WO2016029605A1 - 一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统 - Google Patents

一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统 Download PDF

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WO2016029605A1
WO2016029605A1 PCT/CN2014/095045 CN2014095045W WO2016029605A1 WO 2016029605 A1 WO2016029605 A1 WO 2016029605A1 CN 2014095045 W CN2014095045 W CN 2014095045W WO 2016029605 A1 WO2016029605 A1 WO 2016029605A1
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Prior art keywords
suspension
steering
mounting hole
ball head
linked
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PCT/CN2014/095045
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
张�杰
刘向
周贤勇
李伯华
资小林
赵景山
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万向钱潮股份有限公司
万向集团公司
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Publication of WO2016029605A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016029605A1/zh

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D7/00Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings
    • B62D7/18Steering knuckles; King pins
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G3/00Resilient suspensions for a single wheel
    • B60G3/18Resilient suspensions for a single wheel with two or more pivoted arms, e.g. parallelogram
    • B60G3/20Resilient suspensions for a single wheel with two or more pivoted arms, e.g. parallelogram all arms being rigid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G7/00Pivoted suspension arms; Accessories thereof
    • B60G7/001Suspension arms, e.g. constructional features
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/10Independent suspensions
    • B60G2200/14Independent suspensions with lateral arms
    • B60G2200/144Independent suspensions with lateral arms with two lateral arms forming a parallelogram
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/422Driving wheels or live axles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/44Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions steerable
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/46Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions camber angle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2206/00Indexing codes related to the manufacturing of suspensions: constructional features, the materials used, procedures or tools
    • B60G2206/01Constructional features of suspension elements, e.g. arms, dampers, springs
    • B60G2206/10Constructional features of arms
    • B60G2206/11Constructional features of arms the arm being a radius or track or torque or steering rod or stabiliser end link
    • B60G2206/111Constructional features of arms the arm being a radius or track or torque or steering rod or stabiliser end link of adjustable length
    • B60G2206/1116Actively adjustable during driving
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D17/00Means on vehicles for adjusting camber, castor, or toe-in

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to an automotive front suspension system, and more particularly to a linear translational front suspension system that integrates steering and drive functions.
  • Suspension is a general term for ensuring the elastic connection between the wheel or axle and the vehicle carrying system (frame or load-bearing body) and capable of transmitting loads, mitigating shocks, attenuating vibrations, and adjusting the position of the vehicle during driving.
  • the suspension is mainly composed of three parts: an elastic member, a shock absorbing device and a guiding mechanism.
  • the function of the guiding mechanism is to ensure the reliable transmission of all the forces and moments between the wheel and the body or the frame, and to determine the displacement characteristics of the wheel relative to the body or the frame.
  • the guiding mechanism determines the movement trajectory of the wheel and the change of the wheel positioning parameters, as well as the position of the front and rear roll center and the trim center of the car, which greatly affects the steering stability and the anti-pitch ability of the vehicle.
  • the traditional front suspension system has a steering function that matches the drive system for the front-wheel drive.
  • the most widely used front suspension systems include the MacPherson suspension, the double wishbone suspension and the non-independent leaf spring suspension.
  • the conventional suspension can satisfy the suspension design requirements in function, but when the wheel jumps, the wheel positioning parameters will change. In practical applications, any change in the positioning parameters of the wheel will adversely affect the stability of the vehicle or other aspects of the vehicle. For example, the change of the track will lead to a decrease in the straight-line driving ability of the car, and also cause an increase in rolling resistance and influence on the steering system. Changes in the camber angle of the wheel can cause abnormal wear of the tire.
  • the joint assembly is used to realize the function of front wheel steering; at the same time, the steering knuckle can be assembled with the hub bearing unit, and then the constant speed drive shaft is installed to realize the driving function of the front wheel.
  • the suspension system enables wheel positioning parameters such as wheel toe, camber, kingpin, and main The post-tilt angle, as well as the track and wheelbase, remain constant throughout the wheel runout.
  • the kinematics of the suspension is determined by the configuration of the suspension guide mechanism, so the kinematics of the suspension are not sensitive to hard point parameters, and the suspension is arranged in various forms, which can be applied to the front suspension system of different models. .
  • the linear translation type front suspension system with integrated steering and driving functions mainly comprises two upper suspension guiding mechanisms with linear guiding functions and two lower suspension guiding mechanisms, upper connecting seat, lower connecting seat and steering knuckle , the reinforcing member, the upper ball head pair, the lower ball head pair and the spring damper, the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms are an over-constrained parallel mechanism, the mechanism only has a translational degree of freedom for guiding the wheel to jump;
  • the upper connecting seat is fixedly connected to the lower connecting seat by a reinforcing member, and the upper connecting seat is connected with the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms, and the upper connecting seat and the shock absorber mounting seat are connected
  • the lower connecting seat is connected with the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms;
  • the reinforcing member is provided with an upper ball mounting hole, a lower ball mounting hole, a brake mounting hole, a steering rod mounting hole and a hub unit mounting hole, and the upper connecting seat
  • the upper ball head pair is arranged and
  • the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms are two upper and lower 2-RPR mechanisms, R represents a rotating pair, P represents a moving pair, and 2 represents two RPR kinematic chains;
  • the RPR mechanism has a degree of freedom of translation, and the angle between the planes defined by the two RPR kinematic chains is 90°;
  • the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms include two RPR kinematic chains.
  • the two rotational sub-axes in each of the PRP kinematic chains are parallel and perpendicular to the moving secondary axis; the plane passing the moving secondary axis and perpendicular to the rotational secondary axis is referred to as a plane defined by the RPR kinematic chain;
  • the upper suspension guiding mechanism and the lower suspension guiding mechanism comprise an outer connecting rod, an inner connecting rod, a dust cover, a ball, a cage and an oil seal, the inner connecting rod is installed in the outer connecting rod, and the cage is provided with balls A dust cover is arranged on the outer connecting rod.
  • the present invention proposes a brand new linear translation type front suspension system.
  • the maximum difference between the front suspension system and the conventional front suspension system is that the guiding mechanism has a linear guiding function. While bearing the uneven impact of the uneven road surface on the wheel, it is theoretically possible to keep the wheel positioning parameters basically unchanged, thereby improving the steering stability and ride comfort of the vehicle.
  • the front suspension system can be matched and integrated with the traditional rack and pinion steering system, braking system and drive system. It is an extension of the existing patent for the linear translation type rear suspension, which further enhances the linear translation suspension. The scope of application of the frame guiding mechanism.
  • the kinematics of the front suspension system are related to the configuration of the suspension mechanism and are not sensitive to the hard point parameters of the suspension. It is only necessary to ensure that the intersections of the four planes determined by the suspension branches are parallel or coincident. Yes, suspension system
  • the layout is more flexible and can be applied to different models. Therefore, the suspension system is a major breakthrough to the prior art, compared with the conventional McPherson type, double wishbone type and other front suspension systems, with the same wheel positioning parameters, less tire wear, and suspension arrangement. Flexible and insensitive to hard point parameters, improve the handling stability of the car and ride comfort, and a wide range of applications.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic view of the structure of the present invention
  • Figure 2 is a schematic view of the suspension guide mechanism assembly
  • Figure 3 is a schematic view of a steering knuckle
  • Figure 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of the upper suspension guiding mechanism
  • Figure 5 is a schematic structural view of the upper suspension guiding mechanism
  • Figure 6 is a schematic structural view of a lower suspension guiding mechanism
  • Figure 7 is a schematic diagram of the kinematics of the 2-RRR mechanism.
  • the reference numerals in the drawings are: spring damper 1, knuckle 2, upper ball mounting hole 2-1, lower ball mounting hole 2-2, brake 3, upper suspension guiding mechanism 4, upper connecting seat 5 , lower suspension guide mechanism 6, lower joint 7, reinforcement member 8, steering rod 9, drive shaft 10, body 11, rack and pinion steering gear 12, upper ball head pair 13, lower ball head pair 14, brake installation Hole 15, steering rod mounting hole 16, hub unit mounting hole 17, shock absorber mount 18, outer link 19, inner link 20, dust cover 21, ball 22, cage 23, oil seal 24.
  • the linear panning front suspension system with integrated steering and driving functions mainly includes two upper suspension guiding mechanisms 4 and two lower suspension guiding mechanisms 6 and upper connecting seats with linear guiding functions. 5.
  • the guiding mechanism 6 is an over-constrained parallel mechanism, which has only one translational degree of freedom for guiding the wheel jump, realizing that the wheel only jumps in a straight line, and bears the impact of the uneven road on the wheels.
  • the upper connecting seat 5 is fixedly connected to the lower connecting seat 7 by the reinforcing member 8, and is fixed and connected by a reinforcing member 8 to form an integral member.
  • the structural design manner can increase the overall rigidity of the suspension system and improve the bearing capacity of the suspension system. The amount of change in the wheel positioning parameter due to the deformation of the suspension mechanism is reduced.
  • the upper connecting seat 5 is connected with two upper suspension guiding mechanisms 4, the upper connecting seat 5 is connected with the damper mounting seat 18, and the lower connecting seat 7 is connected with the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms 6;
  • the upper ball mounting hole 2-1, the lower ball mounting hole 2-2, the brake mounting hole 15, the steering rod mounting hole 16 and the hub unit mounting hole 17 are provided, and the upper ball joint 13 is provided on the upper connecting seat 5 Installed in the upper ball mounting hole 2-1, the lower ball joint 7 is provided with a lower ball head pair 14 and mounted in the lower ball head mounting hole 2-2;
  • the steering knuckle 2 and the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms 4 Linked by the upper ball head pair 13, the steering knuckle 2 and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms 6 are linked by the lower ball head pair 14, and the mounting axes of the upper ball head pair 13 and the lower ball head pair 14 are collinear, the axis That is, the steering kingpin axis; the swing arm of the knuckle 2 and the steering rod 9 are turned Linked
  • the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms 4 and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms 6 are two upper and two 2-RPR mechanisms, R represents a rotating pair, P represents a moving pair, and 2 represents two RPR kinematic chains; 2-RPR mechanism, the degree of freedom is a translational degree of freedom, the angle defined by the planes of the two RPR kinematic chains is 90°; the two upper suspension guiding mechanisms 4 and the two lower suspension guiding mechanisms 6 include two RPR kinematic chain, in which each of the PRP kinematic chains is parallel to the two axis of rotation and perpendicular to the moving secondary axis; the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and perpendicular to the axis of the rotating axis is called the RPR kinematic chain The determined plane; the four planes defined by the four RPR kinematic chains, whose intersections are parallel or coincident with each other.
  • the upper suspension guiding mechanism 4 and the lower suspension guiding mechanism 6 include an outer connecting rod 19, an inner connecting rod 20, a dust cover 21, a ball 22, a cage 23 and an oil seal 24, and the inner connecting rod 20 is installed on the outer side.
  • the cage 23 is provided with balls 22, and the outer link 19 is provided with a dust cover 21.
  • the two RPR kinematic chains A 1 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 2 C 2 are located in the ⁇ 1 plane and the ⁇ 2 plane, respectively.
  • the two axes of rotation are parallel to each other and are always perpendicular to the corresponding plane, and the axis of the moving pair is always perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the two ends.
  • the intersection of the ⁇ 1 plane and the ⁇ 2 plane is a straight line PQ.
  • a 1 is to move the origin of the sub coordinate system is established A 1 x 1 y 1 z 1 , z 1 axis perpendicular to a plane ⁇ .
  • the mechanism end needs to move in the ⁇ 1 plane and the ⁇ 2 plane at the same time. Therefore, when the two planes are not parallel, the end of the mechanism can only move along the intersection line PQ of the two planes.
  • the 2-RPR mechanism has a linear guidance function. Therefore, both the upper end and the lower 2-RPR mechanism have a linear guiding function.
  • the 4-RPR mechanism composed also has a linear guiding function.
  • Each RPR kinematic chain can provide 3 end constraints, then the four RPR kinematic chains can provide 12 end constraints, while the end of the mechanism has a translational freedom, that is, 5 degrees of freedom are constrained. Since the number of constraints provided at the end of the branch is greater than the number of constraints, the 4-RPR mechanism is an over-constrained parallel mechanism.
  • the present invention Compared with the existing automobile front suspension system, the present invention has the following outstanding advantages: First, the present invention proposes a brand new linear translation type front suspension system, which is the biggest difference from the conventional front suspension system.
  • the guiding mechanism has a linear guiding function, and while being subjected to the impact of the uneven road surface on the wheels, the theoretically, the wheel positioning parameters can be kept substantially unchanged, thereby improving the steering stability and ride comfort of the vehicle.
  • the front suspension system can be matched and integrated with the traditional rack and pinion steering system, braking system and drive system, which is a further supplement to the existing invention patent of the linear translation type rear suspension, further enhancing the linear translation type.
  • the scope of application of the suspension guide mechanism is a brand new linear translation type front suspension system, which is the biggest difference from the conventional front suspension system.
  • the guiding mechanism has a linear guiding function, and while being subjected to the impact of the uneven road surface on the wheels, the theoretically, the wheel positioning parameters can be kept substantially unchanged, thereby improving the steering stability
  • the kinematics of the front suspension system are related to the configuration of the suspension mechanism and are not sensitive to the hard point parameters of the suspension. It is only necessary to ensure that the intersections of the four planes determined by the suspension branches are parallel or coincident. That is, the suspension system is more flexible and can be applied to different models. Therefore, the suspension system is a major breakthrough to the prior art, compared with the conventional McPherson type, double wishbone type and other front suspension systems, with the same wheel positioning parameters, less tire wear, and suspension arrangement. Flexible and insensitive to hard point parameters, improve the handling stability of the car and ride comfort, and a wide range of applications.
  • the present invention may have other embodiments, and any technical solutions formed by equivalent replacement or equivalent transformation fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

Abstract

一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,主要包括具有直线导引功能的二个上悬架导向机构(4)和二个下悬架导向机构(6)、上连接座(5)、下连接座(7)、转向节(2)、加强件(8)、上球头副(13)、下球头副(14)和弹簧减震器(1),上连接座(5)通过加强件(8)固定连接下连接座(7),上连接座(5)与二个上悬架导向机构(4)相连接,上连接座(5)与减震器安装座(18)相连接,下连接座(7)与二个下悬架导向机构(6)相连接。本发明实现了多连杆直线平移式悬架在车辆前轴的应用,车辆处于驱动、转向以及制动等工况时,直线平移式悬架的导向机构仍使得车轮仅沿直线跳动,车轮定位参数基本保持不变,从而尽可能使得车轮与地面垂直,减少了不平路面对车轮的各向冲击载荷。

Description

一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统 技术领域
本发明涉及汽车前悬架系统,更确切地说,是一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统。
背景技术
悬架是保证车轮或者车桥与汽车承载系统(车架或者承载式车身)之间具有弹性联系并能够传递载荷、缓和冲击、衰减振动以及调节汽车在行驶过程中车身位置等有关装置的总称。一般悬架主要由弹性元件、减震装置和导向机构三部分组成。其中导向机构的功能是确保车轮与车身或车架之间所有的力和力矩可靠传递,并决定车轮相对于车身或车架的位移特性。导向机构决定了车轮跳动时的运动轨迹和车轮定位参数的变化情况,以及汽车前后侧倾中心和纵倾中心的位置,在很大程度上影响了整车的操纵稳定性和抗纵倾能力。
传统的前悬架系统均带有转向功能,对于前驱车型还能够与驱动系统匹配。根据悬架结构形不同,目前应用最广泛的前悬架系统主要包括麦弗逊悬架、双横臂悬架和非独立式钢板弹簧悬架。目前常规的悬架虽然在功能上都能够满足悬架设计要求,但是当车轮跳动时,车轮定位参数均会变化。在实际应用中,车轮任何定位参数的变化都会对汽车操纵稳定性或者其他方面性能产生不利影响,比如轮距的变化会导致汽车直线行驶能力下降,同时还造成滚动阻力增大和对转向系统的影响;车轮外倾角的变化会导致轮胎的异常磨损。
如何能够保证车轮跳动时车轮的定位参数不会发生变化是独立悬架结构创新设计中的一个重点和难点。部分研究人员曾提出几种具有直线导引功能的悬架,参见【1.赵景山,褚福磊.竖向平移式空间多连杆独立悬架[P].中国专利:200610113114.2,2007-2-28.】【2.赵景山,赵盛,冯之敬,褚福磊.一种能够保持车轮定位参数不变的后独立悬架[P].中国专利:200910001094.3,2009-7-8.】【3.张杰,赵景山,资小林,刘向,邱宝象,冯之敬.一种采用滚珠花键副的多连杆直线平移式悬架[P].中国专利:201210125268.9,20012-4-25.】【4.资小林,赵景山,张杰,刘向,邱宝象,冯之敬.一种带有3-RRR伸缩补偿机构的多连杆直线导引式独立悬架[P].中国专利:201110215816.2,2011-7-29.】。
但是,上述的一些专利所提出的直线平移式悬架结构只能应用于汽车后轴悬架系统,即单纯起到支撑桥的作用,不能实现与转向和驱动系统的装配集成,从而无法应用于车辆的前悬架系统。
发明内容
本发明的目的在于克服现有技术存在的不足,而提供一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,该结构能够与转向拉杆装配,并通过带有两个球头销的转向节连接件总成,实现前轮转向的功能;同时转向节可与轮毂轴承单元装配,进而安装等速驱动轴,实现前轮的驱动功能。该悬架系统能够使得车轮定位参数,例如车轮前束、外倾角、主销内倾角、主 销后倾角以及轮距、轴距等,在车轮跳动过程中始终保持不变。该悬架的运动学特性是由悬架导向机构的构型决定,所以该悬架的运动学特性对硬点参数不敏感,悬架的布置形式多样,能够应用于不同车型的前悬架系统。
本发明的目的是通过如下技术方案来完成的。这种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,主要包括具有直线导引功能的二个上悬架导向机构和二个下悬架导向机构、上连接座、下连接座、转向节、加强件、上球头副、下球头副和弹簧减震器,所述的二个上悬架导向机构和二个下悬架导向机构为一种过约束的并联机构,该机构只具有一个平移自由度,用于实现车轮跳动的导引;上连接座通过加强件固定连接下连接座,上连接座与二个上悬架导向机构相连接,上连接座与减震器安装座相连接,下连接座与二个下悬架导向机构相连接;加强件上设有上球头安装孔、下球头安装孔、制动器安装孔、转向拉杆安装孔和轮毂单元安装孔,上连接座上设有上球头副并安装在上球头安装孔中,下连接座上设有下球头副并安装在下球头安装孔中;所述转向节与二个上悬架导向机构通过上球头副链接,所述转向节与二个下悬架导向机构通过下球头副链接,且上球头副和下球头副的安装轴线共线,该轴线即为转向主销轴线;转向节的摆臂与转向拉杆通过转向拉杆安装孔链接,转向拉杆进而与齿轮齿条式转向器链接,通过转向拉杆带动转向节转动实现车轮转向;转向节通过制动器安装孔安装有制动器;转向节通过轮毂单元安装孔安装有轮毂单元,轮毂单元一端与车轮链接,另一端与驱动轴链接,通过驱动轴实现车轮驱动;所述弹簧减震器一端通过减震器安装座与上悬架导向机构链接,另一端与车身链接,用于实现汽车避震和衰减车身振动。
所述的二个上悬架导向机构和二个下悬架导向机构为上下两个2-RPR机构,R表示转动副,P表示移动副,2表示两条RPR运动链;所述的2-RPR机构,其自由度为一个平移自由度,两条RPR运动链所确定的平面的夹角为90°;二个上悬架导向机构和二个下悬架导向机构包括各二个RPR运动链,所述的每个PRP运动链中两个转动副轴线平行,且垂直于移动副轴线;过所述移动副轴线,且垂直于所述转动副轴线的平面称为RPR运动链确定的平面;4条RPR运动链所确定的4个平面,它们的交线相互平行或者重合。
所述的上悬架导向机构和下悬架导向机构包括外侧连杆、内侧连杆、防尘罩、滚珠、保持架和油封,内侧连杆安装在外侧连杆内,保持架上设有滚珠,外侧连杆上设有防尘罩。
本发明的有益效果为:首先,本发明提出了一种全新的直线平移式前悬架系统,该前悬架系统较传统前悬架系统最大的区别在于其导向机构具有直线导引功能,在承受不平路面对车轮各向冲击的同时,理论上能够保持车轮定位参数基本不变,进而提高整车的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性。其次,前悬架系统能够与传统的齿轮齿条式转向系统、制动系统、驱动系统进行匹配集成,是对已有的直线平移式后悬架发明专利的扩展,进一步提升了直线平移式悬架导向机构的应用范围。再者,该前悬架系统的运动学特性与悬架机构的构型相关,对悬架的硬点参数不敏感,只需要保证悬架支链所确定的四个平面的交线平行或重合即可,悬架系 统的布置方式更加灵活,可以适用于不同的车型。因此该悬架系统是对现有技术的重大突破,与传统的麦弗逊式、双横臂式等前悬架系统相比较,具有车轮定位参数不变、轮胎磨损较小、悬架布置形式灵活及对硬点参数不敏感、提高汽车的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性、适用范围广泛等优点。
附图说明
图1为本发明的结构示意图;
图2为悬架导向机构总成示意图;
图3为转向节示意图;
图4为上悬架导向机构的结构剖视示意图;
图5为上悬架导向机构的结构示意图;
图6为下悬架导向机构的结构示意图;
图7为2-RRR机构运动学原理图。
附图中的标号分别为:弹簧减震器1,转向节2,上球头安装孔2-1,下球头安装孔2-2,制动器3,上悬架导向机构4,上连接座5,下悬架导向机构6,下连接座7,加强件8,转向拉杆9,驱动轴10,车身11,齿轮齿条式转向器12,上球头副13,下球头副14,制动器安装孔15,转向拉杆安装孔16,轮毂单元安装孔17,减震器安装座18,外侧连杆19,内侧连杆20,防尘罩21,滚珠22,保持架23,油封24。
具体实施方式
下面结合附图和实施例对本发明做进一步说明:
如图所示,这种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,主要包括具有直线导引功能的二个上悬架导向机构4和二个下悬架导向机构6、上连接座5、下连接座7、转向节2、加强件8、上球头副13、下球头副14和弹簧减震器1,所述的二个上悬架导向机构4和二个下悬架导向机构6为一种过约束的并联机构,该机构只具有一个平移自由度,用于实现车轮跳动的导引,实现车轮仅沿直线跳动,并承受不平路面对车轮各向冲击。上连接座5通过加强件8固定连接下连接座7,通过一个加强件8连接固定,形成一个整体构件,这种结构设计方式能够增加悬架系统的整体刚度,提高悬架系统的承载能力,减小由于悬架机构变形导致的车轮定位参数变化量。上连接座5与二个上悬架导向机构4相连接,上连接座5与减震器安装座18相连接,下连接座7与二个下悬架导向机构6相连接;加强件2上设有上球头安装孔2-1、下球头安装孔2-2、制动器安装孔15、转向拉杆安装孔16和轮毂单元安装孔17,上连接座5上设有上球头副13并安装在上球头安装孔2-1中,下连接座7上设有下球头副14并安装在下球头安装孔2-2中;所述转向节2与二个上悬架导向机构4通过上球头副13链接,所述转向节2与二个下悬架导向机构6通过下球头副14链接,且上球头副13和下球头副14的安装轴线共线,该轴线即为转向主销轴线;转向节2的摆臂与转向拉杆9通过转 向拉杆安装孔16链接,转向拉杆9进而与齿轮齿条式转向器12链接,通过转向拉杆9带动转向节2转动实现车轮转向功能;转向节2通过制动器安装孔15安装有制动器3;转向节2通过轮毂单元安装孔17安装有轮毂单元,轮毂单元一端与车轮链接,另一端与驱动轴10链接,通过驱动轴10实现车轮驱动;所述弹簧减震器1一端通过减震器安装座18与上悬架导向机构4链接,另一端与车身11链接,用于实现汽车避震和衰减车身振动。
所述的二个上悬架导向机构4和二个下悬架导向机构6为上下两个2-RPR机构,R表示转动副,P表示移动副,2表示两条RPR运动链;所述的2-RPR机构,其自由度为一个平移自由度,两条RPR运动链所确定的平面的夹角为90°;二个上悬架导向机构4和二个下悬架导向机构6包括各二个RPR运动链,所述的每个PRP运动链中两个转动副轴线平行,且垂直于移动副轴线;过所述移动副轴线,且垂直于所述转动副轴线的平面称为RPR运动链确定的平面;4条RPR运动链所确定的4个平面,它们的交线相互平行或者重合。
所述的上悬架导向机构4和下悬架导向机构6包括外侧连杆19、内侧连杆20、防尘罩21、滚珠22、保持架23和油封24,内侧连杆20安装在外侧连杆19内,保持架23上设有滚珠22,外侧连杆19上设有防尘罩21。
接下来,介绍2-RPR机构的运动学原理,如图7所示,两条RPR运动链A1B1C1和A2B2C2分别位于π1平面、π2平面内,运动链中两个转动副轴线相互平行且始终垂直于相应的平面,移动副的轴线始终与两端的转动副轴线垂直。π1平面与π2平面的交线为直线PQ。以运动副A1为原点建立坐标系A1x1y1z1,z1轴垂直于π1平面。设运动副C1的坐标为C1(xC1,yC1,0),移动副B1的轴线向量为nB1=[cosα sinα 0]T,则三个运动副的运动螺旋分别为:
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000002
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000003
那么运动链末端的瞬时运动螺旋可以表达为:
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000004
所以,当k1+k3≠0时
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000005
表示绕z1轴的转动;当k1+k3=0且k2cosα-k3yC1、k2sinα+k3xC1不同时等于零时,
Figure PCTCN2014095045-appb-000006
表示位于x1A1y1平面内的平移运动。所以,运动链A1B1C1的末端约束为沿z1轴的移动和绕x1、y1轴的转动。也就是说,运功连A1B1C1的末端始终只能够在π1平面内运 动。同理,运功连A2B2C2的末端始终只能够在π2平面内运动。那么,当运动链A1B1C1与A2B2C2末端为同一个构件,即构成2-RPR机构,则机构末端需要同时在π1平面与π2平面内运动。所以当两平面不平行时,机构末端只能够沿两平面的交线PQ运动。也就是说2-RPR机构具有直线导引功能。所以,上端与下端2-RPR机构均具有直线导引功能。当上、下端2-RPR机构通过加强件8固链在一起时,组成的4-RPR机构同样具有直线导引功能。每条RPR运动链可以提供3个末端约束,那么四条RPR运动链可以提供12个末端约束,而同时机构末端具有一个平移自由度,即有5个自由度被约束住。由于支链末端提供的约束数量大于被约束的数目,因而4-RPR机构为过约束并联机构。
相对于现有的汽车前悬架系统,本发明具有如下突出优点:首先,本发明提出了一种全新的直线平移式前悬架系统,该前悬架系统较传统前悬架系统最大的区别在于其导向机构具有直线导引功能,在承受不平路面对车轮各向冲击的同时,理论上能够保持车轮定位参数基本不变,进而提高整车的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性。其次,前悬架系统能够与传统的齿轮齿条式转向系统、制动系统、驱动系统进行匹配集成,是对已有的直线平移式后悬架发明专利的进一步补充,进一步提升了直线平移式悬架导向机构的应用范围。再者,该前悬架系统的运动学特性与悬架机构的构型相关,对悬架的硬点参数不敏感,只需要保证悬架支链所确定的四个平面的交线平行或重合即可,悬架系统的布置方式更加灵活,可以适用于不同的车型。因此该悬架系统是对现有技术的重大突破,与传统的麦弗逊式、双横臂式等前悬架系统相比较,具有车轮定位参数不变、轮胎磨损较小、悬架布置形式灵活及对硬点参数不敏感、提高汽车的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性、适用范围广泛等优点。
除上述实施例外,本发明还可以有其他实施方式,凡采用等同替换或等效变换形成的技术方案,均落在本发明要求的保护范围。

Claims (3)

  1. 一种集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,其特征在于:主要包括具有直线导引功能的二个上悬架导向机构(4)和二个下悬架导向机构(6)、上连接座(5)、下连接座(7)、转向节(2)、加强件(8)、上球头副(13)、下球头副(14)和弹簧减震器(1),所述的二个上悬架导向机构(4)和二个下悬架导向机构(6)为一种过约束的并联机构,该机构只具有一个平移自由度,用于实现车轮跳动的导引;上连接座(5)通过加强件(8)固定连接下连接座(7),上连接座(5)与二个上悬架导向机构(4)相连接,上连接座(5)与减震器安装座(18)相连接,下连接座(7)与二个下悬架导向机构(6)相连接;加强件(2)上设有上球头安装孔(2-1)、下球头安装孔(2-2)、制动器安装孔(15)、转向拉杆安装孔(16)和轮毂单元安装孔(17),上连接座(5)上设有上球头副(13)并安装在上球头安装孔(2-1)中,下连接座(7)上设有下球头副(14)并安装在下球头安装孔(2-2)中;所述转向节(2)与二个上悬架导向机构(4)通过上球头副(13)链接,所述转向节(2)与二个下悬架导向机构(6)通过下球头副(14)链接,且上球头副(13)和下球头副(14)的安装轴线共线,该轴线即为转向主销轴线;转向节(2)的摆臂与转向拉杆(9)通过转向拉杆安装孔(16)链接,转向拉杆(9)进而与齿轮齿条式转向器(12)链接,通过转向拉杆(9)带动转向节(2)转动实现车轮转向;转向节(2)通过制动器安装孔(15)安装有制动器(3);转向节(2)通过轮毂单元安装孔(17)安装有轮毂单元,轮毂单元一端与车轮链接,另一端与驱动轴(10)链接,通过驱动轴(10)实现车轮驱动;所述弹簧减震器(1)一端通过减震器安装座(18)与上悬架导向机构(4)链接,另一端与车身(11)链接,用于实现汽车避震和衰减车身振动。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,其特征在于:所述的二个上悬架导向机构(4)和二个下悬架导向机构(6)为上下两个2-RPR机构,R表示转动副,P表示移动副,2表示两条RPR运动链;所述的2-RPR机构,其自由度为一个平移自由度,两条RPR运动链所确定的平面的夹角为90°;二个上悬架导向机构(4)和二个下悬架导向机构(6)包括各二个RPR运动链,所述的每个PRP运动链中两个转动副轴线平行,且垂直于移动副轴线;过所述移动副轴线,且垂直于所述转动副轴线的平面称为RPR运动链确定的平面;4条RPR运动链所确定的4个平面,它们的交线相互平行或者重合。
  3. 根据权利要求1或2所述的集成转向和驱动功能的直线平移式前悬架系统,其特征在于:所述的上悬架导向机构(4)和下悬架导向机构(6)包括外侧连杆(19)、内侧连杆(20)、防尘罩(21)、滚珠(22)、保持架(23)和油封(24),内侧连杆(20)安装在外侧连杆(19)内,保持架(23)上设有滚珠(22),外侧连杆(19)上设有防尘罩(21)。
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