WO2018226930A1 - Targeted expansion fluorescent in situ sequencing - Google Patents

Targeted expansion fluorescent in situ sequencing Download PDF

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WO2018226930A1
WO2018226930A1 PCT/US2018/036415 US2018036415W WO2018226930A1 WO 2018226930 A1 WO2018226930 A1 WO 2018226930A1 US 2018036415 W US2018036415 W US 2018036415W WO 2018226930 A1 WO2018226930 A1 WO 2018226930A1
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tissue sample
complementary
rna
method
nucleic acid
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PCT/US2018/036415
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French (fr)
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Richie KOHMAN
George M. Church
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President And Fellows Of Harvard College
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Publication of WO2018226930A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018226930A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions
    • C12Q1/68Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions involving nucleic acids
    • C12Q1/6813Hybridisation assays
    • C12Q1/6841In situ hybridisation

Abstract

A method performs expansion fluorescent in situ sequencing (ExSEQ) against a specific one or more target nucleic acids of interest. The method takes advantage of the isotropic expansion of swellable polymer matrices. Such swelling can be used to enlarge an actual tissue sample. The enlargement of the sample virtually increases the magnification power of microscopy tools used to analyze them.

Description

Targeted Expansion Fluorescent In Situ Sequencing

RELATED APPLICATION DATA

[01] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/516,327 filed on June 7, 2017, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTERESTS

[02] This invention was made with government support under D16PC0008 awarded by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[03] This invention is related to the areas of histology, immunohistochemistry, hydrogel chemistry, is situ hybridization, tissue clearing, expansion microscopy, cryosectioning, and fluorescent in situ sequencing.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[04] Fluorescent In Situ Sequencing (FISSEQ) is a powerful technique that allows the sequence of a nucleic acid to be determined while maintaining its location within a biological sample. FISSEQ has been performed in a variety of cell and tissue types and can simultaneously probe many sequences in parallel. FISSEQ workflow involves sample fixation followed by the amplification of the nucleic acid(s) of interest. Rolling circle amplification is commonly used to create a dense nanoball of DNA, called a rolony. Next-generation sequencing is then performed on the rolonies. In instances where the rolony density is high, resolving the identity and location can be difficult and new methods are needed to de-crowd the signals.

[05] Expansion Microscopy (ExM) is a technique which embeds a biological sample into a swellable polymer matrix which can physically enlarge the specimen. Physical expansion creates a virtual increase in magnification and allows super resolution imaging to be accomplished on diffraction -limited microscopes. By combining FISSEQ with ExM, one can obtain the location and sequence of nucleic acids of interest at high resolution (ExSEQ).

[06] There is a continuing need in the art to improve techniques for analyzing nucleic acids.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[07] According to one aspect of the invention a method of preparing a tissue sample for microscopy is provided. A tissue sample comprising RNA is contacted with a reverse transcriptase enzyme and an activated DNA primer that is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA. The tissue sample is incubated under conditions suitable for reverse transcription, forming activated cDNA molecules. A first gelling solution is added to the tissue sample; the first gelling solution comprises reagents necessary for forming an expandable cross-linked polymer. The tissue sample is incubated under conditions suitable for polymerization of the cross-linked polymer. An expandable cross-linked polymer is formed that comprises the cDNA molecules in covalent linkage.

[08] According to another aspect of the invention a method of preparing a tissue sample for microscopy is provided. A brain tissue sample comprising RNA is contacted with a reverse transcriptase enzyme and an activated locked nucleic acid primer that is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA. The tissue sample is incubated under conditions suitable for reverse transcription, forming activated cDNA molecules. A first gelling solution is added to the brain tissue sample. The first gelling solution comprises reagents necessary for forming an expandable cross-linked polymer. The brain tissue sample is incubated under conditions suitable for polymerization of the cross-linked polymer. An expandable cross-linked polymer is formed that comprises the cDNA molecules in covalent linkage. The expandable cross-linked polymer is expanded by adding water to it, forming an expanded cross- linked polymer. A padlock probe is added to the tissue sample. The cDNA molecules are then subjected to rolling circle amplification. [09] Another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a tissue sample and a nucleic acid primer. The tissue sample is embedded in an expandable cross-linked polymer. The tissue sample comprises RNA. The nucleic acid primer is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA. The nucleic acid primer is covalently linked to the expandable cross-linked polymer.

[10] Yet another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a tissue sample and a nucleic acid primer. The tissue sample is embedded in an expanded, cross-linked polymer. The tissue sample comprises RNA. The nucleic acid primer is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA. The nucleic acid primer is covalently linked to the expanded cross-linked polymer.

[11] Still another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a tissue sample and cDNA. The cDNA is reverse transcribed from a specific subset of transcripts in the tissue sample. The tissue sample is embedded in an expandable cross-linked polymer. The cDNA is covalently linked to the expandable cross-linked polymer.

[12] A further aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a tissue sample and cDNA. The cDNA is reverse transcribed from a specific subset of transcripts in the tissue sample. The tissue sample is embedded in an expanded cross-linked polymer. The cDNA is covalently linked to the expanded cross-linked polymer.

[13] These and other aspects and embodiments which will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading the specification provide the art with sensitive tools for analyzing genomes and transcriptomes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[14] Fig. 1. Low magnification (lOx) image of Sindbis injected brain slice used for ExSEQ.

[15] Fig. 2. Low magnification (10x) images of three rounds of in situ SOLID sequencing in ~3x expanded brain tissue. Inserts show the change in color per iteration. [16] Fig. 3A-3B. Confocal z stack images of ExSEQ. The Fig. 3 A image captures cells of all four colors while only green and red cells are visible in the Fig. 3B image.

[17] Fig. 4A-4B. Maximum intensity projections from images in Fig. 3. The Fig. 4A image captures cells of all four colors while only green and red cells are visible in the Fig. 4B image. Inserts show areas where cell projections are in close proximity with each other.

DETAILED DESCRD7TION OF THE INVENTION

[18] The inventors have developed an Expansion Sequencing (ExSEQ) method which is useful for interrogating one or more specific targets of interest. The targeted ExSEQ method typically utilizes a padlock probe in Fluorescent In Situ Sequencing (FISSEQ). In this method, RNA (including but not limited to mRNA, microRNA, or long noncoding RNA) may be reverse transcribed to produce cDNA. A DNA probe (padlock probe) may then be added which can cyclize onto the region of interest on the cDNA. Ligation of this probe followed by rolling circle amplification produces amplified cDNA which can be sequenced.

[19] To incorporate a Fluorescent In Situ Sequencing workflow into an expandable polymer network for analysis in Expansion Microscopy (ExM), a reactive handle is introduced into the sample. One can introduce this handle onto the 5' end of a reverse transcription nucleic acid primer (including but not limited to a primer containing a locked nucleic acid (LNA) ribonucleotide. After reverse transcription, the sample may be infused with a polymerizable solution and gelled. The sample may be digested, expanded, mounted onto a slide, and chemically pacified to render the polymer matrix inert. Rolling circle amplication may be applied to the cDNA, producing "rolonies" that may be sequenced at high resolution. The order of steps may vary, as may the actual types of nucleic acid polymerization, transcription, and gel polymerization used.

[20] Activated primers for use in reverse transcription are functionalized so that they can be incorporated into a polymer matrix. Chemical modifications which are suitable for activating primers include, but are not limited to, polymerizable handles, electrophile handles, nucleophile handles, and other reactive handles. Polymerizable handles include, but are not limited to, methacrylate, acrylate, acrylamide, methacrylamide, radical initiating, controlled radical polymerization handles, and vinyl sulphone groups. Electrophile handles include, but are not limited to, aldehydes, ketones, maleimides, thioesters, alpha-iodo carbonyls, vinyl sulphone groups, and carboxylates. Nucleophile handles include, but are not limited to, amino and thiol groups. Other reactive handles include, but are not limited to, azido, alkynyl, strained alkene, strained alkyne, and tetrazine groups. These reactive groups permit the incorporation of the extended reverse transcription primers into expandable cross- linked polymer matrices. The incorporation may conveniently be done upon formation of the matrix. Alternatively, it can be incorporated before or after formation of the matrix, for example, by reaction with a monomer or oligomer reactant. When reverse transcription occurs, the chemical modification that was on the primer ends up on the product cDNA, because the primer is extended to form the cDNA.

[21] The primer will be complementary to a specific gene, genes, transcript, or transcripts.

The primer has a region of complementarity to one or more targets (genes or transcripts). The primer region may be complementary to between 1 and 100 targets inclusive, between 1 and 75 targets, between 1 and 50 targets, between 1 and 25 targets, between 1 and 20 targets, between 1 and 15 targets, between 1 and 10 targets, between 1 and 5 targets. The primer may be complementary to one target. The specific gene, genes, transcript, or transcripts are a specific subset of the genes or transcripts in the tissue sample. The entire genome or transcriptome is not transcribed or reverse transcribed to make a specific subset. Thus the primers that are used are not ones that are random in sequence or bind to all or essentially all genes or transcripts.

[22] A gelling solution for creating an expandable polymer matrix may be formed using any known chemistry. The expandable polymer matrix will typically be transparent, so that it does not impair observation by microscopy. The expandable polymer matrix will typically expand isotropically, so that the same 3 -dimensional relationships are maintained as before expansion. Monomers or oligomers for forming a polymer matrix may be substituted or unsubstituted methacrylates, acrylates, acrylamides, methacrylamides, vinyl alcoholos, vinalmines, allylamines, allylalcohols, etc. Polymer matrices may be formed by cross-linking of oligomers or polymers.

[23] Tissue samples may be obtained from any source. These may be from animal, plant, or bacteria. The tissue may derive from any organ or cell source in an organism. Exemplary tissues are brain, neuronal, spinal, peripheral nerve, muscle, bone marrow, heart, lung, breast, prostate, pancreas, colorectal, stomach, gall bladder, retina, skin, esophagus, ovary, uterus, testes, and fallopian tube. Tissues may be from healthy or diseased organisms or organs.

[24] Digestion of structural components of the tissue samples may be accomplished using any enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical means known in the art. Proteases may be used to digest proteins. Destruction or loosening of the structural components facilitates the swelling of the tissues upon swelling of the expandable polymer matrices.

[25] The second gelling solution is added to the tissue samples after the swelling of the first gelling solution. Alternatively, the second gelling solution is present with the first gelling solution but is not activated to form a gel until after the swelling of the first gel. The second gel is used to provide protective solidity to the tissue sample after expansion.

[26] Primers that comprise locked nucleic acids are those that comprise a ribose moiety modified with an extra bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon. This conformational restraint increases the binding affinity of complementary nucleic acids.

[27] Padlock probes contain two regions of complementarity, one at each of their ends, to two adjacent regions of a target nucleic acid. When the padlock probe hybridizes to the target, it circularizes with its two ends adjacent, but not joined. A ligation reaction closes the opening between the two ends forming a closed circle. The closed circle can be used as a template for rolling circle amplification. Rolling circle amplification may be performed as is known in the art. Typically this is accomplished with a DNA polymerase, such as Phi29 DNA polymerase.

[28] Nanoballs of DNA that are formed in situ in the expanded tissues in the gel matrices may be subjected to any type of nucleic analysis known in the art. A massively parallel sequencing technique can be used. Preferably the technique will yield fluorescent products that can be analyzed microscopically. The in situ analysis of nucleic acids can provide information on single cells, their genome and/or transcriptome.

[29] Swelling of polymer matrix may be accomplished by addition of water or other solvent. The polymer matrix absorbs the liquid and swells in an equivalent manner in each of three dimensions. The degree of swelling may be to a size that is at least two times, at least three times, at least four times, at least five times, or at least ten times the original, in each dimension. A non-swellable polymer matrix can be converted to a swellable polymer matrix by chemical treatment. This treatment would change a neutral matrix to a charged matrix and thus make it swellable. This chemical treatment can be performed at any step post-polymerization.

[30] The above disclosure generally describes the present invention. All references disclosed herein are expressly incorporated by reference. A more complete understanding can be obtained by reference to the following specific examples which are provided herein for purposes of illustration only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

[31] Protocol for tissues transferred to charged glass slides:

[32] Most steps are li sted as washes with reagents for a designated period of time

PBST = PBS + 0.5% Tween-20 [33] DAY 1

PBSTx3

pepsin 2mg/ml (0.2%) in 0.1M HC1 at room temp for 3 min for 14um slices. PBSTx2

70% ethanol 5min

85% ethanol 5min

100% ethanol 5min

100% ethanol lhr at 4C

PBSTx3

Add RT soln and incubate at 37C overnight

RT soln for 200ul

2ul acrylated LNA RT primer (100 uM)

20ul RevertAid H Minus M-MuLV RT (200 U/ul)

4ul dNTPs (25 mM)

2ul BSA (20 ug/ul)

5ul RiboLock RNase Inhibitor (40U/ul)

20ul RT buffer (lOx)

147ul H20 [34] DAY 2

PBST wash

40ul BS(PEG)9 inl60ul PBST at for 1 hour at room temperature lMTris-HCl 8.0 wash

1M Tris-HCl 8.0 for 30min at room temperature PBSTx2

Remove flow chamber

Trim tissue with a razor to isolate only the region of interest

Place scotch tape on the sides of the slide flanking the tissue

Put gelling solution onto the sides of the slice and place a cover slip on top so that the tissue is in between the slide and coverslip

Add Gelling solution and incubate for 90min at 37C Gelling solution: for 200 ul 188ul Monomer solution

4ul 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (0.5%)

4ul TEMED (10%)

4ul ammonium persulfate (10%)

Monomer solution: for 9.4 mL

2.25mL Sodium acrylate (380 mg/mL)

0.5 mL Acrylamide (500 mg/mL)

0.75 mL N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (20 mg/mL)

4 mL Sodium Chloride (292 mg/mL)

1 mL PBS (lOx)

0.9 mL Water Remove coverslip and trim excess gel with a razor blade Add gel to Digestion solution and incubate at 37C overnight

Digestion solution: for 3 mL

50 mM Tris pH 8.0

1 mM EDTA,

0.5% Triton X-100,

0.8 M guanidine HCl

Proteinase K (8 units/mL)

[35] DAY 3

Transfer gel to bind-silane treated slide Add water until gel is fully expanded

Add Re-embedding solution, place coverslip in gel, and incubate at 37C for 90 min

Re-embedding solution: for 1.8 mL

150 uL 19:1 Acrylamide: N,N-Methylenebisacrylamide (40%)

10 uL Tris base (1M)

15 uL TEMED (10%)

15 uL APS (10%)

1610 uL Water

Trim gel with razor to desired size

Place silicone gasket around gel Add Passivation solution 1 and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours Passivation solution 1 : for 200 uL 100 uL Ethanolamine HC1 (4M) 100 uL MES buffer pH 6.5 (200 mM)

EDC 6 mg NHS 3 mg

Add Passivation solution 2 and incubate at room temperature for 40 min Passivation solution 2: for 200 uL 100 uL Ethanolamine HC1 (4M)

100 uL Sodium borate buffer pH 8.5 (125 mM)

PBSx3

Add Padlock solution and incubate for 30 min at 37C and then for 45 min at 45C

Padlock solution: for 200ul

20ul Ampligase buffer (lOx)

0.2ul /5p/padlock (100 uM) lul Ampligase (lOOU/ul)

0.4ul dNTP (25mM)

16ul RNase H (5U/ul)

20ul Phusion DNA polymerase (2U/ul)

5ul RiboLock RNase Inhibitor (40U/ul)

20ul KC1 stock solution (0.5M) 8ul formamide

109.4ul H20 PBSTx2

Add RCA solution and incubate overnight at room temperature RCA solution: for 200ul

20ul phi29 polymerase (1 OU/ul)

20ul phi29 polymerase buffer (lOx)

2ul dNTPs (25 mM)

2ul BSA (20 ug/ul)

20ul glycerol (50%) lul aadUTP (4mM)

135ul H20

[36] DAY 4

PBST

40ul BS(PEG)9 inl60ul PBST at RT for lhr lMTris-HCl 8.0 wash

1M Tris-HCl 8.0 for 30min at room temperature 2xSSC, 10% formamide x3

For rolony detection - add hybridization probe at 2.5 uM in 2xSSC, 10% formamide For sequencing - add primer at 2.5 uM in 2xSSC, 10% formamide, wash, and proceed to sequencing

EXAMPLE 2

[37] Preliminary Results

[38] The protocol was validated on murine brain slices which contain neurons infected by a sindbis virus. Sindbis Infected neurons express GFP (Figure 1) and contain many copies of an RNA with a randomized sequence flanked by a constant sequence. The virus library is prepared such that each cell contains multiple copies of only one unique sequence. The ExSEQ procedure was performed on this tissue using an LNA primer for the constant sequence. Library preparation was performed followed by three iterations of SOLID sequencing by ligation. Throughout these three iterations it was observed that the rolonies within each neuron were the same color per iteration while rolonies in different neurons changed color (Figure 2). This result is consistent with each cell having multiple copies of a unique RNA sequence. For the first iteration of SOLID™ sequencing, only two colors were visible because the first two bases in the barcode are pyrimidine-pyrimidine. Higher magnification imaging was performed on a confocal microscope to get a clearer idea of rolony density and location. Figure 3 shows stills of three dimensional images showing that the rolony density is high enough to capture cell morphology. Maximum intensity projections (Figure 4) of the z stacks additionally provide enough resolution to distinguish rolonies of adjacent cells.

References

The disclosure of each reference cited is expressly incorporated herein. Boyden et al., US 2016/0305856 Al

Lee et al., "Highly multiplexed subcellular RNA sequencing in situ, " Science, 2014, 343:1360-1363

Boyden et al., US 2016/0304952

Chen et al., US 2016/0116384

Wassie et al., US 201/0067096

Claims

1. A method of preparing a tissue sample for microscopy, comprising: contacting a tissue sample comprising RNA with a reverse transcriptase enzyme and an activated DNA primer that is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA; incubating the tissue sample under conditions suitable for reverse transcription, forming activated cDNA molecules; adding a first gelling solution to the tissue sample, wherein the first gelling solution comprises reagents necessary for forming an expandable cross-linked polymer; incubating the tissue sample under conditions suitable for polymerization of the cross-linked polymer, whereby an expandable cross-linked polymer is formed that comprises the cDNA molecules in covalent linkage.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the tissue sample is a brain tissue.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is a locked nucleic acid primer.
4. The method of claim 1 further comprising adding a padlock probe to the tissue sample and conducting rolling circle amplification of the cDNA molecules.
5. The method of claim 1 further comprising digesting protein in the tissue sample.
6. The method of claim 1 further comprising swelling the expandable cross-linked
polymer by adding water to it, forming an expanded cross-linked polymer.
7. The method of claim 6 further comprising adding a second gelling solution to the expanded cross-linked polymer and subjecting the second gelling solution to conditions suitable for polymerization of the second gelling solution, thereby embedding the expanded cross-linked polymer in a non-expanded polymer.
8. The method of claim 7 further comprising passivating polymerization of the second gelling solution.
9. The method of claim 1 further comprising:
adding (a) a padlock probe which comprises a 3' and a 5' end, wherein the 3' end is complementary to a first segment of a cDNA molecule and the 5' end is complementary to a second segment of the cDNA molecule, wherein the first and second segments are adjacent to each other in the cDNA molecule; and (b) a ligase enzyme to catalyze circularization of the padlock probe by linking the 3' and the 5' ends of a padlock probe; and
incubating under conditions suitable for ligation.
10. The method of claim 1 further comprising adding a Phi29 DNA polymerase to the cDNA molecules and incubating under conditions suitable for rolling circle amplification, such that a nanoball of DNA is formed comprising a repeating polymer of a sequence that is complementary to the padlock probe.
11. The method of claim 10 further comprising subjecting the nanoball of DNA to an in situ sequencing reaction.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein the tissue sample is contacted with a plurality of activated DNA primers.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to
between 1 and 100 specific targets in the RNA.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to
between 1 and 50 specific targets in the RNA.
15. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to
between 1 and 25 specific targets in the RNA.
16. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to
between 1 and 10 specific targets in the RNA.
17. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to
between 1 and 5 specific targets in the RNA.
18. The method of claim 1 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to 1 specific target in the RNA.
19. A method of preparing a tissue sample for microscopy, comprising: contacting a brain tissue sample comprising RNA with a reverse transcriptase enzyme and an activated locked nucleic acid primer that is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA; incubating the tissue sample under conditions suitable for reverse
transcription, forming activated cDNA molecules; adding a first gelling solution to the brain tissue sample, wherein the first gelling solution comprises reagents necessary for forming an expandable cross-linked polymer; incubating the brain tissue sample under conditions suitable for
polymerization of the cross-linked polymer, whereby an expandable cross- linked polymer is formed that comprises the cDNA molecules in covalent linkage; swelling the expandable cross-linked polymer by adding water to it, forming an expanded cross-linked polymer; adding a padlock probe to the tissue sample and conducting rolling circle amplification of the cDNA molecules.
20. The method of claim 19 further comprising digesting protein in the brain tissue
sample.
21. The method of claim 19 further comprising adding a second gelling solution to the expanded cross-linked polymer and subjecting the second gelling solution to conditions suitable for polymerization of the second gelling solution, thereby embedding the expanded cross-linked polymer in a non-expanded polymer.
22. The method of claim 21 further comprising passivating polymerization of the second gelling solution.
23. The method of claim 19 wherein the padlock probe comprises a 3' and a 5' end, wherein the 3' end is complementary to a first segment of a cDNA molecule and the 5' end is complementary to a second segment of the cDNA molecule, wherein the first and second segments are adjacent to each other in the cDNA molecule; and (b) a ligase enzyme to catalyze circularization of the padlock probe; and
incubating under conditions suitable for ligation.
24. The method of claim 19 further comprising adding a Phi29 DNA polymerase to the cDNA molecules and incubating under conditions suitable for rolling circle amplification, such that a nanoball of DNA is formed comprising a repeating polymer of a sequence that is complementary to the padlock probe.
25. The method of claim 24 further comprising subjecting the nanoball of DNA to an in situ sequencing reaction.
26. The method of claim 19 wherein the brain tissue sample is contacted with a plurality of activated locked nucleic acid primers.
27. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to between 1 and 100 specific targets in the RNA.
28. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to between 1 and 50 specific targets in the RNA.
29. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to between 1 and 25 specific targets in the RNA.
30. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to between 1 and 10 specific targets in the RNA.
31. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to between 1 and 5 specific targets in the RNA.
32. The method of claim 19 wherein the activated DNA primer is complementary to 1 specific target in the RNA.
33. A composition comprising a tissue sample and a nucleic acid primer, wherein the tissue sample comprises RNA, wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA, wherein the tissue sample comprises cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from the RNA in the tissue sample using the nucleic acid primer, wherein the tissue sample is embedded in an expandable cross-linked polymer, wherein the cDNA is covalently linked to the expandable cross-linked polymer.
34. The composition of claim 33 wherein the tissue sample is a brain tissue.
35. The composition of claim 33 wherein the nucleic acid primer is a locked nucleic acid primer.
36. The composition of claim 33 which comprises a plurality of nucleic acid primers complementary to distinct targets.
37. A composition comprising a tissue sample and a nucleic acid primer, wherein the tissue sample comprises RNA, wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to one or more specific targets in the RNA, wherein the tissue sample comprises cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from the RNA in the tissue sample using the nucleic acid primer, wherein the tissue sample is embedded in an expanded cross-linked polymer, wherein the cDNA is covalently linked to the expanded cross-linked polymer.
38. The composition of claim 37 wherein the tissue sample is a brain tissue.
39. The composition of claim 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is a locked nucleic acid primer.
40. The composition of claim 37 comprising a plurality of nucleic acid primers
complementary to distinct targets.
41. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to between 1 and 100 specific targets in the RNA.
42. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to between 1 and 50 specific targets in the RNA.
43. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to between 1 and 25 specific targets in the RNA.
44. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to between 1 and 10 specific targets in the RNA.
45. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to between 1 and 5 specific targets in the RNA.
46. The composition of claim 33 or 37 wherein the nucleic acid primer is complementary to 1 specific target in the RNA.
47. A composition comprising a tissue sample and cDNA, wherein cDNA is reverse
transcribed from a specific subset of transcripts in the tissue sample, wherein the tissue sample is embedded in an expandable cross-linked polymer, wherein the cDNA is covalently linked to the expandable cross-linked polymer.
48. A composition comprising a tissue sample and cDNA, wherein cDNA is reverse
transcribed from a specific subset of transcripts in the tissue sample, wherein the tissue sample is embedded in an expanded cross-linked polymer, wherein the cDNA is covalently linked to the expanded cross-linked polymer.
49. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is between 1 and 100 transcripts.
50. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is between 1 and 50 transcripts.
51. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is between 1 and 25 transcripts.
52. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is between 1 and 10 transcripts.
53. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is between 1 and 5 transcripts.
54. The composition of claim 47 or 48 wherein the specific subset of transcripts is 1 transcripts.
PCT/US2018/036415 2017-06-07 2018-06-07 Targeted expansion fluorescent in situ sequencing WO2018226930A1 (en)

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Citations (4)

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US8551708B2 (en) * 2011-02-15 2013-10-08 Leica Biosystems Newcastle Ltd. Methods for localized in situ detection of mRNA
US20160024555A1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-01-28 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Method for Generating A Three-Dimensional Nucleic Acid Containing Matrix
US20160304952A1 (en) * 2015-04-14 2016-10-20 Massachusetts Institue Of Technology In situ nucleic acid sequencing of expanded biological samples

Patent Citations (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020115080A1 (en) * 1999-03-18 2002-08-22 Exiqon A/S, Denmark Detection of mutations in genes by specific LNA primers
US8551708B2 (en) * 2011-02-15 2013-10-08 Leica Biosystems Newcastle Ltd. Methods for localized in situ detection of mRNA
US20160024555A1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-01-28 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Method for Generating A Three-Dimensional Nucleic Acid Containing Matrix
US20160304952A1 (en) * 2015-04-14 2016-10-20 Massachusetts Institue Of Technology In situ nucleic acid sequencing of expanded biological samples

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Title
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