WO2017161630A1 - Small-region lightning monitoring and positioning method and system - Google Patents

Small-region lightning monitoring and positioning method and system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017161630A1
WO2017161630A1 PCT/CN2016/080286 CN2016080286W WO2017161630A1 WO 2017161630 A1 WO2017161630 A1 WO 2017161630A1 CN 2016080286 W CN2016080286 W CN 2016080286W WO 2017161630 A1 WO2017161630 A1 WO 2017161630A1
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lightning
sensor
data acquisition
monitoring
acquisition card
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PCT/CN2016/080286
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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梅红伟
闫石
王黎明
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清华大学深圳研究生院
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R29/00Arrangements for measuring or indicating electric quantities not covered by groups G01R19/00 - G01R27/00
    • G01R29/08Measuring electromagnetic field characteristics
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R29/00Arrangements for measuring or indicating electric quantities not covered by groups G01R19/00 - G01R27/00
    • G01R29/08Measuring electromagnetic field characteristics
    • G01R29/0807Measuring electromagnetic field characteristics characterised by the application
    • G01R29/0814Field measurements related to measuring influence on or from apparatus, components or humans, e.g. in ESD, EMI, EMC, EMP testing, measuring radiation leakage; detecting presence of micro- or radiowave emitters; dosimetry; testing shielding; measurements related to lightning
    • G01R29/0842Measurements related to lightning, e.g. measuring electric disturbances, warning systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01WMETEOROLOGY
    • G01W1/00Meteorology
    • G01W1/16Measuring atmospheric potential differences, e.g. due to electrical charges in clouds

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  • the invention relates to a small area lightning monitoring and positioning method and system.
  • Lightning positioning and lightning current parameter monitoring play an important role in lightning characteristics research and lightning protection.
  • the lightning positioning system can provide more technical information for lightning protection, meteorological research, construction and other fields.
  • lightning monitoring networks all over the world.
  • the positioning methods of lightning positioning are mainly divided into single station positioning and multi-station positioning.
  • the application is more widely used for multi-station positioning, which can greatly improve the positioning accuracy.
  • Foreign research on lightning current started earlier. Since the 1980s, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) has developed over the years.
  • NLDN National Lightning Detection Network
  • the detection rate of lightning is more than 80%, and the positioning error is less than 1km.
  • the ZEUS lightning monitoring network was established in 2001, and the lightning current positioning function was realized by the time difference method, but the positioning error was large.
  • China's lightning current monitoring system has developed rapidly in recent years. Since 1993, the power system has established a regional lightning current monitoring network in the country, which plays an important role in lightning protection of power systems.
  • the meteorological department detects lightning current. There are more than 100 stations.
  • the positioning error of the XDD03 type lightning detection system researched by the Ministry of Electronics Industry is less than 1km. Chen Jiahong et al. designed and studied the lightning direction detector.
  • a set of magnetic field signals in the plane is measured, and the original magnetic fields in different directions are obtained by amplification, filtering, integration, etc.
  • the azimuth of the lightning current and the magnitude of its magnetic field, so that the lightning current directional measurement, the direction error is less than 1 °.
  • the single station positioning method uses the magnetic field orientation technology to analyze the spectral characteristics of lightning current. It is generally only used to monitor high-intensity and long-distance lightning signals. Because of its relatively simple monitoring method, only one sensing device has large dispersion and data error. Larger, resulting in lower accuracy of the azimuth and amplitude monitoring of the monitoring.
  • the multi-station positioning method uses multiple monitoring stations to monitor the same lightning signal, integrates the measurement results of each monitoring station, and calculates and measures the lightning strike position and lightning parameters of the lightning.
  • Multi-station positioning methods are mainly divided into directional positioning method, time difference positioning method and comprehensive positioning method.
  • the directional positioning method uses the principle of triangulation to monitor the direction of the magnetic field, as shown in Figure 1. When a lightning strike occurs at point A, the azimuth angles ⁇ 1 and ⁇ 2 are measured at DF 1 and DF 2 respectively, and the lightning current position can be obtained by the triangulation principle. Since the magnetic field is far away and the direction error is large, the accuracy of the directional positioning method is low.
  • Fig. 2 The principle of time difference method is shown in Fig. 2.
  • ABC is the detection station. According to the time difference of the lightning strike signal obtained by the two detection stations AC and the distance between the two stations of the AC, a hyperbola can be obtained, and the lightning strike is located on the hyperbola. a little.
  • BC obtains another hyperbola.
  • the intersection of the two hyperbolas is P, and the other point P' is a mathematically other solution.
  • the P' point can be removed by the fourth detection station.
  • the current time measurement is performed using GPS, and the GPS accuracy generally used is less than 1 us, so the positioning accuracy in the time difference method is 1 km.
  • the time difference method is limited by time accuracy, so positioning accuracy is difficult to improve.
  • the present invention provides a small area lightning monitoring and positioning method and system to improve the accuracy of lightning location in a small range.
  • a small area lightning monitoring and positioning method includes the following steps:
  • the output voltage peaks of the three lightning current sensors are respectively detected under lightning, and the position of the lightning strike point is jointly determined according to the function relationship.
  • the lightning current sensor is an air core coil.
  • U omi represents the peak value of the output voltage of the i-th lightning sensor
  • I m represents the peak of the lightning current of the lightning current sensor
  • k is the coefficient
  • x i and y i represent the coordinates of the i-th lightning sensor
  • x and y represent the lightning strike point. coordinate of.
  • the axes of the three lightning current sensors are 120° between the two.
  • a nonlinear equation set with respect to x, y, I m can be obtained, and the least squares solution of the nonlinear equations is iteratively obtained by using the Newton-Raphson method. If x, y, I m converge, Then, it is determined that the location of the lightning is located in the measured cell, and if x, y, Im does not converge, it is determined that the location of the lightning is outside the measured cell.
  • the lightning current direction and the lightning current polarity are determined according to the voltage polarities of the three lightning current sensors.
  • the invention also provides a community lightning monitoring and positioning system, comprising: a first lightning sensor, a second lightning sensor, a third lightning sensor, a first data acquisition card, a first fiber module, a second data acquisition card, and a second fiber a module, a third data acquisition card, a third fiber optic module, and a solar power generation device,
  • the first data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the first lightning sensor
  • the second data acquisition card is configured to acquire a second lightning sensor Outputting a voltage
  • the third data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the third lightning sensor
  • the first fiber module sends data collected by the first data acquisition module to the optical fiber
  • the second optical fiber module uses the second data
  • the data collected by the acquisition card is sent to the optical fiber
  • the third optical fiber module sends the data collected by the third data acquisition card to the optical fiber, where the solar power generation device is used for the first data acquisition card, the first optical fiber module, and the first The second data acquisition card, the second optical fiber module, the third data acquisition card
  • the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor and the third lightning sensor lightning current sensor are air-core coils.
  • the axes of the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor, and the third lightning sensor intersect at the same point.
  • the axes of the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor and the third lightning sensor are 120° between the two.
  • the numerical positioning method can avoid the accuracy limitation of the direction and time measurement of the magnetic field by the orientation method and the time difference method.
  • the positioning accuracy of the method mainly depends on the measurement accuracy of the sensor amplitude, which can greatly improve the lightning current positioning accuracy and narrow the measurement range. .
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an orientation method for positioning lightning in the prior art
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a time difference method for positioning lightning in the prior art
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and positioning a mine lightning according to an embodiment of the present invention
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram of a mine lightning monitoring and positioning system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and positioning a mine lightning according to an embodiment of the present invention
  • FIG. 3 a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and locating a mine lightning monitoring according to an embodiment.
  • a self-made lightning current sensor is used to calibrate the response characteristics of the cell to obtain an output voltage and a current amplitude and a measuring distance. Relationship between three lightning currents by using different locations
  • the sensor, the three sets of measurement data obtained by the same lightning current can obtain the lightning current amplitude and plane coordinate by solving the equations.
  • the lightning current sensor can adopt an air-core coil, and the three coils are placed in the same direction at the edge of the measured area, and the axes of the air-core coils are at an angle of 120°, which ensures that the lightning current of each measurement system is high for each position. Sensitivity.
  • the coordinates of the coil A, the coil B, and the coil C are (x 1 , y 1 ), (x 2 , y 2 ), (x 3 , y 3 ), and the lightning strike point coordinates are (x, y). It is assumed that the lightning current enters the ground vertically at the lightning strike point and is the negative lightning current. The peak value of the lightning current is I m .
  • the magnetic induction intensity B generated by the lightning strike point at the coil A can be decomposed into a vertical component B 1 and a horizontal component B 2 at the coil, and the horizontal component is not parallel to the coil, and no induced voltage is generated at the coil. The output voltage is dominated by the vertical component. get:
  • the lightning current sensor is calibrated in the laboratory.
  • the relationship between the peak value U om of the output voltage and the peak value I m of the current and the distance r from the lightning current is:
  • the magnetic field generated by the current is proportional to the current intensity, so the peak value of the coil output voltage can be obtained as:
  • the output voltage peak value U om of the three coils can be measured by an oscilloscope and is a known quantity. Therefore, the nonlinear equations of x, y, and I m can be obtained.
  • the Newton-Raphson method is used to iteratively find the least squares solution to obtain the lightning current position and the lightning current amplitude.
  • the lightning current unit is kA. Bring it into the equations to get [F 1 , F 2 , F 3 ] 0 , bring in the Jacobian matrix to get J 0 , and solve the modified equation:
  • the convergence indicator is:
  • the lightning location results are classified according to the calculation results.
  • the calculation result converges, according to the initial value selection, the positioning result should be inside the monitored area, and the calculated position and amplitude result of the lightning is the final result.
  • the detected lightning is located outside the monitored area, so the lightning position can be judged according to the polarity and magnitude of the lightning current detected by the three sensors. At this time, due to the divergence of the solution result, the lightning current amplitude cannot be given.
  • the lightning position is shown in Figure 5.
  • the mid-perpendicular line of the three coils divides the monitored area into seven parts. Since the three coils need to be in the positive direction when installed (when the coil is in a magnetic field environment, the voltage generated by the coil is opposite to the direction of the magnetic field, then the direction of the coil is positive, and if the voltage generated by the coil is the same as the direction of the magnetic field, then The direction of the coil is negative (clockwise) (ie, the coil C is wound around the origin O by 120° and then coincides with the coil B, and continues to wrap around the coil A after 120°). When the lightning is located on the vertical line in the coil, the lightning current is generated.
  • the direction of the magnetic field is parallel to the coil when passing through the coil, and no magnetic flux is generated, so the coil cannot measure the lightning current.
  • the lightning strike point is at the intersection of two mid-perpendicular lines, only one coil can measure the lightning current signal, and the lightning position can also be judged accordingly.
  • the lightning current has opposite polarity on both sides of the vertical line, so the lightning current position can be judged according to the polarity of the three coils.
  • the lightning current coil is placed clockwise in the same direction, and the lightning current can be divided into positive polarity and negative polarity, so Judging the magnitude of the absolute value of the amplitude detected, the polarity of the lightning current can be judged, and the judgment basis is as shown in Table 1.
  • the brackets next to the polarity in the table indicate the absolute value of the measured value.
  • the polarity in the table refers to the polarity of the voltage
  • the negative absolute value is large, the lightning current direction is positive north, and the lightning current polarity is negative; if the negative absolute value is small, it is judged that the lightning current direction is positive south and the lightning current polarity is negative. All other cases have corresponding controls in the table.
  • the time difference method can only ensure that the positioning accuracy is on the order of 1 km.
  • the positioning method of the present invention only needs to ensure the measurement accuracy of the sensor, and does not need to be unified of the clock, so the positioning range can be greatly reduced.
  • the positioning method can be applied to small-scale localization of lightning current, and realizes a small-scale lightning warning and protection function similar to a gas station, a substation, and an oil field station.
  • the coil is an air-core coil, it is guaranteed to measure a large amplitude of lightning current. In order to ensure its sensitivity, a larger diameter and number of turns are required.
  • the air-core coil has a diameter of 60 cm, a length of 20 cm, a number of turns of 50, and is wound using a 2 x 3 mm flat copper wire. According to the actual parameter test, the lower limit cutoff frequency of the coil is 112 Hz, and the upper limit cutoff frequency is several tens of MHz, which can cover the frequency range of the lightning current.
  • the coil is made of epoxy resin as a skeleton, and a subway shell is additionally arranged outside the coil for shielding, and a magnetic circuit of the iron box is cut laterally on the iron shell, and the longitudinal groove is prevented from circulating.
  • the components such as the matching resistor and the coil are cast into a whole by epoxy, and the functions of waterproofing and sunscreen are achieved.
  • the final coil has an outer dimension of 70 ⁇ 70 ⁇ 24 cm, as shown in FIG. 4, and the cable joint is recessed.
  • the variables in the formula are all international standard units. In order to ensure the calculation accuracy, and the lightning current amplitude is generally above 10kA, the current unit can be replaced by kA.
  • the formula is:
  • a lightning current monitoring system is installed at a designated location in the required monitoring area, and a voltage signal of the lightning current waveform is obtained by sensing a rapidly changing magnetic field generated by a lightning current falling within the station or near the station.
  • a cell lightning monitoring and positioning system of an embodiment includes a lightning sensor, a data acquisition card, a fiber transmission module, a fiber receiving module, a computer, and a solar power generation system, wherein the lightning sensor comprises: a first lightning sensor A, The second lightning sensor B and the third lightning sensor C, the lightning sensor, the data acquisition card, the fiber transmission module, and the solar power generation system are outdoor parts.
  • the data acquisition card is connected to the first lightning sensor A through a cable for collecting the output voltage of the first lightning sensor A, and the fiber sending module is used for collecting the data acquisition card.
  • the output voltage data is sent to the fiber receiving module through the optical fiber, and the computer reads the output voltage data received by the fiber receiving module and performs calculation.
  • the two branches of the second lightning sensor B and the third lightning sensor C are the same as the first lightning sensor A.
  • the sampling signal is collected by the acquisition card, and the optical fiber module is converted into an optical signal and transmitted to the control room through the optical fiber, and the control room is converted into an electrical digital signal input computer through the optical fiber module.
  • the waveform data obtained by the three sensors are respectively input into three computers, thereby ensuring the independence and immediacy of the three measurement systems, and then uploading them to a computer for processing using the monitoring software to obtain the required data.
  • the solar power generation device is used to supply power to the data acquisition card and the fiber transmission module to prevent lightning current interference from entering the power system. Due to the short duration of lightning current, the data acquisition card can use USB-5133 high-speed acquisition card for data acquisition, and its sampling rate can reach 100M/s. Due to mine When the current occurs, a strong electromagnetic field is generated. To prevent the signal from being disturbed during transmission, the signal transmission part uses optical fiber for transmission.

Abstract

A small-region lightning monitoring and positioning method and system. The method comprises the following steps: S1, performing experimental calibration on a function relationship of an output voltage peak value of a lightning current sensor during lightning, a lightning current peak value and a lightning stroke point; S2, setting, within a measured cell, three lightning current sensors; and S3, respectively detecting output voltage peak values of the three lightning current sensors during lightning, and jointly determining the position of the lightning stroke point according to the function relationship.

Description

一种小区域雷电监测定位方法及系统Small area lightning monitoring and positioning method and system 【技术领域】[Technical Field]
本发明涉及一种小区域雷电监测定位方法及系统。The invention relates to a small area lightning monitoring and positioning method and system.
【背景技术】【Background technique】
雷电定位和雷电流参数监测对雷电特性研究及雷电防护均有重要作用,雷电定位系统能为雷电防护、气象研究、建筑等领域提供了较多技术资料。目前世界各地均有较为成熟的雷电监测网,通过监测雷电流产生磁场的方向及到达传感器的时间,可以计算出落雷位置、雷电流幅值、雷电流极性等参数。雷电定位的定位方式主要分为单站定位和多站定位。应用较为广泛的为多站定位,能够大大提高定位精度。国外对雷电流研究起步较早,自上世纪八十年代以来,美国国家雷电探测网(NLDN)经过多年发展,目前对雷电探测率可达80%以上,定位误差小于1km。欧洲于2001年建立了ZEUS雷电监测网,利用时差法实现了雷电流定位功能,但定位误差较大。我国雷电流监测系统在近年有了迅猛的发展,电力系统自1993年以来,陆续在全国建立了区域性性雷电流监测网,对电力系统防雷保护起到了重要作用,气象部门对雷电流探测站即有超过100个。由电子工业部研究的XDD03型雷电探测系统等定位误差小于1km。陈家宏等设计研究了雷电方向探测仪,通过使用一组正交框型天线,测量平面内一组磁场信号,通过放大、滤波、积分等得到不同方向的原磁场,通过对磁场矢量合成即可得到雷电流的方位角和其磁场大小,从而实现雷电流定向测量,方向误差小于1°。Lightning positioning and lightning current parameter monitoring play an important role in lightning characteristics research and lightning protection. The lightning positioning system can provide more technical information for lightning protection, meteorological research, construction and other fields. At present, there are relatively mature lightning monitoring networks all over the world. By monitoring the direction of the magnetic field generated by the lightning current and the time of reaching the sensor, the parameters such as the lightning strike position, the lightning current amplitude and the lightning current polarity can be calculated. The positioning methods of lightning positioning are mainly divided into single station positioning and multi-station positioning. The application is more widely used for multi-station positioning, which can greatly improve the positioning accuracy. Foreign research on lightning current started earlier. Since the 1980s, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) has developed over the years. At present, the detection rate of lightning is more than 80%, and the positioning error is less than 1km. In Europe, the ZEUS lightning monitoring network was established in 2001, and the lightning current positioning function was realized by the time difference method, but the positioning error was large. China's lightning current monitoring system has developed rapidly in recent years. Since 1993, the power system has established a regional lightning current monitoring network in the country, which plays an important role in lightning protection of power systems. The meteorological department detects lightning current. There are more than 100 stations. The positioning error of the XDD03 type lightning detection system researched by the Ministry of Electronics Industry is less than 1km. Chen Jiahong et al. designed and studied the lightning direction detector. By using a set of orthogonal frame antennas, a set of magnetic field signals in the plane is measured, and the original magnetic fields in different directions are obtained by amplification, filtering, integration, etc. The azimuth of the lightning current and the magnitude of its magnetic field, so that the lightning current directional measurement, the direction error is less than 1 °.
单站定位法利用磁场定向技术分析雷电流频谱特性,一般只用于监测高强度、远距离的雷电信号,由于其监测方式比较单一,仅靠一套传感设备分散性较大,且数据误差较大,导致监测的方位精度与幅值监测精度较低。The single station positioning method uses the magnetic field orientation technology to analyze the spectral characteristics of lightning current. It is generally only used to monitor high-intensity and long-distance lightning signals. Because of its relatively simple monitoring method, only one sensing device has large dispersion and data error. Larger, resulting in lower accuracy of the azimuth and amplitude monitoring of the monitoring.
多站定位法利用多个监测站监测同一雷电信号,综合各个监测站的测量结果,对雷电的落雷位置及雷电参数进行计算和测量。多站定位方法主 要分为定向定位法、时差定位法及综合定位法。定向定位法通过监测磁场方向利用三角原理定位,如图1所示。当A点发生雷击时,DF1及DF2处分别测得方位角α1和α2,通过三角定位原理即可得到雷电流位置。由于磁场距离较远且方向误差较大,多以定向定位法精度较低。The multi-station positioning method uses multiple monitoring stations to monitor the same lightning signal, integrates the measurement results of each monitoring station, and calculates and measures the lightning strike position and lightning parameters of the lightning. Multi-station positioning methods are mainly divided into directional positioning method, time difference positioning method and comprehensive positioning method. The directional positioning method uses the principle of triangulation to monitor the direction of the magnetic field, as shown in Figure 1. When a lightning strike occurs at point A, the azimuth angles α 1 and α 2 are measured at DF 1 and DF 2 respectively, and the lightning current position can be obtained by the triangulation principle. Since the magnetic field is far away and the direction error is large, the accuracy of the directional positioning method is low.
时差法定位原理如图2所示,图中ABC为探测站,根据两个探测站AC得到的雷击信号的时差及AC两个站之间的距离能够得到一条双曲线,雷击即位于双曲线上一点。同理根据另外两个探测站BC得到另一条双曲线,两条双曲线的交点为P,而另一点P’为数学上另一个解,通过第4个探测站即可剔除掉P’点得到实际雷击发生的位置。目前时间测量使用GPS进行,一般使用的GPS精度小于1us,所以在时差法定位精度为1km。时差法受到时间精度的限制,所以定位精度难以提高。The principle of time difference method is shown in Fig. 2. In the figure, ABC is the detection station. According to the time difference of the lightning strike signal obtained by the two detection stations AC and the distance between the two stations of the AC, a hyperbola can be obtained, and the lightning strike is located on the hyperbola. a little. Similarly, according to the other two detection stations, BC obtains another hyperbola. The intersection of the two hyperbolas is P, and the other point P' is a mathematically other solution. The P' point can be removed by the fourth detection station. The location where the actual lightning strike occurred. The current time measurement is performed using GPS, and the GPS accuracy generally used is less than 1 us, so the positioning accuracy in the time difference method is 1 km. The time difference method is limited by time accuracy, so positioning accuracy is difficult to improve.
【发明内容】[Summary of the Invention]
为了克服现有技术的不足,本发明提供了一种小区域雷电监测定位方法及系统,以提高小范围内雷电定位的精确度。In order to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art, the present invention provides a small area lightning monitoring and positioning method and system to improve the accuracy of lightning location in a small range.
一种小区域雷电监测定位方法,包括如下步骤:A small area lightning monitoring and positioning method includes the following steps:
S1、实验标定雷电流传感器在雷电下的输出电压峰值与雷电流峰值及雷击点的函数关系;S1. The experimental calibration of the peak value of the output voltage of the lightning current sensor under lightning is a function of the peak value of the lightning current and the lightning strike point;
S2、在被测量小区内设置三个所述雷电流传感器;S2, setting three of the lightning current sensors in the measured cell;
S3、在雷电下分别检测所述三个雷电流传感器的输出电压峰值,根据所述函数关系联合确定所述雷击点的位置。S3. The output voltage peaks of the three lightning current sensors are respectively detected under lightning, and the position of the lightning strike point is jointly determined according to the function relationship.
优选地,Preferably,
所述雷电流传感器为空心线圈。The lightning current sensor is an air core coil.
优选地,Preferably,
所述三个雷电流传感器的轴线相交于同一个点。 The axes of the three lightning current sensors intersect at the same point.
优选地,Preferably,
所述函数关系为:The function relationship is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000001
其中,Uomi表示第i个雷电传感器的输出电压峰值,Im表示雷电流传感器的雷电流峰值,k为系数,xi和yi表示第i个雷电传感器的坐标,x和y表示雷击点的坐标。Among them, U omi represents the peak value of the output voltage of the i-th lightning sensor, I m represents the peak of the lightning current of the lightning current sensor, k is the coefficient, x i and y i represent the coordinates of the i-th lightning sensor, and x and y represent the lightning strike point. coordinate of.
优选地,Preferably,
所述三个雷电流传感器的轴线两两之间呈120°。The axes of the three lightning current sensors are 120° between the two.
优选地,Preferably,
根据所述函数关系可以得到关于x,y,Im的非线性方程组,利用牛顿-拉夫逊法进行迭代求所述非线性方程组的最小二乘解,若x,y,Im收敛,则判定雷电的位置位于所述被测量小区内,若x,y,Im不收敛,则判定雷电的位置位于所述被测量小区外。According to the function relationship, a nonlinear equation set with respect to x, y, I m can be obtained, and the least squares solution of the nonlinear equations is iteratively obtained by using the Newton-Raphson method. If x, y, I m converge, Then, it is determined that the location of the lightning is located in the measured cell, and if x, y, Im does not converge, it is determined that the location of the lightning is outside the measured cell.
优选地,Preferably,
根据三个雷电流传感器的电压极性判断雷电流方向和雷电流极性。The lightning current direction and the lightning current polarity are determined according to the voltage polarities of the three lightning current sensors.
本发明还提供了一种小区雷电监测定位系统,包括:第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器、第三雷电传感器、第一数据采集卡、第一光纤模块、第二数据采集卡、第二光纤模块、第三数据采集卡、第三光纤模块和太阳能发电装置,所述第一数据采集卡用于采集第一雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第二数据采集卡用于采集第二雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第三数据采集卡用于采集第三雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第一光纤模块将第一数据采集模块采集的数据发送至光纤,所述第二光纤模块将第二数据采集卡采集的数据发送至光纤,所述第三光纤模块将第三数据采集卡采集的数据发送至光纤,所述太阳能发电装置用于对所述第一数据采集卡、第一光纤模块、第二数据采集卡、第二光纤模块、第三数据采集卡和第三光纤模块进行供电。The invention also provides a community lightning monitoring and positioning system, comprising: a first lightning sensor, a second lightning sensor, a third lightning sensor, a first data acquisition card, a first fiber module, a second data acquisition card, and a second fiber a module, a third data acquisition card, a third fiber optic module, and a solar power generation device, the first data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the first lightning sensor, and the second data acquisition card is configured to acquire a second lightning sensor Outputting a voltage, the third data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the third lightning sensor, the first fiber module sends data collected by the first data acquisition module to the optical fiber, and the second optical fiber module uses the second data The data collected by the acquisition card is sent to the optical fiber, and the third optical fiber module sends the data collected by the third data acquisition card to the optical fiber, where the solar power generation device is used for the first data acquisition card, the first optical fiber module, and the first The second data acquisition card, the second optical fiber module, the third data acquisition card, and the third optical fiber module are powered.
优选地,Preferably,
第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器和第三雷电传感器雷电流传感器为空心线圈。 The first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor and the third lightning sensor lightning current sensor are air-core coils.
优选地,Preferably,
第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器和第三雷电传感器的轴线相交于同一个点。The axes of the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor, and the third lightning sensor intersect at the same point.
优选地,Preferably,
第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器和第三雷电传感器的轴线两两之间呈120°。The axes of the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor and the third lightning sensor are 120° between the two.
本发明的有益效果是:The beneficial effects of the invention are:
1)通过数值定位方法能够避免定向法与时差法有关磁场方向及时间测量的精度限制,该方法的定位精度主要取决于传感器幅值的测量精度,能大大提高雷电流定位精度,缩小其测量范围。1) The numerical positioning method can avoid the accuracy limitation of the direction and time measurement of the magnetic field by the orientation method and the time difference method. The positioning accuracy of the method mainly depends on the measurement accuracy of the sensor amplitude, which can greatly improve the lightning current positioning accuracy and narrow the measurement range. .
2)提出了一种使用数值分析方法求解雷电流定位问题的方案,在求解中可进一步考虑优化问题,提高测量精度。并可以考虑在大型场站增加传感器的数量,从而进一步提高测量精度。2) A scheme for solving the lightning current localization problem using numerical analysis method is proposed. In the solution, the optimization problem can be further considered and the measurement accuracy can be improved. It is also possible to increase the number of sensors in large stations to further improve measurement accuracy.
3)使用特制的雷电流传感器及目前较为先进的数据采集及数据传输系统,保证了信号传输的可靠性,且整个测量系统使用太阳能供电,系统独立稳定可靠,免于维护,减少了人工成本,增加的系统的实用性。3) The use of special lightning current sensor and the current advanced data acquisition and data transmission system ensure the reliability of signal transmission, and the whole measurement system uses solar energy to supply, the system is independent and stable, free from maintenance, and reduces labor costs. Increased system usability.
【附图说明】[Description of the Drawings]
图1是现有技术定位雷电的定向法原理图1 is a schematic diagram of an orientation method for positioning lightning in the prior art
图2是现有技术定位雷电的时差法原理图2 is a schematic diagram of a time difference method for positioning lightning in the prior art
图3是本发明一种实施例的小区雷电监测定位方法示意图FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and positioning a mine lightning according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG.
图4是本发明一种实施例的小区雷电监测定位系统图4 is a diagram of a mine lightning monitoring and positioning system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
图5是本发明一种实施例的小区雷电监测定位方法示意图FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and positioning a mine lightning according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG.
【具体实施方式】【detailed description】
以下对发明的较佳实施例作进一步详细说明。Preferred embodiments of the invention are described in further detail below.
如图3所示,一种实施例的小区雷电监测定位方法示意图,在本实施例中,使用自制的雷电流传感器,通过实验室标定其响应特性,得到输出电压与电流幅值、测量距离之间的关系,通过使用不同位置的三个雷电流 传感器,对同一雷电流得到的三组测量数据,通过对方程组求解即可得到雷电流幅值及平面坐标。雷电流传感器可以采用空心线圈,将三个线圈同向放置于所测量区域边缘处,空心线圈的轴线之间相互夹角为120°,保证整个测量系统对各个位置的雷电流均有较高的灵敏度。As shown in FIG. 3 , a schematic diagram of a method for monitoring and locating a mine lightning monitoring according to an embodiment. In this embodiment, a self-made lightning current sensor is used to calibrate the response characteristics of the cell to obtain an output voltage and a current amplitude and a measuring distance. Relationship between three lightning currents by using different locations The sensor, the three sets of measurement data obtained by the same lightning current, can obtain the lightning current amplitude and plane coordinate by solving the equations. The lightning current sensor can adopt an air-core coil, and the three coils are placed in the same direction at the edge of the measured area, and the axes of the air-core coils are at an angle of 120°, which ensures that the lightning current of each measurement system is high for each position. Sensitivity.
以线圈A为例,使用如图3所示的直角坐标系进行分析。线圈A、线圈B、线圈C的坐标分别为(x1,y1),(x2,y2),(x3,y3),雷击点坐标为(x,y)。假设雷电流于雷击点垂直入地,且是负极性雷电流,雷电流峰值为Im。雷击点在线圈A处产生的磁感应强度B,此时在线圈处可以分解为垂直分量B1和水平分量B2,水平分量由于平行于线圈,在线圈处不会产生感应电压,此时传感器的输出电压以垂直分量为主。得到:Taking coil A as an example, analysis is performed using a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in FIG. The coordinates of the coil A, the coil B, and the coil C are (x 1 , y 1 ), (x 2 , y 2 ), (x 3 , y 3 ), and the lightning strike point coordinates are (x, y). It is assumed that the lightning current enters the ground vertically at the lightning strike point and is the negative lightning current. The peak value of the lightning current is I m . The magnetic induction intensity B generated by the lightning strike point at the coil A can be decomposed into a vertical component B 1 and a horizontal component B 2 at the coil, and the horizontal component is not parallel to the coil, and no induced voltage is generated at the coil. The output voltage is dominated by the vertical component. get:
B1=Bcosθ(1)B 1 =Bcosθ(1)
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000002
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000002
雷电流传感器在实验室进行标定,当磁场方向与线圈平面垂直时,其输出电压峰值Uom与电流峰值Im及线圈到雷电流距离r的关系为:The lightning current sensor is calibrated in the laboratory. When the direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the coil, the relationship between the peak value U om of the output voltage and the peak value I m of the current and the distance r from the lightning current is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000003
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000003
根据毕奥-萨伐尔定律,电流产生的磁场与电流强度成正比,所以可以得出线圈输出电压峰值为:According to Biot-Savar's law, the magnetic field generated by the current is proportional to the current intensity, so the peak value of the coil output voltage can be obtained as:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000004
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000004
同理,对于3个线圈,其输出电压与雷电流峰值及雷击点坐标关系式为:Similarly, for three coils, the relationship between the output voltage and the lightning current peak and lightning point coordinates is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000005
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000005
其中,三个线圈的输出电压峰值Uom可以通过示波器测量,为已知量。从而可以得到关于x,y,Im的非线性方程组,使用牛顿-拉夫逊法进行迭代求其最小二乘解,即可得到雷电流位置及雷电流幅值。Among them, the output voltage peak value U om of the three coils can be measured by an oscilloscope and is a known quantity. Therefore, the nonlinear equations of x, y, and I m can be obtained. The Newton-Raphson method is used to iteratively find the least squares solution to obtain the lightning current position and the lightning current amplitude.
方程组可表示为:The system of equations can be expressed as:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000006
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000006
其雅克比矩阵可以表示为: Its Jacobian matrix can be expressed as:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000007
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000007
使用牛顿-拉夫逊法进行迭代,由于只有发生雷电流才能出发传感器信号,所以雷电流初值不能为0,否则会造成雅克比矩阵不可逆,无法求解。所以给定初值[x,y,Im]0=[0,0,10]进行求解,为了提高精度,其中雷电流单位为kA。将其带入方程组得[F1,F2,F3]0,带入雅克比矩阵得到J0,求解修正方程:Using the Newton-Raphson method to iterate, since only the lightning current can start the sensor signal, the initial value of the lightning current cannot be 0. Otherwise, the Jacobian matrix is irreversible and cannot be solved. Therefore, given the initial value [x, y, I m ] 0 = [ 0, 0 , 10], in order to improve the accuracy, the lightning current unit is kA. Bring it into the equations to get [F 1 , F 2 , F 3 ] 0 , bring in the Jacobian matrix to get J 0 , and solve the modified equation:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000008
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000008
得到Δx,Δy,ΔIm,通过使用下面的公式计算得到新的[x,y,Im]1,重复上述计算。Δx, Δy, ΔI m are obtained, and the above calculation is repeated by calculating a new [x, y, I m ] 1 using the following formula.
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000009
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000009
收敛指标为:The convergence indicator is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000010
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000010
当最终求得的变量Δx,Δy,ΔIm的绝对值均小于0.1时,终止计算,此时已达到要求精度,上一步得到的[x,y,Im]n即为最终求得的结果。When the absolute values of the finally obtained variables Δx, Δy, ΔI m are all less than 0.1, the calculation is terminated, and the required accuracy is reached. The [x, y, I m ] n obtained in the previous step is the final result. .
在使用牛顿-拉夫逊法进行雷电定位求解时,需要考虑初值问题。如果初值与真实值较为接近,则可以较快收敛到真实值附近,否则可能会出现发散的情况,或者收敛到其他值。所以在进行迭代时,给定初值[x,y,Im]0=[0,0,10]进行求解。根据图3所示,原点(0,0)可以认为位于三个线圈中心,所以(x,y)初值选取可以保证求解结果在所监测的小区域范围内进行定位。 When using the Newton-Raphson method for lightning location, the initial value problem needs to be considered. If the initial value is closer to the true value, it can converge to the vicinity of the true value faster, otherwise the divergence may occur or converge to other values. Therefore, when iterating, the initial value [x, y, I m ] 0 = [ 0, 0 , 10] is given for solving. According to Figure 3, the origin (0,0) can be considered to be located at the center of the three coils, so the initial value of (x, y) can be selected to ensure that the solution results in the small area monitored.
所以根据计算结果对雷电定位结果进行分类。当计算结果收敛时,根据初值选取可知,其定位结果应在所监测区域内部,计算得到的雷电的位置及幅值结果即为最终结果。Therefore, the lightning location results are classified according to the calculation results. When the calculation result converges, according to the initial value selection, the positioning result should be inside the monitored area, and the calculated position and amplitude result of the lightning is the final result.
当计算结果不收敛时,所探测到的雷电位于所监测区域外,所以可以根据三个传感器所探测到的雷电流极性及幅值大小判断雷电位置。此时由于求解结果发散,不能给出雷电流幅值。When the calculation result does not converge, the detected lightning is located outside the monitored area, so the lightning position can be judged according to the polarity and magnitude of the lightning current detected by the three sensors. At this time, due to the divergence of the solution result, the lightning current amplitude cannot be given.
雷电方位如图5所示,三个线圈的中垂线将所监测区域分为7个部分。由于三个线圈在安装时需要沿正方向(当线圈处于磁场环境下,线圈产生的电压与磁场方向相反时,则线圈的方向为正方向,反之如果线圈产生的电压与磁场方向相同时,则线圈的方向为负方向)顺时针(即线圈C绕原点O绕120°后与线圈B重合,继续绕120°后与线圈A重合)放置,当雷电位于线圈中垂线上时,雷电流产生的磁场方向在经过线圈时与线圈平行,没有产生磁通,所以该线圈无法测量到该雷电流。当雷击点位于两条中垂线交点时,只有一个线圈可以测量到雷电流信号,也可以据此判断雷电位置。The lightning position is shown in Figure 5. The mid-perpendicular line of the three coils divides the monitored area into seven parts. Since the three coils need to be in the positive direction when installed (when the coil is in a magnetic field environment, the voltage generated by the coil is opposite to the direction of the magnetic field, then the direction of the coil is positive, and if the voltage generated by the coil is the same as the direction of the magnetic field, then The direction of the coil is negative (clockwise) (ie, the coil C is wound around the origin O by 120° and then coincides with the coil B, and continues to wrap around the coil A after 120°). When the lightning is located on the vertical line in the coil, the lightning current is generated. The direction of the magnetic field is parallel to the coil when passing through the coil, and no magnetic flux is generated, so the coil cannot measure the lightning current. When the lightning strike point is at the intersection of two mid-perpendicular lines, only one coil can measure the lightning current signal, and the lightning position can also be judged accordingly.
在中垂线两边雷电流极性相反,所以可根据三个线圈的极性判断雷电流位置,雷电流线圈沿同一方向顺时针放置,而雷电流可分为正极性和负极性,所以增加对于所监测到幅值绝对值的大小的判断,可对雷电流极性进行判断,判断依据如表1所示。The lightning current has opposite polarity on both sides of the vertical line, so the lightning current position can be judged according to the polarity of the three coils. The lightning current coil is placed clockwise in the same direction, and the lightning current can be divided into positive polarity and negative polarity, so Judging the magnitude of the absolute value of the amplitude detected, the polarity of the lightning current can be judged, and the judgment basis is as shown in Table 1.
表1  方位对照表Table 1 orientation table
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000011
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000011
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000012
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000012
表格中极性旁边的括号表示了该测量值绝对值的大小,例如当线圈A、线圈B、线圈C的测量结果(表格中的极性指电压极性)分别为正、正、负时,如果负的绝对值大,则雷电流方向为正北,雷电流极性为负;如果负的绝对值小,则判断雷电流方向为正南,雷电流极性为负。其他各个情况均在表格中有相应对照。The brackets next to the polarity in the table indicate the absolute value of the measured value. For example, when the measurement results of coil A, coil B, and coil C (the polarity in the table refers to the polarity of the voltage) are positive, positive, and negative, respectively, If the negative absolute value is large, the lightning current direction is positive north, and the lightning current polarity is negative; if the negative absolute value is small, it is judged that the lightning current direction is positive south and the lightning current polarity is negative. All other cases have corresponding controls in the table.
由于当无法收敛时,该雷电流处在所监测区域之外,所以对于小区域内雷电参数监测没有影响。根据方位统计结果可以判断监测区域哪一侧落雷较多,需要重点加强保护措施。Since the lightning current is outside the monitored area when it is unable to converge, there is no influence on the lightning parameter monitoring in a small area. According to the azimuth statistics, it can be judged which side of the monitoring area has more mines, and it is necessary to focus on strengthening protection measures.
由于目前GPS时钟精度有限,使用时差法定位只能保证其定位精度在1km的数量级,而本发明的定位方法只需要保证传感器的测量精度,不需要进行时钟的统一,所以能大大缩小定位范围,使此种定位方法能应用于雷电流小范围定位,实现类似燃气站、变电站、石油场站等小范围雷电预警及防护功能。Due to the limited accuracy of the current GPS clock, the time difference method can only ensure that the positioning accuracy is on the order of 1 km. However, the positioning method of the present invention only needs to ensure the measurement accuracy of the sensor, and does not need to be unified of the clock, so the positioning range can be greatly reduced. The positioning method can be applied to small-scale localization of lightning current, and realizes a small-scale lightning warning and protection function similar to a gas station, a substation, and an oil field station.
由于线圈为空心线圈,所以保证其能测量较大幅值的雷电流。为了保证其灵敏度,需要较大的直径及匝数。在一个实施例中,空心线圈直径为60cm,长度为20cm,匝数为50,使用2×3mm的扁铜线绕制。根据实际参数测试,线圈的下限截止频率为112Hz,上限截止频率为几十MHz,能够覆盖雷电流的频率范围。线圈使用环氧树脂为骨架绕制,在线圈外部增设接地铁壳进行屏蔽,并在铁壳上开槽横向切断铁盒磁路,纵向开槽防止环流。并将匹配电阻等元器件及线圈使用环氧浇注为一个整体,起到防水、防晒等作用,最终线圈外形尺寸为70×70×24cm,如图4所示,电缆连接处做凹陷处理。Since the coil is an air-core coil, it is guaranteed to measure a large amplitude of lightning current. In order to ensure its sensitivity, a larger diameter and number of turns are required. In one embodiment, the air-core coil has a diameter of 60 cm, a length of 20 cm, a number of turns of 50, and is wound using a 2 x 3 mm flat copper wire. According to the actual parameter test, the lower limit cutoff frequency of the coil is 112 Hz, and the upper limit cutoff frequency is several tens of MHz, which can cover the frequency range of the lightning current. The coil is made of epoxy resin as a skeleton, and a subway shell is additionally arranged outside the coil for shielding, and a magnetic circuit of the iron box is cut laterally on the iron shell, and the longitudinal groove is prevented from circulating. The components such as the matching resistor and the coil are cast into a whole by epoxy, and the functions of waterproofing and sunscreen are achieved. The final coil has an outer dimension of 70×70×24 cm, as shown in FIG. 4, and the cable joint is recessed.
在磁场与线圈平面垂直时,输出电压峰值Uom与电流峰值Im及距离r 的拟合公式为:When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the coil, the fitting formula of the output voltage peak U om and the current peak I m and distance r is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000013
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000013
公式中各变量均为国际标准单位,为了保证计算精度,且雷电流幅值一般在10kA以上,所以可将其中电流单位使用kA代替,公式为:The variables in the formula are all international standard units. In order to ensure the calculation accuracy, and the lightning current amplitude is generally above 10kA, the current unit can be replaced by kA. The formula is:
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000014
Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-000014
在所需要监测区域内指定位置安装雷电流监测系统,通过感应雷击点落在场站内或场站附近的雷电流产生的迅速变化的磁场,得到雷电流波形的电压信号。A lightning current monitoring system is installed at a designated location in the required monitoring area, and a voltage signal of the lightning current waveform is obtained by sensing a rapidly changing magnetic field generated by a lightning current falling within the station or near the station.
如图4所示,一种实施例的小区雷电监测定位系统,包括雷电传感器、数据采集卡、光纤发送模块、光纤接收模块、计算机和太阳能发电系统,其中雷电传感器包括:第一雷电传感器A、第二雷电传感器B和第三雷电传感器C,雷电传感器、数据采集卡、光纤发送模块和太阳能发电系统是室外部分。As shown in FIG. 4, a cell lightning monitoring and positioning system of an embodiment includes a lightning sensor, a data acquisition card, a fiber transmission module, a fiber receiving module, a computer, and a solar power generation system, wherein the lightning sensor comprises: a first lightning sensor A, The second lightning sensor B and the third lightning sensor C, the lightning sensor, the data acquisition card, the fiber transmission module, and the solar power generation system are outdoor parts.
对于第一雷电传感器A这一条支路来说,数据采集卡通过电缆与第一雷电传感器A连接,用于对第一雷电传感器A的输出电压进行采集,光纤发送模块用于将数据采集卡采集到的输出电压数据通过光纤发送到光纤接收模块,计算机读取光纤接收模块接收到的输出电压数据并进行计算。同样,第二雷电传感器B和第三雷电传感器C这两条支路与第一雷电传感器A相同。For the branch of the first lightning sensor A, the data acquisition card is connected to the first lightning sensor A through a cable for collecting the output voltage of the first lightning sensor A, and the fiber sending module is used for collecting the data acquisition card. The output voltage data is sent to the fiber receiving module through the optical fiber, and the computer reads the output voltage data received by the fiber receiving module and performs calculation. Similarly, the two branches of the second lightning sensor B and the third lightning sensor C are the same as the first lightning sensor A.
采样信号通过采集卡采集,光纤模块转换成光信号通过光纤传输到控制室内,控制室内再通过光纤模块转化成电数字信号输入计算机。其中,三个传感器得到的波形数据分别输入三个计算机,从而保证三个测量系统的独立性和即时性,再上传到一台计算机使用监控软件进行处理,得到所需的数据。The sampling signal is collected by the acquisition card, and the optical fiber module is converted into an optical signal and transmitted to the control room through the optical fiber, and the control room is converted into an electrical digital signal input computer through the optical fiber module. Among them, the waveform data obtained by the three sensors are respectively input into three computers, thereby ensuring the independence and immediacy of the three measurement systems, and then uploading them to a computer for processing using the monitoring software to obtain the required data.
太阳能发电装置用于对数据采集卡和光纤发送模块进行供电,以防止雷电流干扰从电源系统侵入。由于雷电流持续时间较短,数据采集卡可以采用USB-5133高速采集卡进行数据采集,其采样率可达100M/s。由于雷 电流发生时会产生强大的电磁场,为防止信号在传输过程中受到干扰,信号传输部分使用光纤进行传输。The solar power generation device is used to supply power to the data acquisition card and the fiber transmission module to prevent lightning current interference from entering the power system. Due to the short duration of lightning current, the data acquisition card can use USB-5133 high-speed acquisition card for data acquisition, and its sampling rate can reach 100M/s. Due to mine When the current occurs, a strong electromagnetic field is generated. To prevent the signal from being disturbed during transmission, the signal transmission part uses optical fiber for transmission.
以上内容是结合具体的优选实施方式对本发明所作的进一步详细说明,不能认定本发明的具体实施只局限于这些说明。对于本发明所属技术领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干简单推演或替换,都应当视为属于本发明由所提交的权利要求书确定的专利保护范围。 The above is a further detailed description of the present invention in connection with the specific preferred embodiments, and the specific embodiments of the present invention are not limited to the description. For those skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains, a number of simple derivations or substitutions may be made without departing from the inventive concept, and should be considered as belonging to the invention as defined by the appended claims. protected range.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,包括如下步骤:A small area lightning monitoring and positioning method, characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
    S1、实验标定雷电流传感器在雷电下的输出电压峰值与雷电流峰值及雷击点的函数关系;S1. The experimental calibration of the peak value of the output voltage of the lightning current sensor under lightning is a function of the peak value of the lightning current and the lightning strike point;
    S2、在被测量小区内设置三个所述雷电流传感器;S2, setting three of the lightning current sensors in the measured cell;
    S3、在雷电下分别检测所述三个雷电流传感器的输出电压峰值,根据所述函数关系联合确定所述雷击点的位置。S3. The output voltage peaks of the three lightning current sensors are respectively detected under lightning, and the position of the lightning strike point is jointly determined according to the function relationship.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,The small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 1, wherein:
    所述雷电流传感器为空心线圈。The lightning current sensor is an air core coil.
  3. 如权利要求2所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,The small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 2, wherein
    所述三个雷电流传感器的轴线相交于同一个点。The axes of the three lightning current sensors intersect at the same point.
  4. 如权利要求3所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,所述函数关系为:The small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 3, wherein the function relationship is:
    Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-100001
    Figure PCTCN2016080286-appb-100001
    其中,Uomi表示第i个雷电传感器的输出电压峰值,Im表示雷电流传感器的雷电流峰值,k为系数,xi和yi表示第i个雷电传感器的坐标,x和y表示雷击点的坐标。Among them, U omi represents the peak value of the output voltage of the i-th lightning sensor, I m represents the peak of the lightning current of the lightning current sensor, k is the coefficient, x i and y i represent the coordinates of the i-th lightning sensor, and x and y represent the lightning strike point. coordinate of.
  5. 如权利要求3所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,The small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 3, wherein
    所述三个雷电流传感器的轴线两两之间呈120°。The axes of the three lightning current sensors are 120° between the two.
  6. 如权利要求5所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,A small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 5, wherein
    根据所述函数关系可以得到关于x,y,Im的非线性方程组,利用牛顿-拉夫逊法进行迭代求所述非线性方程组的最小二乘解,若x,y,Im收敛,则判定雷电的位置位于所述被测量小区内,若x,y,Im不收敛,则判定雷电的位置位于所述被测量小区外。According to the function relationship, a nonlinear equation set with respect to x, y, I m can be obtained, and the least squares solution of the nonlinear equations is iteratively obtained by using the Newton-Raphson method. If x, y, I m converge, Then, it is determined that the location of the lightning is located in the measured cell, and if x, y, Im does not converge, it is determined that the location of the lightning is outside the measured cell.
  7. 如权利要求5所述的小区域雷电监测定位方法,其特征是,A small area lightning monitoring and positioning method according to claim 5, wherein
    根据三个雷电流传感器的电压极性判断雷电流方向和雷电流极性。The lightning current direction and the lightning current polarity are determined according to the voltage polarities of the three lightning current sensors.
  8. 一种小区雷电监测定位系统,其特征是,包括:第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器、第三雷电传感器、第一数据采集卡、第一光纤模块、第 二数据采集卡、第二光纤模块、第三数据采集卡、第三光纤模块和太阳能发电装置,所述第一数据采集卡用于采集第一雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第二数据采集卡用于采集第二雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第三数据采集卡用于采集第三雷电传感器的输出电压,所述第一光纤模块将第一数据采集模块采集的数据发送至光纤,所述第二光纤模块将第二数据采集卡采集的数据发送至光纤,所述第三光纤模块将第三数据采集卡采集的数据发送至光纤,所述太阳能发电装置用于对所述第一数据采集卡、第一光纤模块、第二数据采集卡、第二光纤模块、第三数据采集卡和第三光纤模块进行供电。A community lightning monitoring and positioning system, comprising: a first lightning sensor, a second lightning sensor, a third lightning sensor, a first data acquisition card, a first fiber module, and a first a data acquisition card, a second fiber module, a third data acquisition card, a third fiber module, and a solar power generation device, wherein the first data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the first lightning sensor, and the second data acquisition card The third data acquisition card is configured to collect an output voltage of the third lightning sensor, and the first fiber optic module sends the data collected by the first data acquisition module to the optical fiber, The second fiber optic module sends the data collected by the second data acquisition card to the optical fiber, and the third fiber optic module sends the data collected by the third data acquisition card to the optical fiber, where the solar power generation device is configured to collect the first data. The card, the first fiber module, the second data acquisition card, the second fiber module, the third data acquisition card, and the third fiber module are powered.
  9. 如权利要求8所述的小区域雷电监测定位系统,其特征是,A small area lightning monitoring and positioning system according to claim 8, wherein:
    第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器和第三雷电传感器雷电流传感器为空心线圈。The first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor and the third lightning sensor lightning current sensor are air-core coils.
  10. 如权利要求9所述的小区域雷电监测定位系统,其特征是,A small area lightning monitoring and positioning system according to claim 9, wherein:
    第一雷电传感器、第二雷电传感器和第三雷电传感器的轴线相交于同一个点。 The axes of the first lightning sensor, the second lightning sensor, and the third lightning sensor intersect at the same point.
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