve a constant temperature, it is not practical to adjust the gas preheating.
  • the invention adopts a plasma-blended heating gas to increase the overall temperature of the hot air entering the metal smelting blast furnace to achieve a constant temperature control mode, so adjusting the gas preheating will reduce the electric energy consumption of the plasma torch, combined with the utilization of waste heat, economy The benefits are even more significant.
  • the regulating gas adopts an upstream hot air drawn from a branch line of the upstream section of the hot air conveying main pipe, which is directly heated and heated by a plasma heater.
  • the mass flow rate of the conditioned gas is 5 to 30% of the upstream hot air mass flow rate in the hot air delivery main pipe.
  • the dynamic control adopts fuzzy mathematics cooperative control technology, and the hot air temperature entering the metal smelting blast furnace is constant as the first control target, and the plasma heater consumes the minimum power as the second control target to enter the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace.
  • the maximum degree of lift is the third control target; the first control target is preferentially achieved during dynamic control, the second control target is reached second, and finally the third control target is reached.
  • f is the function symbol;
  • P is the total power of the plasma heater;
  • T 1 and Q 1 are the temperature and flow rate of the plasma working gas;
  • T 2 and Q 2 are the high temperature air outlet temperature and flow rate of the high temperature hot blast stove;
  • Q 3 is the high temperature regulating gas temperature and flow rate after plasma heating;
  • T 4 and Q 4 are the high temperature hot air temperature and flow rate of the metal smelting blast furnace inlet;
  • C 0 is the hot air specific heat;
  • the unit of each physical quantity in the formula adopts the SI unit
  • the temperature is K
  • the flow rate is kg/s
  • the power is W
  • the specific heat is J ⁇ kg -1 ⁇ K -1 .
  • the invention also provides a plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device, comprising a metal smelting blast furnace and a high-temperature hot blast stove matched thereto; the upper and lower portions of the metal smelting blast furnace are respectively provided with a blast furnace gas outlet and a hot air input ring a heating inlet passage of the high-temperature hot blast stove is provided with a gas inlet and a tail gas outlet, wherein the heat absorption passage of the high-temperature hot blast stove is provided with a normal temperature air inlet and a high temperature air outlet; the blast furnace gas outlet and the gas inlet Connected by a blast furnace gas main pipe, the high-temperature air outlet and the hot air input ring pipe are connected by a hot air conveying main pipe; and further comprising at least one regulating gas heating side pipe and a plasma heater matched therewith; the regulating gas heating
  • the input end of the bypass pipe is connected to the external air source or to the branch pipe leading from the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe
  • the plasma heater has a central cylindrical chamber and a peripheral annular chamber which are arranged at intervals, and the central cylindrical chamber and the peripheral annular chamber are transported by at least two branches arranged radially from the inside to the outside.
  • the pipeline is connected, and at least one plasma torch is disposed on each branch conveying pipeline;
  • the peripheral annular air chamber is provided with a regulating gas input interface, and the central cylindrical air chamber is provided with a gas chamber end interface;
  • the plasma heater is coupled to the conditioned gas heating bypass via a regulated gas input port and a plenum end interface.
  • the plasma heater of this solution is suitable for installation on a regulated gas heating bypass.
  • the plasma heater has a central cylindrical chamber and a peripheral annular chamber which are arranged at intervals, and the central cylindrical chamber and the peripheral annular chamber are transported by at least two branches arranged radially from the inside to the outside.
  • the pipeline is connected, and at least one plasma torch is disposed on each branch conveying pipeline;
  • the peripheral annular air chamber is provided with a regulating gas input interface, and
  • the central cylindrical air chamber is provided with a pair of air chamber end interfaces;
  • the plasma heater is connected to the hot air conveying main pipe through a pair of air chamber end interfaces, and is located at a joint of the hot air conveying main pipe and the regulating gas heating side pipe, and the regulating gas input port is connected with the output of the regulating gas heating side pipe. Connected to the end.
  • the plasma heater of this solution is suitable for installation on a hot air delivery main.
  • the angle between the branch conveying pipeline and the central cylindrical air chamber is an acute angle, and is installed in a forward flow manner to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas.
  • the plasma torch can also be installed in a forward flow manner, so that the working gas flow direction of the ion torch is the same as the flow direction of the regulating gas or the angle is an acute angle.
  • the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe is provided with a pressure fan, and the regulating gas heating bypass pipe between the pressure fan and the plasma heater is provided with a preheating device.
  • the invention adopts an additional regulating gas heating bypass pipe and a plasma heater, utilizes plasma heating temperature high, and can quickly realize load regulation through current regulation control, introduces a control gas with controllable temperature flow, and adjusts hot air temperature in real time.
  • the heat input by the plasma heater is increased; when the original hot air temperature is at a higher temperature, the heat input by the plasma heater is lowered (if necessary, the plasma heating is stopped), thereby making the metal
  • the fluctuation of the hot air temperature in the smelting blast furnace is greatly reduced, and the overall temperature is improved.
  • the present invention uses a part of the high temperature regulating gas heated by the plasma to increase the overall temperature of the hot air entering the blast furnace.
  • the overall temperature of the hot air entering the furnace is not lowered, and the average temperature of the hot air entering the furnace of the metal smelting blast furnace can be improved compared with the temperature regulation mode of the mixed cold air, and the utilization of waste heat is utilized, and the economic benefit is more remarkable.
  • the plasma torch In the heating mode above 1000 °C, the plasma torch has the highest air efficiency, lowest energy consumption, simple system and stable operation.
  • the improvement of hot air temperature and stable control can greatly improve the proportion of pulverized coal injected into the smelting blast furnace, improve the blast furnace production efficiency, reduce the coke ratio, reduce carbon emissions, and make the overall economic performance good.
  • the temperature control equipment of the blast furnace hot air system is simple and reliable, and the investment is small.
  • the renovation project of the existing blast furnace hot air system is small and has a good investment prospect.
  • 1 is a schematic view showing the process of the temperature control device of the blast furnace hot air system in the first embodiment.
  • FIGS. 2 and 3 are respectively a schematic view of the front view of the medium ion heater of FIG. 1 and a schematic view of the left side view; in FIG. 2, the central cylindrical gas chamber is partially cut; in FIG. 3, the central cylindrical gas is not shown.
  • the connecting flange of the chamber in FIG. 2, the central cylindrical gas chamber is partially cut; in FIG. 3, the central cylindrical gas is not shown.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic view showing the process of the temperature control device of the blast furnace hot air system in Embodiment 2.
  • FIG. 5 and FIG. 6 are respectively a front view and a left side view of the medium ion heater of FIG. 4; in FIG. 5, a partial cut of the central cylindrical gas chamber; in FIG. 6, the central cylindrical gas is not shown.
  • the connecting flange of the chamber is not shown.
  • Figure 7 is a comparison of the effects of the present invention and the method of mixing cold air.
  • metal smelting blast furnace 1 blast furnace gas outlet 1.1, hot air input loop 1.2, high temperature hot blast stove 2, gas inlet 2.1, high temperature air outlet 2.2, normal temperature air inlet 2.3, exhaust gas outlet 2.4, blast furnace gas main 3, hot air transport supervisor 4 , branch pipe 4.1, regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, pressure fan 6, plasma heater 7, central cylindrical air chamber 7.1, peripheral annular air chamber 7.2, branch conveying line 7.3, plasma torch 7.4, regulating gas input interface 7.5, air chamber end interface 7.6, connecting flange 7.7, blind plate 7.8, preheating device 8, chimney 9
  • the plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device designed by the present invention comprises a metal smelting blast furnace 1 and a high-temperature hot blast stove 2 matched thereto.
  • the upper and lower portions of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 are respectively provided with a blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 and a hot air input ring pipe 1.2.
  • the heating passage of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 is provided with a gas inlet 2.1 and an exhaust outlet 2.4.
  • the heat absorbing passage of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 is provided with a normal temperature air inlet 2.3 and a high temperature air outlet 2.2.
  • the blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 and the gas inlet 2.1 are connected by a blast furnace gas main pipe 3, and the high temperature air outlet 2.2 and the hot air input ring pipe 1.2 are connected by a hot air conveying main pipe 4. It also includes a regulating gas heating bypass 5 and a plasma heater 7 associated therewith.
  • the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is connected to the downstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4, and the plasma heater 7 is used for rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas supplied from the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5.
  • the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is provided with a pressurizing fan 6, and the regulating gas heating side pipe 5 between the pressurizing fan 6 and the plasma heater 7 is disposed.
  • the plasma heater 7 has a central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and a peripheral annular plenum 7.2 arranged at intervals, and between the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, four branch conveying lines are arranged radially from the inside to the outside. Connected, a plasma torch 7.4 is disposed on each branch delivery line 7.3.
  • the angle between the branch conveying line 7.3 and the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 is an acute angle to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas.
  • a peripheral air chamber 7.2 is provided with a regulating gas input port 7.5.
  • Both ends of the central cylindrical gas chamber 7.1 are provided with a pair of connecting flanges 7.7, wherein one end of the connecting flange 7.7 serves as a gas chamber end port 7.6, and the other end
  • the connecting flange is sealed by a blind plate 7.8.
  • the plasma heater 7 is connected to the conditioned gas heating bypass 5 via a regulating gas input port 7.5 and a plenum end port 7.6.
  • the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is connected to the branch pipe 4.1 led from the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4; the original hot air introduced into the upstream pipe section is used as the regulating gas, fully
  • the power consumption of the plasma heater 7 is reduced by the heat in the original hot air.
  • the plasma heater 7 has a central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and a peripheral annular plenum 7.2 arranged at intervals, and between the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, four branch conveying lines are arranged radially from the inside to the outside. Connected, a plasma torch 7.4 is disposed on each branch delivery line 7.3.
  • the angle between the branch conveying line 7.3 and the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 is an acute angle to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas.
  • a regulating gas input port 7.5 is disposed on the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, and a pair of connecting flanges 7.7 are disposed at both ends of the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 as a gas chamber end port 7.6.
  • the plasma heater 7 is connected to the hot air conveying main pipe 4 through a pair of air chamber end ports 7.6, and is located at the junction of the hot air conveying main pipe 4 and the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, and the regulating gas input port 7.5 and the regulating gas heating side pipe 5 The outputs are connected.
  • the structure of the plasma heater 7 is different: the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 of the embodiment 2 is provided with an opening at both ends; and one end of the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 of the embodiment 1 is provided as an opening, and One end is sealed by a blind plate 7.8.
  • the plasma heater 7 can also be arranged with a plurality of baffle or pit structure components for enhancing the heat exchange and mixing of the plasma and the high temperature working gas of the plasma torch, wherein the baffle member is made of high temperature resistant refractory insulation bricks.
  • the following provides a method for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system using the above temperature control device.
  • the basic smelting process of the existing metal smelting blast furnace 1 is: iron ore, coke and other ironmaking raw materials are sent to the metal smelting blast furnace 1, and the hot air input ring pipe from the lower part of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 1.2
  • the top blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 is taken out, and then enters the high-temperature hot blast stove 2 through the blast furnace gas main pipe 3, the gas inlet 2.1, and heats the heat from the normal temperature air inlet 2.3 into the high-temperature hot blast stove 2 to supply the cold air, cold air.
  • the present invention applies the blast furnace hot air system temperature control device provided in Embodiments 1 and 2, and performs temperature regulation of the blast furnace hot air system according to the following steps:
  • the total power of the plasma heater 7 is set according to the hot air conditioning load. Four Marc-11 plasma torches are used. The maximum power of a single plasma torch is 2.4 MW, the minimum power is 0.8 MW, and the plasma working gas flow rate is about 500 kg/hr.
  • the regulating air is made of outside air, and the outside air is first pressurized by the pressurizing fan 6 to ensure that the regulating gas can be smoothly delivered to the pressure of the blast furnace gas main pipe 3, and then preheated to about 500 ° C by the preheating device 8 .
  • the plasma heater 7 is then used for rapid heating and temperature rise.
  • the regulating gas adopts the upstream hot air drawn from the branch line 4.1 of the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4, and is directly heated by the plasma heater 7 for rapid heating.
  • the obtained high-temperature regulating gas is taken out from the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, and sent to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe 4 to be mixed with the upstream hot air whose temperature in the hot air conveying main pipe 4 fluctuates greatly with time.
  • the dynamic control adopts fuzzy mathematics cooperative control technology, and the hot air temperature entering the metal smelting blast furnace 1 is constant as the first control target, and the plasma heater 7 consumes the minimum power as the second control target to enter the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace 1
  • the maximum degree of lift is the third control target.
  • the first control target is preferentially achieved, the second control target is reached secondly, and finally the third control target is reached.
  • the following mathematical relationships are satisfied between the main control parameters:
  • f is the function symbol; P is the total power of the plasma heater 7; T 1 and Q 1 are the temperature and flow rate of the plasma working gas; T 2 and Q 2 are the high temperature air outlet temperature and flow rate of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 T 3 and Q 3 are the high temperature regulating gas temperature and flow rate after plasma heating; T 4 and Q 4 are the high temperature hot air temperature and flow rate of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 inlet; C 0 is the hot air specific heat.
  • the units of each physical quantity in the formula are in SI units.
  • the hot air inlet temperature of the pre-regulating metal smelting blast furnace is 1000-1200 ° C, the average temperature is 1100 ° C; the average temperature after the control is increased to 1200 ° C; and the average temperature obtained by blending the cold air method is 1070 ° C.
  • the temperature fluctuation of the solution of the present invention is smaller, and the improvement of the hot air temperature is achieved.
  • each increase in wind temperature of 55.5 ° C can reduce the coke ratio of 12.5 kg / ton of iron, improve production efficiency of about 2.5%, while the hot air temperature increase also improves the metal smelting blast furnace 1 burner
  • the proportion of pulverized coal reduces the internal coke consumption of the metal smelting blast furnace 1, thereby achieving a reduction in the ironmaking coke ratio.
  • the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace is increased by 130 ° C
  • the coke ratio is reduced by 40 kg / ton of iron
  • the carbon dioxide emission is reduced by 2% to 6%. Overall, it can greatly improve the operational stability and economic benefits of the ironmaking system.

Abstract

A plasma heating-based temperature regulation method and device for a blast furnace hot air system. The device comprises a metal smelting blast furnace (1) and a high-temperature hot air furnace (2) matched therewith; a blast furnace coal gas outlet (1.1) of the metal smelting blast furnace (1) and a gas inlet (2.1) of the high-temperature hot air furnace (2) are connected through a blast furnace coal gas main pipe (3), and a high-temperature air outlet (2.2) of the high-temperature hot air furnace (2) and a hot air input ring pipe (1.2) of the metal smelting blast furnace (1) are connected through a hot air conveying main pipe (4). The device further comprises at least one moderator gas heating bypass pipe (5) and a plasma heater (7) matched therewith; an output end of the moderator gas heating bypass pipe (5) is connected to middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe (4). In said method, moderator gas is introduced from an input end of the moderator gas heating bypass pipe (5), so as to feed same to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe (4). In this process, the moderator gas is quickly heated up as needed by means of the plasma heater, so as to reduce the fluctuation amplitude of the temperature of the hot air fed into the furnace over time.

Description

基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法与设备Method and device for temperature regulation of blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及高炉热风温度调节技术领域,尤其涉及一种基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法与设备。The invention relates to the technical field of blast furnace hot air temperature regulation, in particular to a method and a device for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating.
背景技术Background technique
在高炉炼铁工艺中,节能降耗的一个最有效的途径就是提高高炉的入炉风温。热风炉是提高入炉风温的主要工艺设备,现有的热风炉利用蓄热式换热方式,通过高炉煤气或高热值燃气燃烧和送风交替工作以连续供给高炉高温空气。高炉对热风炉的基本要求是提供稳定的高温风,然而每座热风炉都有燃烧蓄热和向高炉送风的过程,为了使高炉获得稳定、连续的热风,常规设计方案为每座高炉配备三到四座热风炉交替运行,则基本能维持高热风在一定的温度范围内浮动。In the blast furnace ironmaking process, one of the most effective ways to save energy and reduce consumption is to increase the furnace air temperature of the blast furnace. The hot blast stove is the main process equipment for increasing the temperature of the furnace. The existing hot blast stove uses the regenerative heat exchange method to continuously supply the blast furnace high temperature air through the blast furnace gas or the high calorific value gas combustion and the air supply alternately. The basic requirement of the blast furnace for the hot blast stove is to provide stable high temperature wind. However, each hot blast stove has the process of burning heat storage and supplying air to the blast furnace. In order to obtain stable and continuous hot air in the blast furnace, the conventional design scheme is equipped for each blast furnace. When three to four hot blast stoves are alternately operated, the high hot air can be maintained to float within a certain temperature range.
当高炉热风炉进行换炉操作时,热风温度会有一定程度的波动,波动值大小的控制主要是依靠冷风阀的阀门开度来调节,由于阀门开度大小受设备自身精度等因素的影响较大,在换炉过程中容易造成输入的冷风压力波动较大。中国专利CN206014993U公开的一种高炉热风炉设备冷风智能调节系统,以及中国专利CN205874470U公开的一种高炉热风炉优化控制系统,都是利用自动控制原理,采用PLC控制器来控制冷风调节阀,相比手动调节更加智能化、精细化,在换炉过程中,该系统不断采集冷风压力和流量的变化量,通过程序的编写,能有效减小热风炉换炉时冷风温度和压力的波动。When the blast furnace hot blast stove is operated, the hot air temperature will fluctuate to a certain extent. The control of the fluctuation value is mainly determined by the valve opening degree of the cold damper, because the opening degree of the valve is affected by factors such as the accuracy of the equipment itself. Large, it is easy to cause the input cold wind pressure to fluctuate greatly during the furnace changing process. Chinese patent CN206014993U discloses a cold air intelligent regulation system for blast furnace hot blast stove equipment, and a blast furnace hot blast stove optimization control system disclosed by Chinese patent CN205874470U, which utilizes an automatic control principle and uses a PLC controller to control a cold air regulating valve. The manual adjustment is more intelligent and refined. During the process of changing the furnace, the system continuously collects the change of the cold air pressure and the flow rate. Through the preparation of the program, the fluctuation of the cold air temperature and pressure during the hot air furnace change can be effectively reduced.
然而,上述这种利用冷风和热风混合的调节方式虽然能维持热风温度恒定,但加入冷风会导致热风管中的热风温度降低,由于生产中进入高炉的送风温度越高、越稳定会使得高炉冶炼金属的效果越好,因此这种加入冷风的方式损失了热值,造成了能源浪费。However, although the above-mentioned adjustment method using cold air and hot air mixing can maintain the constant hot air temperature, the addition of cold air causes the hot air temperature in the hot air duct to decrease, and the higher the supply air temperature entering the blast furnace during production, the more stable it is. The better the effect of smelting metal in the blast furnace, the way the cold air is added loses the heat value, resulting in wasted energy.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的在于提供一种基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法与设备,能够有效调控金属冶炼高炉的入炉热风温度波动。The object of the present invention is to provide a method and a device for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating, which can effectively regulate the temperature fluctuation of the hot air entering the smelting blast furnace.
为实现上述目的,本发明所提供的基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,所述高炉热风系统包括金属冶炼高炉、高温热风炉、以及连接在二者之间的热风输送主管;该方法是在热风输送主管的中下游管段引入至少一路调节气加热旁管、以及用于对调节气加热旁管输送的调节气进行快速加热升温的等离子加热器,并包括以下步骤:In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control method, the blast furnace hot air system includes a metal smelting blast furnace, a high temperature hot blast stove, and a hot air conveying main pipe connected therebetween; The utility model relates to introducing at least one regulating gas heating bypass pipe in the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe, and a plasma heater for rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas conveyed by the regulating gas heating bypass pipe, and the following steps are included:
1)从调节气加热旁管的输入端引入调节气,并从调节气加热旁管的输出端引出,送到热风输送主管的中下游管段内,使其与热风输送主管内温度随时间波动较大的上游热风混合;1) Introducing the regulating gas from the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe, and taking it out from the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe, and sending it to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe to make the temperature in the hot air conveying main pipe fluctuate with time. Large upstream hot air mixing;
2)等离子加热器按需对调节气进行快速加热升温,通过动态控制等离子加热器的加热功率和/或动态控制调节气加热旁管内调节气的流量,降低金属冶炼高炉的入炉热风温度随时间的波动幅度。2) The plasma heater rapidly heats up the regulating gas as needed, and dynamically controls the heating power of the plasma heater and/or dynamically controls the flow rate of the regulating gas in the gas heating bypass pipe to reduce the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace with time. Volatility.
可选地,所述等离子加热器的加热功率可按如下方法进行控制:对于温度波动较大的上游热风(指混合前热风输送主管内的热风),当其处于较低温度时,调整等离子加热器处于较大的功率,温度越低,加热功率越大,直到离子加热器达到最大功率;当其处于较高温度时,调整等离子加热器处于较小的功率,温度越高,加热功率越小;当上游热风温度超过调控目标温度线时,调整等离子加热器的功率为零,即不加热。Optionally, the heating power of the plasma heater can be controlled as follows: for the upstream hot air with large temperature fluctuation (refers to the hot air in the hot air conveying main pipe before mixing), when it is at a lower temperature, the plasma heating is adjusted. The device is at a relatively large power. The lower the temperature, the higher the heating power until the ion heater reaches the maximum power. When it is at a higher temperature, the plasma heater is adjusted to be less powerful. The higher the temperature, the lower the heating power. When the upstream hot air temperature exceeds the regulation target temperature line, the power of the plasma heater is adjusted to be zero, that is, no heating.
可选地,所述调节气的气体组成可采用上游热风、外界空气、蒸汽、纯氧等或其中两种及以上气体的混合气体。Alternatively, the gas composition of the conditioning gas may be upstream hot air, outside air, steam, pure oxygen, or the like, or a mixed gas of two or more of them.
优选地,所述调节气采用外界空气,外界空气首先经过加压处理,以克服系统阻力及适应后续系统压力需求;然后预热至200~800℃,再通过等离子加热器进行快速加热升温。在低温阶段,传统的加热方式,例如余热换热、高炉煤气燃烧方式具有更好的经济性;而在高温阶段,等离子加热器具体有更好的加热效率,能够提供更高的温度。在常规的采用掺混部分冷风来拉低进入金属冶炼高炉的热风的整体温度以达到温度恒定的控制方式中,调节气体预热没有实际意义。而本发明采用掺混等离子加热的调节气来提高进入金属冶炼高炉的热风的整体温度以达到温度恒定的控制方式,因而调节气预热将会减少等离子火炬的电能消耗,结合余热的利用,经济效益更加显著。Preferably, the regulating gas adopts outside air, and the outside air is first subjected to pressure treatment to overcome the system resistance and adapt to the subsequent system pressure demand; then preheating to 200-800 ° C, and then heating rapidly by the plasma heater. In the low temperature stage, the conventional heating method, such as waste heat heat exchange and blast furnace gas combustion mode, has better economy; while in the high temperature stage, the plasma heater has better heating efficiency and can provide higher temperature. In conventional control methods in which a portion of the cold air is blended to lower the overall temperature of the hot air entering the metal smelting blast furnace to achieve a constant temperature, it is not practical to adjust the gas preheating. The invention adopts a plasma-blended heating gas to increase the overall temperature of the hot air entering the metal smelting blast furnace to achieve a constant temperature control mode, so adjusting the gas preheating will reduce the electric energy consumption of the plasma torch, combined with the utilization of waste heat, economy The benefits are even more significant.
优选地,所述调节气采用从热风输送主管上游管段的分支管路引出的上游热风,其直接通过等离子加热器进行快速加热升温。Preferably, the regulating gas adopts an upstream hot air drawn from a branch line of the upstream section of the hot air conveying main pipe, which is directly heated and heated by a plasma heater.
优选地,所述调节气的质量流量为热风输送主管内上游热风质量流量的5~30%。采用旁路输入调节气的方式调控热风温度,一方面提高了热风温度控制的精确度和实时性;另一方面减小了等离子加热器的功耗。Preferably, the mass flow rate of the conditioned gas is 5 to 30% of the upstream hot air mass flow rate in the hot air delivery main pipe. By adopting the bypass input regulating gas to regulate the hot air temperature, on the one hand, the accuracy and real-time of the hot air temperature control are improved; on the other hand, the power consumption of the plasma heater is reduced.
优选地,所述动态控制采用模糊数学协同控制技术,以进入金属冶炼高炉的热风温度恒定作为第一控制目标,以等离子加热器消耗功率最小作为第二控制目标,以进入金属冶炼高炉的热风温度提升度最大作为第三控制目标;动态控制时优先达成第一控制目标,其次达成第二控制目标,最后达到成第三控制目标。Preferably, the dynamic control adopts fuzzy mathematics cooperative control technology, and the hot air temperature entering the metal smelting blast furnace is constant as the first control target, and the plasma heater consumes the minimum power as the second control target to enter the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace. The maximum degree of lift is the third control target; the first control target is preferentially achieved during dynamic control, the second control target is reached second, and finally the third control target is reached.
优选地,所述模糊数学协同控制技术的主要控制参数之间满足如下数学关系:Preferably, the following mathematical relationships are satisfied between the main control parameters of the fuzzy mathematical cooperative control technology:
Figure PCTCN2018100980-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2018100980-appb-000001
式中:f为函数符号;P为等离子加热器的总功率;T 1、Q 1为等离子体工作气体的温度及流量;T 2、Q 2为高温热风炉的高温空气出口温度及流量;T 3、Q 3为等离子体加热后的高温调节气温度及流量;T 4、Q 4为金属冶炼高炉入口高温热风温度及流量;C 0为热风比热;式中各物理量的单位均采用SI单位制,温度为K,流量为kg/s,功率为W,比热为J·kg -1·K -1Where: f is the function symbol; P is the total power of the plasma heater; T 1 and Q 1 are the temperature and flow rate of the plasma working gas; T 2 and Q 2 are the high temperature air outlet temperature and flow rate of the high temperature hot blast stove; 3 , Q 3 is the high temperature regulating gas temperature and flow rate after plasma heating; T 4 and Q 4 are the high temperature hot air temperature and flow rate of the metal smelting blast furnace inlet; C 0 is the hot air specific heat; the unit of each physical quantity in the formula adopts the SI unit The temperature is K, the flow rate is kg/s, the power is W, and the specific heat is J·kg -1 ·K -1 .
本发明同时提供了一种基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,包括金属冶炼高炉和与其配套的高温热风炉;所述金属冶炼高炉的上部和下部分别设置有高炉煤气出口和热风输入环管;所述高温热风炉的加热通道上设置有燃气入口和尾气出口,所述高温热风炉的吸热通道上设置有常温空气入口和高温空气出口;所述高炉煤气出口与所述燃气入口之间通过高炉煤气主管相连,所述高温空气出口与所述热风输入环管之间通过热风输送主管相连;它还包括至少一路调节气加热旁管和与其配套的等离子加热器;所述调节气加热旁管的输入端与外界气源相连或者与热风输送主管上游管段引出的分支管路相连,所述调节气加热旁管的输出端与热风输送主管中下游管段相连,所述等离子加热器用于对所述调节气加热旁管输送的调节气进行快速加热升温。The invention also provides a plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device, comprising a metal smelting blast furnace and a high-temperature hot blast stove matched thereto; the upper and lower portions of the metal smelting blast furnace are respectively provided with a blast furnace gas outlet and a hot air input ring a heating inlet passage of the high-temperature hot blast stove is provided with a gas inlet and a tail gas outlet, wherein the heat absorption passage of the high-temperature hot blast stove is provided with a normal temperature air inlet and a high temperature air outlet; the blast furnace gas outlet and the gas inlet Connected by a blast furnace gas main pipe, the high-temperature air outlet and the hot air input ring pipe are connected by a hot air conveying main pipe; and further comprising at least one regulating gas heating side pipe and a plasma heater matched therewith; the regulating gas heating The input end of the bypass pipe is connected to the external air source or to the branch pipe leading from the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe, and the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe is connected to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe, and the plasma heater is used for The regulating gas heated by the bypass heating pipe is heated and heated rapidly.
优选地,所述等离子加热器具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室和外围环形气室,所述中心筒状气室与外围环形气室之间通过至少两根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路连通,每根分支输送管路上至少设置有一只等离子火炬;所述外围环形气室上设置有一个调节气输入接口,所述中心筒状气室上设置有一个气室端部接口;所述等离子加热器 通过一个调节气输入接口和一个气室端部接口连接在所述调节气加热旁管上。该方案的等离子加热器适合安装在调节气加热旁管上。Preferably, the plasma heater has a central cylindrical chamber and a peripheral annular chamber which are arranged at intervals, and the central cylindrical chamber and the peripheral annular chamber are transported by at least two branches arranged radially from the inside to the outside. The pipeline is connected, and at least one plasma torch is disposed on each branch conveying pipeline; the peripheral annular air chamber is provided with a regulating gas input interface, and the central cylindrical air chamber is provided with a gas chamber end interface; The plasma heater is coupled to the conditioned gas heating bypass via a regulated gas input port and a plenum end interface. The plasma heater of this solution is suitable for installation on a regulated gas heating bypass.
优选地,所述等离子加热器具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室和外围环形气室,所述中心筒状气室与外围环形气室之间通过至少两根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路连通,每根分支输送管路上至少设置有一只等离子火炬;所述外围环形气室上设置有一个调节气输入接口,所述中心筒状气室上设置有一对气室端部接口;所述等离子加热器通过一对气室端部接口连接在所述热风输送主管上,且位于热风输送主管与调节气加热旁管结合处,所述调节气输入接口则与调节气加热旁管的输出端相连。该方案的等离子加热器适合安装在热风输送主管上。Preferably, the plasma heater has a central cylindrical chamber and a peripheral annular chamber which are arranged at intervals, and the central cylindrical chamber and the peripheral annular chamber are transported by at least two branches arranged radially from the inside to the outside. The pipeline is connected, and at least one plasma torch is disposed on each branch conveying pipeline; the peripheral annular air chamber is provided with a regulating gas input interface, and the central cylindrical air chamber is provided with a pair of air chamber end interfaces; The plasma heater is connected to the hot air conveying main pipe through a pair of air chamber end interfaces, and is located at a joint of the hot air conveying main pipe and the regulating gas heating side pipe, and the regulating gas input port is connected with the output of the regulating gas heating side pipe. Connected to the end. The plasma heater of this solution is suitable for installation on a hot air delivery main.
优选地,以上两种方案中,分支输送管路与中心筒状气室之间的夹角为锐角,采用顺气流方式安装,以降低调节气的输入阻力。等离子火炬也可以采用顺气流方式安装,使离子火炬的工作气体流向与调节气的流向相同或夹角为锐角。Preferably, in the above two solutions, the angle between the branch conveying pipeline and the central cylindrical air chamber is an acute angle, and is installed in a forward flow manner to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas. The plasma torch can also be installed in a forward flow manner, so that the working gas flow direction of the ion torch is the same as the flow direction of the regulating gas or the angle is an acute angle.
优选地,所述调节气加热旁管的输入端设置有加压风机,所述加压风机与等离子加热器之间的调节气加热旁管上设置有预热装置。Preferably, the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe is provided with a pressure fan, and the regulating gas heating bypass pipe between the pressure fan and the plasma heater is provided with a preheating device.
本发明的有益效果如下:The beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows:
1)本发明采用增设调节气加热旁管和等离子加热器,利用等离子加热温度高,并且能够通过电流调节控制快速实现负荷调节的特点,引入一路温度流量可控的调节气,实时调整热风温度,当原始热风温度处于较低温度时,提高等离子加热器输入的热量;当原始热风温度处于较高温度时,降低等离子加热器输入的热量(必要时停止等离子加热),通过这种方式,使得金属冶炼高炉入炉热风温度的波动幅度大幅降低,并使整体温度得到提升。1) The invention adopts an additional regulating gas heating bypass pipe and a plasma heater, utilizes plasma heating temperature high, and can quickly realize load regulation through current regulation control, introduces a control gas with controllable temperature flow, and adjusts hot air temperature in real time. When the original hot air temperature is at a lower temperature, the heat input by the plasma heater is increased; when the original hot air temperature is at a higher temperature, the heat input by the plasma heater is lowered (if necessary, the plasma heating is stopped), thereby making the metal The fluctuation of the hot air temperature in the smelting blast furnace is greatly reduced, and the overall temperature is improved.
2)不同于常规掺混部分冷风来拉低进入金属冶炼高炉的热风的整体温度以达到温度恒定的控制方式,本发明采用掺混等离子加热的部分高温调节气来提高进入高炉的热风的整体温度以达到温度恒定的控制方式,不会拉低入炉热风的整体温度,相对于掺混冷风的温度调控方式,可提高金属冶炼高炉入炉热风平均温度,结合余热的利用,经济效益更加显著。2) Different from the conventional blending part of the cold air to lower the overall temperature of the hot air entering the metal smelting blast furnace to achieve a constant temperature control mode, the present invention uses a part of the high temperature regulating gas heated by the plasma to increase the overall temperature of the hot air entering the blast furnace. In order to achieve a constant temperature control mode, the overall temperature of the hot air entering the furnace is not lowered, and the average temperature of the hot air entering the furnace of the metal smelting blast furnace can be improved compared with the temperature regulation mode of the mixed cold air, and the utilization of waste heat is utilized, and the economic benefit is more remarkable.
3)高于1000℃温度范围的加热方式中,等离子火炬加热空气效率最高,能耗最低,系统简单,运行平稳。3) In the heating mode above 1000 °C, the plasma torch has the highest air efficiency, lowest energy consumption, simple system and stable operation.
4)热风温度的提高及稳定控制,能极大提高金属冶炼高炉喷吹煤粉比例,提高高炉生产效率,减少焦比,减少碳排放,使得总体经济性能良好。4) The improvement of hot air temperature and stable control can greatly improve the proportion of pulverized coal injected into the smelting blast furnace, improve the blast furnace production efficiency, reduce the coke ratio, reduce carbon emissions, and make the overall economic performance good.
5)该高炉热风系统温度调控设备简单可靠,投资小,对现有高炉热风系统的改造工程小,具有较好的投资前景。5) The temperature control equipment of the blast furnace hot air system is simple and reliable, and the investment is small. The renovation project of the existing blast furnace hot air system is small and has a good investment prospect.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为实施例1中高炉热风系统温度调控设备的工艺示意图。1 is a schematic view showing the process of the temperature control device of the blast furnace hot air system in the first embodiment.
图2、图3分别为图1中等离子加热器的主视结构示意图和左视结构示意图;图2中,对中心筒状气室进行了局部剖;图3中,未画出中心筒状气室的连接法兰。2 and 3 are respectively a schematic view of the front view of the medium ion heater of FIG. 1 and a schematic view of the left side view; in FIG. 2, the central cylindrical gas chamber is partially cut; in FIG. 3, the central cylindrical gas is not shown. The connecting flange of the chamber.
图4为实施例2中高炉热风系统温度调控设备的工艺示意图。4 is a schematic view showing the process of the temperature control device of the blast furnace hot air system in Embodiment 2.
图5、图6分别为图4中等离子加热器的主视结构示意图和左视结构示意图;图5中,对中心筒状气室进行了局部剖;图6中,未画出中心筒状气室的连接法兰。5 and FIG. 6 are respectively a front view and a left side view of the medium ion heater of FIG. 4; in FIG. 5, a partial cut of the central cylindrical gas chamber; in FIG. 6, the central cylindrical gas is not shown. The connecting flange of the chamber.
图7为本发明与掺混冷空气方式的效果对比图。Figure 7 is a comparison of the effects of the present invention and the method of mixing cold air.
其中:金属冶炼高炉1、高炉煤气出口1.1、热风输入环管1.2、高温热风炉2、燃气入口2.1、高温空气出口2.2、常温空气入口2.3、尾气出口2.4、高炉煤气主管3、热风输送主管4、分支管路4.1、调节气加热旁管5、加压风机6、等离子加热器7、中心筒状气室7.1、外围环形气室7.2、分支输送管路7.3、等离子火炬7.4、调节气输入接口7.5、气室端部接口7.6、连接法兰7.7、盲板7.8、预热装置8、烟囱9Among them: metal smelting blast furnace 1, blast furnace gas outlet 1.1, hot air input loop 1.2, high temperature hot blast stove 2, gas inlet 2.1, high temperature air outlet 2.2, normal temperature air inlet 2.3, exhaust gas outlet 2.4, blast furnace gas main 3, hot air transport supervisor 4 , branch pipe 4.1, regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, pressure fan 6, plasma heater 7, central cylindrical air chamber 7.1, peripheral annular air chamber 7.2, branch conveying line 7.3, plasma torch 7.4, regulating gas input interface 7.5, air chamber end interface 7.6, connecting flange 7.7, blind plate 7.8, preheating device 8, chimney 9
具体实施方式Detailed ways
下面结合附图和具体实施例对本发明作进一步的详细说明。The invention will be further described in detail below with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments.
如图1~6所示,本发明所设计的基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,包括金属冶炼高炉1和与其配套的高温热风炉2。金属冶炼高炉1的上部和下部分别设置有高炉煤气出口1.1和热风输入环管1.2。高温热风炉2的加热通道上设置有燃气入口2.1和尾气出口2.4,高温热风炉2的吸热通道上设置有常温空气入口2.3和高温空气出口2.2。高炉煤气出口1.1与燃气入口2.1之间通过高炉煤气主管3相连,高温空气出口2.2与热风输入环管1.2之间通过热风输送主管4相连。它还包括一路调节气加热旁管5和与其配套的等离子加热器7。调节气加热旁管5的输出端与热风输送主管4中下 游管段相连,等离子加热器7用于对调节气加热旁管5输送的调节气进行快速加热升温。As shown in FIGS. 1 to 6, the plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device designed by the present invention comprises a metal smelting blast furnace 1 and a high-temperature hot blast stove 2 matched thereto. The upper and lower portions of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 are respectively provided with a blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 and a hot air input ring pipe 1.2. The heating passage of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 is provided with a gas inlet 2.1 and an exhaust outlet 2.4. The heat absorbing passage of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 is provided with a normal temperature air inlet 2.3 and a high temperature air outlet 2.2. The blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 and the gas inlet 2.1 are connected by a blast furnace gas main pipe 3, and the high temperature air outlet 2.2 and the hot air input ring pipe 1.2 are connected by a hot air conveying main pipe 4. It also includes a regulating gas heating bypass 5 and a plasma heater 7 associated therewith. The output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is connected to the downstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4, and the plasma heater 7 is used for rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas supplied from the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5.
实施例1、2所采用的工艺系统稍有差别,以下分别进行说明。The process systems used in Examples 1 and 2 are slightly different and will be described separately below.
实施例1Example 1
如图1~3所示,在本实施例中,调节气加热旁管5的输入端设置有加压风机6,加压风机6与等离子加热器7之间的调节气加热旁管5上设置有预热装置8。等离子加热器7具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室7.1和外围环形气室7.2,中心筒状气室7.1与外围环形气室7.2之间通过四根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路7.3连通,每根分支输送管路7.3上设置有一只等离子火炬7.4。分支输送管路7.3与中心筒状气室7.1之间的夹角为锐角,以降低调节气的输入阻力。外围环形气室7.2上设置有一个调节气输入接口7.5,中心筒状气室7.1的两端设置有一对连接法兰7.7,其中一端的连接法兰7.7作为气室端部接口7.6,另一端的连接法兰通过盲板7.8密封。等离子加热器7通过一个调节气输入接口7.5和一个气室端部接口7.6连接在调节气加热旁管5上。As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, in the present embodiment, the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is provided with a pressurizing fan 6, and the regulating gas heating side pipe 5 between the pressurizing fan 6 and the plasma heater 7 is disposed. There is a preheating device 8. The plasma heater 7 has a central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and a peripheral annular plenum 7.2 arranged at intervals, and between the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, four branch conveying lines are arranged radially from the inside to the outside. Connected, a plasma torch 7.4 is disposed on each branch delivery line 7.3. The angle between the branch conveying line 7.3 and the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 is an acute angle to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas. A peripheral air chamber 7.2 is provided with a regulating gas input port 7.5. Both ends of the central cylindrical gas chamber 7.1 are provided with a pair of connecting flanges 7.7, wherein one end of the connecting flange 7.7 serves as a gas chamber end port 7.6, and the other end The connecting flange is sealed by a blind plate 7.8. The plasma heater 7 is connected to the conditioned gas heating bypass 5 via a regulating gas input port 7.5 and a plenum end port 7.6.
实施例2Example 2
如图4~6所示,在另一实施例中,调节气加热旁管5的输入端与热风输送主管4上游管段引出的分支管路4.1相连;引入上游管段的原始热风作为调节气,充分利用原始热风中的热量,降低等离子加热器7的功耗。等离子加热器7具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室7.1和外围环形气室7.2,中心筒状气室7.1与外围环形气室7.2之间通过四根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路7.3连通,每根分支输送管路7.3上设置有一只等离子火炬7.4。分支输送管路7.3与中心筒状气室7.1之间的夹角为锐角,以降低调节气的输入阻力。外围环形气室7.2上设置有一个调节气输入接口7.5,中心筒状气室7.1的两端设置有一对连接法兰7.7,作为气室端部接口7.6。等离子加热器7通过一对气室端部接口7.6连接在热风输送主管4上,且位于热风输送主管4与调节气加热旁管5结合处,调节气输入接口7.5则与调节气加热旁管5的输出端相连。As shown in FIGS. 4-6, in another embodiment, the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5 is connected to the branch pipe 4.1 led from the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4; the original hot air introduced into the upstream pipe section is used as the regulating gas, fully The power consumption of the plasma heater 7 is reduced by the heat in the original hot air. The plasma heater 7 has a central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and a peripheral annular plenum 7.2 arranged at intervals, and between the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 and the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, four branch conveying lines are arranged radially from the inside to the outside. Connected, a plasma torch 7.4 is disposed on each branch delivery line 7.3. The angle between the branch conveying line 7.3 and the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 is an acute angle to reduce the input resistance of the regulating gas. A regulating gas input port 7.5 is disposed on the peripheral annular plenum 7.2, and a pair of connecting flanges 7.7 are disposed at both ends of the central cylindrical plenum 7.1 as a gas chamber end port 7.6. The plasma heater 7 is connected to the hot air conveying main pipe 4 through a pair of air chamber end ports 7.6, and is located at the junction of the hot air conveying main pipe 4 and the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, and the regulating gas input port 7.5 and the regulating gas heating side pipe 5 The outputs are connected.
以上两实施例中,等离子加热器7的结构区别为:实施例2的中心筒状气室7.1两端均设置为开口;而实施例1的中心筒状气室7.1的一端设置为开口,另一端通过盲板7.8进行密封。In the above two embodiments, the structure of the plasma heater 7 is different: the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 of the embodiment 2 is provided with an opening at both ends; and one end of the central cylindrical chamber 7.1 of the embodiment 1 is provided as an opening, and One end is sealed by a blind plate 7.8.
等离子加热器7内部还可布置多处强化调节气与等离子炬高温工作气体换热混合 的折流或者点坑结构的构件,其中折流构件选用耐高温的耐火保温砖堆砌而成。The plasma heater 7 can also be arranged with a plurality of baffle or pit structure components for enhancing the heat exchange and mixing of the plasma and the high temperature working gas of the plasma torch, wherein the baffle member is made of high temperature resistant refractory insulation bricks.
以下提供了采用上述温度调控设备进行高炉热风系统温度调控的方法。The following provides a method for temperature regulation of a blast furnace hot air system using the above temperature control device.
以炼铁为例,现有的金属冶炼高炉1的冶炼基本流程为:铁矿石、焦炭等炼铁原料送入至金属冶炼高炉1中,从金属冶炼高炉1的炉体下部热风输入环管1.2高速鼓入约1000℃以上的高温热风,高温热风与焦炭进行燃烧及化学转化作用下,铁矿石被还原性气体还原生产铁水,铁水从底部流出,而高炉煤气从金属冶炼高炉1的炉顶高炉煤气出口1.1引出,随后通过高炉煤气主管3、燃气入口2.1进入高温热风炉2燃烧,通过蓄热换热的方式加热从常温空气入口2.3进入高温热风炉2的外供冷空气,冷空气被加热至1000℃以上经尾气出口2.4、热风输送主管4送入热风输入环管1.2,高炉煤气燃烧后的尾气从尾气出口2.4进入烟囱9外排。Taking ironmaking as an example, the basic smelting process of the existing metal smelting blast furnace 1 is: iron ore, coke and other ironmaking raw materials are sent to the metal smelting blast furnace 1, and the hot air input ring pipe from the lower part of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 1.2 High-speed blasting of high-temperature hot air above 1000 °C, high-temperature hot air and coke burning and chemical conversion, iron ore is reduced by reducing gas to produce molten iron, molten iron flows out from the bottom, and blast furnace gas is smelted from the furnace of metal blast furnace 1 The top blast furnace gas outlet 1.1 is taken out, and then enters the high-temperature hot blast stove 2 through the blast furnace gas main pipe 3, the gas inlet 2.1, and heats the heat from the normal temperature air inlet 2.3 into the high-temperature hot blast stove 2 to supply the cold air, cold air. It is heated to above 1000 °C through the exhaust gas outlet 2.4, and the hot air conveying main pipe 4 is sent to the hot air input ring pipe 1.2, and the exhaust gas after the combustion of the blast furnace gas enters the outer row of the chimney 9 from the exhaust gas outlet 2.4.
由于高温热风炉2采用蓄热式或者陶瓷换热器等,高温热风炉2产生的高温热风会因为换热工艺与传热过程带来温度的大幅波动,不利于高炉入炉温度的稳定和提高。为解决该问题,本发明应用实施例1、2中提供的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,按照如下步骤进行高炉热风系统的温度调控:Since the high temperature hot blast stove 2 uses a regenerative heat or ceramic heat exchanger, the high temperature hot air generated by the high temperature hot blast stove 2 may cause large temperature fluctuations due to the heat exchange process and the heat transfer process, which is disadvantageous to the stability and improvement of the blast furnace temperature. . In order to solve the problem, the present invention applies the blast furnace hot air system temperature control device provided in Embodiments 1 and 2, and performs temperature regulation of the blast furnace hot air system according to the following steps:
1)从调节气加热旁管5的输入端引入调节气,通过等离子加热器7对调节气进行快速加热升温,等离子加热器7采用等离子火炬7.4产生的高温(约5500℃以上)工作气体来加热调节气。1) Introducing the regulating gas from the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, and rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas by the plasma heater 7, and the plasma heater 7 is heated by the high temperature (about 5500 ° C or more) working gas generated by the plasma torch 7.4. Regulate the gas.
等离子加热器7的总功率依据热风调节负荷来设置,采用4个Marc-11等离子火炬,单台等离子火炬的最大功率为2.4MW,最小功率0.8MW,等离子工作气体流量约500kg/hr。The total power of the plasma heater 7 is set according to the hot air conditioning load. Four Marc-11 plasma torches are used. The maximum power of a single plasma torch is 2.4 MW, the minimum power is 0.8 MW, and the plasma working gas flow rate is about 500 kg/hr.
对于实施例1,调节气采用外界空气,外界空气首先经过加压风机6加压处理至保证调节气能够顺利输送到高炉煤气主管3的压力,然后通过预热装置8预热至约500℃,再通过等离子加热器7进行快速加热升温。For the first embodiment, the regulating air is made of outside air, and the outside air is first pressurized by the pressurizing fan 6 to ensure that the regulating gas can be smoothly delivered to the pressure of the blast furnace gas main pipe 3, and then preheated to about 500 ° C by the preheating device 8 . The plasma heater 7 is then used for rapid heating and temperature rise.
对于实施例2,调节气采用从热风输送主管4上游管段的分支管路4.1引出的上游热风,其直接通过等离子加热器7进行快速加热升温。For the embodiment 2, the regulating gas adopts the upstream hot air drawn from the branch line 4.1 of the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe 4, and is directly heated by the plasma heater 7 for rapid heating.
2)将所得高温调节气从调节气加热旁管5的输出端引出,送到热风输送主管4的中下游管段内,使其与热风输送主管4内温度随时间波动较大的上游热风混合。2) The obtained high-temperature regulating gas is taken out from the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe 5, and sent to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe 4 to be mixed with the upstream hot air whose temperature in the hot air conveying main pipe 4 fluctuates greatly with time.
3)通过动态控制等离子加热器7的加热功率和/或动态控制调节气加热旁管5内调 节气的流量,提高金属冶炼高炉1的入炉热风温度,同时降低入炉热风温度随时间的波动幅度。3) by dynamically controlling the heating power of the plasma heater 7 and/or dynamically controlling the flow rate of the regulating gas in the gas heating bypass pipe 5, increasing the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 while reducing the fluctuation of the hot air temperature of the furnace into time. Amplitude.
所述动态控制采用模糊数学协同控制技术,以进入金属冶炼高炉1的热风温度恒定作为第一控制目标,以等离子加热器7消耗功率最小作为第二控制目标,以进入金属冶炼高炉1的热风温度提升度最大作为第三控制目标。动态控制时优先达成第一控制目标,其次达成第二控制目标,最后达到成第三控制目标。其主要控制参数之间满足如下数学关系:The dynamic control adopts fuzzy mathematics cooperative control technology, and the hot air temperature entering the metal smelting blast furnace 1 is constant as the first control target, and the plasma heater 7 consumes the minimum power as the second control target to enter the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 The maximum degree of lift is the third control target. In the dynamic control, the first control target is preferentially achieved, the second control target is reached secondly, and finally the third control target is reached. The following mathematical relationships are satisfied between the main control parameters:
Figure PCTCN2018100980-appb-000002
Figure PCTCN2018100980-appb-000002
式中:f为函数符号;P为等离子加热器7的总功率;T 1、Q 1为等离子体工作气体的温度及流量;T 2、Q 2为高温热风炉2的高温空气出口温度及流量;T 3、Q 3为等离子体加热后的高温调节气温度及流量;T 4、Q 4为金属冶炼高炉1入口高温热风温度及流量;C 0为热风比热。式中各物理量的单位均采用SI单位制。 Where f is the function symbol; P is the total power of the plasma heater 7; T 1 and Q 1 are the temperature and flow rate of the plasma working gas; T 2 and Q 2 are the high temperature air outlet temperature and flow rate of the high temperature hot blast stove 2 T 3 and Q 3 are the high temperature regulating gas temperature and flow rate after plasma heating; T 4 and Q 4 are the high temperature hot air temperature and flow rate of the metal smelting blast furnace 1 inlet; C 0 is the hot air specific heat. The units of each physical quantity in the formula are in SI units.
在实际控制过程中,也会依据实际流量、压力或压差等检测更加可靠或精确的测量值参与模糊控制的过程,这仅是控制变量形式的变化,其主要控制原理不会存在本质改变。In the actual control process, more reliable or accurate measured values are also involved in the process of fuzzy control based on actual flow, pressure or differential pressure. This is only a change in the form of control variables, and the main control principle does not have an essential change.
通过以上步骤,获得温度波动范围在经济合理范围的高温热风,送入金属冶炼高炉1供炼铁工艺使用。Through the above steps, high-temperature hot air with a temperature fluctuation range in an economically reasonable range is obtained, and is sent to the metal smelting blast furnace 1 for use in the iron making process.
如图7所示,调控前金属冶炼高炉的热风入炉温度为1000~1200℃,平均温度为1100℃;调控后平均温度提高到1200℃;而掺混冷风方式获得的平均温度为1070℃。显然,本发明方案的温度波动更小,并且实现热风温度的提高。As shown in Fig. 7, the hot air inlet temperature of the pre-regulating metal smelting blast furnace is 1000-1200 ° C, the average temperature is 1100 ° C; the average temperature after the control is increased to 1200 ° C; and the average temperature obtained by blending the cold air method is 1070 ° C. Obviously, the temperature fluctuation of the solution of the present invention is smaller, and the improvement of the hot air temperature is achieved.
从金属冶炼高炉1生产多年的总结经验来看,每提高风温55.5℃,可降低焦比12.5公斤/吨铁,提高生产效率约2.5%,同时热风温度提高也提高了金属冶炼高炉1喷烧煤粉的比例,减少金属冶炼高炉1内部焦炭消耗,因而实现降低炼铁焦比数。相对于现有的掺冷风调控方式,在实施例1、2中,金属冶炼高炉的入炉热风温度提高了130℃,减少了焦炭比40公斤/吨铁,减少二氧化碳排放2%~6%,从总体而言能极大提高炼铁系统的操作稳定性和经济效益。From the experience of years of metal smelting blast furnace 1 production, each increase in wind temperature of 55.5 ° C can reduce the coke ratio of 12.5 kg / ton of iron, improve production efficiency of about 2.5%, while the hot air temperature increase also improves the metal smelting blast furnace 1 burner The proportion of pulverized coal reduces the internal coke consumption of the metal smelting blast furnace 1, thereby achieving a reduction in the ironmaking coke ratio. Compared with the existing method of mixing cold air, in the first and second embodiments, the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace is increased by 130 ° C, the coke ratio is reduced by 40 kg / ton of iron, and the carbon dioxide emission is reduced by 2% to 6%. Overall, it can greatly improve the operational stability and economic benefits of the ironmaking system.

Claims (9)

  1. 一种基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,所述高炉热风系统包括金属冶炼高炉(1)、高温热风炉(2)、以及连接在二者之间的热风输送主管(4),其特征在于:A plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control method, the blast furnace hot air system comprises a metal smelting blast furnace (1), a high temperature hot blast stove (2), and a hot air conveying main pipe (4) connected therebetween, Features are:
    该方法是在热风输送主管(4)的中下游管段设置至少一路调节气加热旁管(5)、以及用于对调节气加热旁管(5)输送的调节气进行快速加热升温的等离子加热器(7),并包括以下步骤:The method is to set at least one regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) in the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe (4), and a plasma heater for rapidly heating and heating the regulating gas sent by the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5). (7) and includes the following steps:
    1)从调节气加热旁管(5)的输入端引入调节气,并从调节气加热旁管(5)的输出端引出,送到热风输送主管(4)的中下游管段内,使其与热风输送主管(4)内温度随时间波动较大的上游热风混合;1) Introducing the regulating gas from the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5), and withdrawing it from the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5), and sending it to the middle and downstream pipe sections of the hot air conveying main pipe (4) to make it The hot air conveying main pipe (4) is mixed with the upstream hot air whose temperature fluctuates greatly with time;
    2)等离子加热器(7)按需对调节气进行快速加热升温,通过动态控制等离子加热器(7)的加热功率和/或动态控制调节气加热旁管(5)内调节气的流量,降低金属冶炼高炉(1)的入炉热风温度随时间的波动幅度。2) The plasma heater (7) rapidly heats the regulating gas as needed, and dynamically controls the heating power of the plasma heater (7) and/or dynamically controls the flow rate of the regulating gas in the gas heating bypass pipe (5) to reduce The fluctuation of the hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace (1) with time.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,其特征在于:所述调节气采用外界空气,外界空气首先经过加压处理,然后预热至200~800℃,再通过等离子加热器(7)进行快速加热升温。The method for regulating temperature of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating according to claim 1, wherein the regulating gas is external air, and the outside air is first subjected to pressure treatment, and then preheated to 200 to 800 ° C, and then passed through plasma. The heater (7) is heated for rapid heating.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,其特征在于:所述调节气采用从热风输送主管(4)上游管段的分支管路(4.1)引出的上游热风,其直接通过等离子加热器(7)进行快速加热升温。The method for regulating temperature of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating according to claim 1, wherein the regulating gas adopts an upstream hot air drawn from a branch line (4.1) of the upstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe (4), which is directly The temperature is raised by rapid heating by the plasma heater (7).
  4. 根据权利要求1所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,其特征在于:所述调节气的质量流量为热风输送主管(4)内上游热风质量流量的5~30%。The plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control method according to claim 1, wherein the mass flow rate of the regulating gas is 5 to 30% of the upstream hot air mass flow rate in the hot air conveying main pipe (4).
  5. 根据权利要求1~4中任一项所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控方法,其特征在于:所述动态控制采用模糊数学协同控制技术,以进入金属冶炼高炉(1)的热风温度恒定作为第一控制目标,以等离子加热器(7)消耗功率最小作为第二控制目标,以进入金属冶炼高炉(1)的热风温度提升度最大作为第三控制目标;动态控制时优先达成第一控制目标,其次达成第二控制目标,最后达到成第三控制目标。The method for controlling temperature of a blast furnace hot air system based on plasma heating according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the dynamic control adopts fuzzy mathematics cooperative control technology to enter a hot air temperature of the metal smelting blast furnace (1) Constantly as the first control target, the plasma heater (7) consumes the least power as the second control target, and enters the metal smelting blast furnace (1) to maximize the hot air temperature rise as the third control target; Control the target, secondly achieve the second control goal, and finally reach the third control target.
  6. 一种基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,包括金属冶炼高炉(1)和与其配套的高温热风炉(2);所述金属冶炼高炉(1)的上部和下部分别设置有高炉 煤气出口(1.1)和热风输入环管(1.2);所述高温热风炉(2)的加热通道上设置有燃气入口(2.1)和尾气出口(2.4),所述高温热风炉(2)的吸热通道上设置有常温空气入口(2.3)和高温空气出口(2.2);所述高炉煤气出口(1.1)与所述燃气入口(2.1)之间通过高炉煤气主管(3)相连,所述高温空气出口(2.2)与所述热风输入环管(1.2)之间通过热风输送主管(4)相连,其特征在于:A plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device comprises a metal smelting blast furnace (1) and a high-temperature hot blast stove (2) matched thereto; the upper and lower portions of the metal smelting blast furnace (1) are respectively provided with a blast furnace gas outlet (1.1) and a hot air input ring pipe (1.2); the heating passage of the high temperature hot air furnace (2) is provided with a gas inlet (2.1) and an exhaust gas outlet (2.4), and the heat absorption passage of the high temperature hot air furnace (2) A normal temperature air inlet (2.3) and a high temperature air outlet (2.2) are disposed thereon; the blast furnace gas outlet (1.1) and the gas inlet (2.1) are connected by a blast furnace gas main pipe (3), and the high temperature air outlet ( 2.2) is connected to the hot air input ring pipe (1.2) through a hot air conveying main pipe (4), and is characterized in that:
    它还包括至少一路调节气加热旁管(5)和与其配套的等离子加热器(7);所述调节气加热旁管(5)的输入端与外界气源相连或者与热风输送主管(4)上游管段引出的分支管路(4.1)相连,所述调节气加热旁管(5)的输出端与热风输送主管(4)中下游管段相连,所述等离子加热器(7)用于对所述调节气加热旁管(5)输送的调节气进行快速加热升温。It further comprises at least one regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) and a plasma heater (7) associated therewith; the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) is connected to an external gas source or to a hot air conveying main pipe (4) a branch line (4.1) leading from the upstream pipe section is connected, an output end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) is connected to a downstream pipe section of the hot air conveying main pipe (4), and the plasma heater (7) is used for the Adjust the gas supplied by the gas heating bypass pipe (5) for rapid heating and temperature rise.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,其特征在于:所述等离子加热器(7)具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室(7.1)和外围环形气室(7.2),所述中心筒状气室(7.1)与外围环形气室(7.2)之间通过至少两根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路(7.3)连通,每根分支输送管路(7.3)上至少设置有一只等离子火炬(7.4);所述外围环形气室(7.2)上设置有一个调节气输入接口(7.5),所述中心筒状气室(7.1)上设置有一个气室端部接口(7.6);所述等离子加热器(7)通过一个调节气输入接口(7.5)和一个气室端部接口(7.6)连接在所述调节气加热旁管(5)上。A plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said plasma heater (7) has a central cylindrical chamber (7.1) and a peripheral annular chamber (7.2) arranged at intervals The central cylindrical air chamber (7.1) and the peripheral annular air chamber (7.2) are connected by at least two branch conveying lines (7.3) radially arranged from the inside to the outside, and each branch conveying line (7.3) At least one plasma torch (7.4) is disposed on the outer annular chamber (7.2), and a regulating gas input port (7.5) is disposed on the central cylindrical chamber (7.1). Interface (7.6); the plasma heater (7) is connected to the regulated gas heating bypass (5) via a regulating gas input port (7.5) and a plenum end port (7.6).
  8. 根据权利要求6所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,其特征在于:所述等离子加热器(7)具有间隔布置的中心筒状气室(7.1)和外围环形气室(7.2),所述中心筒状气室(7.1)与外围环形气室(7.2)之间通过至少两根由内向外呈辐射状布置的分支输送管路(7.3)连通,每根分支输送管路(7.3)上至少设置有一只等离子火炬(7.4);所述外围环形气室(7.2)上设置有一个调节气输入接口(7.5),所述中心筒状气室(7.1)上设置有一对气室端部接口(7.6);所述等离子加热器(7)通过一对气室端部接口(7.6)连接在所述热风输送主管(4)上,且位于热风输送主管(4)与调节气加热旁管(5)结合处,所述调节气输入接口(7.5)则与调节气加热旁管(5)的输出端相连。A plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said plasma heater (7) has a central cylindrical chamber (7.1) and a peripheral annular chamber (7.2) arranged at intervals The central cylindrical air chamber (7.1) and the peripheral annular air chamber (7.2) are connected by at least two branch conveying lines (7.3) radially arranged from the inside to the outside, and each branch conveying line (7.3) At least one plasma torch (7.4) is disposed on the outer annular chamber (7.2); a regulating gas input port (7.5) is disposed on the peripheral annular gas chamber (7.2), and a pair of gas chamber ends are disposed on the central cylindrical gas chamber (7.1) Interface (7.6); the plasma heater (7) is connected to the hot air delivery main pipe (4) through a pair of air chamber end interfaces (7.6), and is located at the hot air conveying main pipe (4) and the regulating gas heating side pipe (5) At the junction, the regulating gas input port (7.5) is connected to the output end of the regulating gas heating bypass (5).
  9. 根据权利要求7或8所述基于等离子体加热的高炉热风系统温度调控设备,其 特征在于:所述调节气加热旁管(5)的输入端设置有加压风机(6),所述加压风机(6)与等离子加热器(7)之间的调节气加热旁管(5)上设置有预热装置(8)。The plasma heating-based blast furnace hot air system temperature control device according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the input end of the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) is provided with a pressurizing fan (6), and the pressurizing A preheating device (8) is disposed on the regulating gas heating bypass pipe (5) between the fan (6) and the plasma heater (7).
PCT/CN2018/100980 2017-08-29 2018-08-17 Plasma heating-based temperature regulation method and device for blast furnace hot air system WO2019042155A1 (en)

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