WO2016004789A1 - 一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器 - Google Patents

一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016004789A1
WO2016004789A1 PCT/CN2015/077637 CN2015077637W WO2016004789A1 WO 2016004789 A1 WO2016004789 A1 WO 2016004789A1 CN 2015077637 W CN2015077637 W CN 2015077637W WO 2016004789 A1 WO2016004789 A1 WO 2016004789A1
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Prior art keywords
inductor
motor
current
refrigeration compressor
starter
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PCT/CN2015/077637
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English (en)
French (fr)
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赵云文
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常熟市天银机电股份有限公司
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Publication of WO2016004789A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016004789A1/zh

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P1/00Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters
    • H02P1/16Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting dynamo-electric motors or dynamo-electric converters
    • H02P1/42Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting dynamo-electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting an individual single-phase induction motor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P1/00Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters
    • H02P1/16Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting dynamo-electric motors or dynamo-electric converters
    • H02P1/42Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting dynamo-electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting an individual single-phase induction motor
    • H02P1/44Arrangements for starting electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting dynamo-electric motors or dynamo-electric converters for starting an individual single-phase induction motor by phase-splitting with a capacitor

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  • the invention belongs to the technical field of motor starting devices, and particularly relates to a novel mutual inductance type non-contact current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor, which is mainly used for starting a commercial refrigeration compressor motor, and can also be used for ordinary single-phase AC induction or The starting of a single-phase AC permanent magnet motor (hereinafter, collectively referred to as a single-phase AC motor).
  • a single-phase AC motor is generally composed of a rotor having a main shaft and a pair of windings, and the stator has a pair of windings, and only when the two stator windings cooperate with each other, a starting torque is generated to start the motor. Due to the difference in design structure, the secondary winding can not only participate in the motor starting, but also continue to participate in the normal operation of the motor. Therefore, the secondary winding circuit of the complete single-phase AC motor can usually be operated by the parallel secondary winding circuit and The secondary winding start circuit is indicated.
  • the secondary winding starting circuit only participates in the work when the motor starts, and when the motor completes the starting, the secondary winding starting circuit is required. Disconnect to turn off its function, causing the motor to switch to normal operation for disconnection.
  • the function of the motor starter is to turn on the secondary winding starting circuit when the motor starts and keep it for a certain time, and disconnect the secondary winding starting circuit after the motor completes the starting process.
  • PTC positive temperature coefficient thermistor
  • the heavy hammer starter is a current type device, and its suction coil is connected in series with the compressor running winding, so it needs to The compressor is strictly matched.
  • the hammer starter is highly reliable, not easy to break, and fails to start (the plug is not plugged in, the system does not form a high and low voltage within a few seconds), it can be restarted in a short time (the best interval of the hot machine is 20 seconds).
  • there are defects such as high cost, limited contact life, and easy sparking or electromagnetic interference during suction and discharge.
  • the Chinese invention patent grant announcement number CN1024157C introduces an "electronic circuit for starting a single-phase induction motor" by using one in the motor starting circuit.
  • the normally triggered, timed off bidirectional thyristor and the corresponding trigger/timing cutoff circuit realize the conversion of the motor starting circuit from the energization on to the timing off, thereby completing the starting of the motor.
  • the circuit With the number of discrete components, for typical applications with long-term intermittent start-ups, the reliability of the motor starting is greatly reduced; especially in the working state of the motor, multiple milliampere operating currents pass through the resistive components in the trigger circuit.
  • the bidirectional thyristor used in the circuit must be reset before the motor starting circuit is turned on, that is, the timer circuit must be de-energized, in the timer After the timing capacitor is substantially discharged after a period of time, the delay of the bidirectional thyristor can be realized again. Otherwise, as long as there is current in the trigger circuit/time-off circuit, the triac will remain in the off state and the motor cannot be completed.
  • Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-94279 utilizes the principle that the current of the motor is different under starting and running conditions, and uses the current detecting resistor placed in the total circuit of the motor to convert the main circuit current (motor total current) signal into a voltage signal, and the patent By setting a “reference current value setter” and a “comparison loop", the main circuit current signal and the set current value are compared, and the bidirectional thyristor connected in the motor starting circuit is controlled according to the comparison result. Break, in order to achieve the purpose of controlling the start-up circuit on and off. However, the circuit uses a resistor to sample the current signal in the total circuit of the motor into a voltage signal.
  • the resistance is a purely resistive component, and the current of the total circuit of the motor is usually at the amperage level or close to the amperage level, the operation of the entire motor is performed.
  • the resistor consumes watt-level or near-watt-level unwanted heating power, making the circuit greatly reduce energy utilization when the motor can be started; in addition, the "reference current value setter” and the “comparison loop” "Auxiliary circuits reduce the reliability of the motor starting function to a certain extent.
  • the Chinese Invention Patent Authorization No. CN1294694C and the Chinese Invention Patent Grant No. CN1283037C recommend two kinds of "mutual-inductive non-contact starters", which are applicable to various types of single-phase AC motors.
  • the above two types of mutual inductance type non-contact starters are characterized by using current transformers, according to different single-phase AC motors, sampling and converting currents at different positions of the motor circuit for triggering serial connection in the motor secondary winding starting circuit Two-way thyristor. They make use of the characteristics that the loop current of the motor at the beginning of the start is much larger than the normal working current.
  • the secondary winding thyristor is triggered and turned on for a short time, thereby completing the starting of the motor.
  • the present invention does not use a PTC component, and uses a current transformer and a triac different from the combination of the Chinese invention patent authorization notice number CN1294694C and the Chinese invention patent authorization announcement number CN1283037C, and supplements the inductor and capacitor to realize commercial refrigeration compression.
  • Machine motor contactless current starter uses a current transformer and a triac different from the combination of the Chinese invention patent authorization notice number CN1294694C and the Chinese invention patent authorization announcement number CN1283037C, and supplements the inductor and capacitor to realize commercial refrigeration compression. Machine motor contactless current starter.
  • the object of the present invention is to provide a novel mutual-sensing non-contact current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor with high starting reliability, good stability, high safety, low power consumption, good versatility and high current consumption. .
  • the technical solution provided by the present invention is: a novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor, the commercial refrigeration compressor motor having at least one main winding and a pair The stator of the winding, the main and auxiliary windings are combined with the terminal L connected to the B end of the AC power source, wherein the novel mutual inductance type contactless current starter comprises a current transformer L1 having a primary coil and a primary coil.
  • a bidirectional thyristor T one end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 and one end of the secondary coil are commonly connected to the A end of the AC power source, the other end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 and the T1 of the triac T
  • the pole is connected to the main winding terminal M of the motor, and the other end of the secondary coil of the current transformer L1 is connected to the G pole of the triac T, and the T2 pole of the triac T is connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes a starting capacitor C1, one end of the starting capacitor C1 and the triac The T2 pole of T is connected, and the other end of the starting capacitor C1 is connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, one end of the inductor L2 and the triac T The T1 pole is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the other end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, one end of the inductor L2 and the triac T The T2 pole is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to one end of the starting capacitor C1.
  • the novel mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, and one end of the inductor L2 and the start capacitor C1 One end is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, one end of the inductor L2 and the bidirectional thyristor The T1 pole of T is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the other end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, one end of the inductor L2 and the bidirectional thyristor The T2 pole of T is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • the novel mutual inductance of the commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes a starting capacitor C1, one end of the starting capacitor C1 is connected to the T1 pole of the triac T, and the other end of the starting capacitor C1 is connected with the other end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1. To the motor main winding terminal M.
  • the novel mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, and one end of the inductor L2 is bidirectionally controllable.
  • the T2 pole of the silicon T is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, one end of the inductor L2 and the bidirectional thyristor The T1 pole of T is connected, and the other end of the inductor L2 is connected to one end of the starting capacitor C1.
  • the novel mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes an inductor L2, and one end of the inductor L2 and the starting capacitor C1 The other end of the inductor L2 is connected to the other end of the primary winding of the current transformer L1 to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • the novel mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor further includes a current limiting resistor R, and one end of the current limiting resistor R is The other end of the secondary winding of the current transformer L1 is connected, and the other end of the current limiting resistor R is connected to the G pole of the triac T.
  • the invention adopts the above structure, and has the beneficial effects compared with the prior art: by using the current transformer L1 to sample the current signal in the motor circuit, the power consumption in the current sampling process can be effectively controlled, thereby greatly improving Energy-saving efficiency;
  • the circuit structure is simple, the number of components is small, the versatility is good, and it can withstand large currents, and the safety of the motor starting is improved while ensuring reliable starting of the motor.
  • Fig. 1 is an electrical schematic diagram showing a first embodiment of the present invention.
  • Fig. 2 is an electrical schematic diagram showing a second embodiment of the present invention.
  • Fig. 3 is an electrical schematic diagram showing a third embodiment of the present invention.
  • Fig. 4 is an electrical schematic diagram showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Fig. 5 is an electrical schematic diagram showing a fifth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 6 is an electrical schematic diagram of a sixth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 7 is an electrical schematic diagram of a seventh embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 8 is an electrical schematic diagram of an eighth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 9 is an electrical schematic diagram of a ninth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 10 is an electrical schematic diagram of a tenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 11 is an electrical schematic diagram of an eleventh embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 12 is an electrical schematic diagram of a twelfth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 13 is an electrical schematic diagram of a thirteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 14 is an electrical schematic diagram of a fourteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 15 is an electrical schematic diagram of a fifteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 16 is an electrical schematic diagram of a sixteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 17 is an electrical schematic diagram of a seventeenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 18 is an electrical schematic diagram of an eighteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 19 is an electrical schematic diagram of a nineteenth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 20 is an electrical schematic diagram of a twentieth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 21 is an electrical schematic diagram of a twenty first embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 22 is an electrical schematic diagram of a twenty-second embodiment of the present invention.
  • C Starting capacitor
  • L Current transformer, L2. Inductance
  • T Bidirectional thyristor
  • R Current limiting resistor
  • FIG. 1 is Embodiment 1.
  • a novel mutual inductance type non-contact current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor wherein the commercial refrigeration compressor motor has a stator composed of at least one main winding and a secondary winding, and the main winding end of the motor is set to M, the motor pair The winding terminal is set to S, the main and auxiliary windings of the motor are combined to be L; the external connection terminals of the external AC power supply AC corresponding to the commercial refrigeration compressor motor are respectively set to the A end and the B end, and the A end and the B end can be respectively Interchange, the main and auxiliary windings are combined with the terminal L to connect to the B terminal of the AC power supply.
  • the novel mutual-inductance non-contact current starter comprises a current transformer L1 having a primary coil and a primary coil, and a triac T, the first and second coils of the primary coil of the current transformer L1
  • the 3 terminals are connected to the A terminal of the AC power supply
  • the 2 terminals of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 and the T1 pole of the triac T are commonly connected to the motor main winding terminal M
  • the 4 terminals of the secondary coil of the current transformer L1 are
  • the G-pole of the triac T is connected
  • the T2 pole of the triac T is connected to the motor sub-winding terminal S.
  • the current transformer L1 and the triac T are conventional components, current transformers One end and one end of L1 are one end and the other end of the primary coil, and the ends 3 and 4 are one end and the other end of the secondary coil.
  • FIG. 1 Please continue to refer to FIG. 1 to explain the working principle of this embodiment.
  • a large starting current is generated in the main winding circuit of the motor because the rotor of the motor has not been rotated at a high speed.
  • the current transformer L1 generates a large secondary induced current corresponding to the motor starting current in the primary coil in the secondary coil because the primary coil is connected in series in the main winding loop of the motor.
  • the induced current can trigger the triac T to conduct.
  • the motor starter circuit is turned on to enter the working state. At this point, the motor starts to start, and the rotor speed rises rapidly.
  • the motor starter circuit When the AC current flowing through the circuit reaches zero, the motor starter circuit is basically disconnected, and the motor enters the normal running state. After the motor enters the running state, the operating current of the motor circuit system also drops to a near normal working current, and the secondary induced current of the current transformer L1 also drops sharply, and finally the triac T conduction cannot be triggered.
  • the motor starter circuit When the motor starter circuit is completely disconnected. Since the motor is in normal operation at this time, the triac T can no longer be triggered by the output current of the secondary coil of the current transformer L1, and the motor starter circuit will remain in the current state until the motor stops rotating, thereby realizing the motor.
  • the starter circuit only works when the motor is started, and turns off when the motor enters normal operation to turn off its function.
  • the circuit uses the current transformer L1 to collect the current signal in the motor circuit, which can effectively control the power consumption during the current sampling process. It is verified that the power consumption can usually be as low as milliwatts, that is, the so-called “zero” is realized. Power consumption “commercial refrigeration compressor motor starter, which greatly improves energy efficiency.
  • the starting capacitor C1 is used to assist the motor starter circuit to be turned into an active state or turned off to turn off its function.
  • FIG. 3 is a third embodiment of the present invention.
  • the inductor L2 is added to the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for the commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the second embodiment, and the first end of the inductor L2 is The T1 pole of the triac T is connected, and the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to the two ends of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • the inductor L2 is a conventional component, and the terminals 1 and 2 are the one end and the other end of the inductor L2.
  • Inductor L2 is also used to assist the motor starter circuit to be brought into operation or disconnected to turn off its function.
  • FIG. 4 is a fourth embodiment.
  • a new type of mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the second embodiment is provided with an inductor L2, and one end of the inductor L2. Connected to the T2 pole of the triac T, the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to one end of the starting capacitor C1.
  • FIG. 5 is a fifth embodiment, and the same is a new type of commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the second embodiment.
  • An inductance L2 is added to the mutual inductance type contactless current starter, one end of the inductor L2 is connected to the other end of the starting capacitor C1, and the second end of the inductor L2 is connected to the motor secondary winding lead end S.
  • FIG. 6 is a sixth embodiment of the present invention.
  • the inductor L2 is added to the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for the commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the first embodiment, and the first end of the inductor L2 is The T1 pole of the triac T is connected, and the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to the two ends of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • FIG. 7 is a seventh embodiment. Also, an inductor L2 is added to the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for the commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the first embodiment. One end of the inductor L2 is provided. Connected to the T2 pole of the bidirectional thyristor T, the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • FIG. 8 is a first embodiment of the present invention.
  • a new type of mutual inductance type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the first embodiment is provided with a dynamic capacitor C1, one end of the starting capacitor C1. Connected to the T1 pole of the triac T, the other end of the starting capacitor C1 and the 2 end of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 are commonly connected to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • FIG. 9 is a ninth embodiment of the present invention, in which a inductor L2 is added to a novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor, and the first end of the inductor L2 is The T2 pole of the two-way thyristor T is connected, and the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to the motor secondary winding terminal S.
  • FIG. 10 is a tenth embodiment.
  • a new inductor-type contactless current starter for a commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to Embodiment 8 is provided with an inductor L2, and one end of the inductor L2. Connected to the T1 pole of the triac T, the two ends of the inductor L2 are connected to one end of the starting capacitor C1.
  • FIG. 11 is an embodiment 11. Also, an inductor L2 is added to the novel mutual-sensing contactless current starter for the commercial refrigeration compressor motor according to the eighth embodiment, and the inductor L2 has one end. Connected to the other end of the starting capacitor C1, the two ends of the inductor L2 and the two ends of the primary coil of the current transformer L1 are commonly connected to the motor main winding terminal M.
  • FIGS. 12-22 are Embodiments 12-22, respectively.
  • the G-pole of the triac T and the four-terminal of the secondary coil of the current transformer L1 described in Embodiments 1-11 are respectively.
  • a current limiting resistor R is connected in series.
  • the current changes of the different motors and the primary coils of the current transformer L1 are different, and the phase relationship of the currents in the motor starting circuit is also different.
  • the secondary coil of the current transformer L1 can obtain the trigger current with the best phase relationship with the current in the motor starter circuit, and at the same time, the trigger current can obtain the optimal change required for starting the motor, and is used for triggering the serial connection.

Abstract

商用制冷压缩机电机用互感式无触点电流起动器,包括具备一初级线圈和一次级线圈的电流互感器(L1)以及双向可控硅(T),电流互感器(L1)初级线圈的一端(1)与次级线圈的一端(3)共同连接交流电源的A端,电流互感器(L1)初级线圈的另一端(2)和双向可控硅(T)的T1极共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M,电流互感器(L1)次级线圈的另一端(4)与双向可控硅(T)的G极连接,双向可控硅(T)的T2极与电机副绕组引出端(S)连接,电机主、副绕组合并引出端(L)连接交流电源的B端。使用电流互感器(L1)采样电机电流,能有效控制功率消耗,节能效率高,电路结构简单,通用性好,能够承受大电流,在保证电机可靠起动的同时,提高了电机起动的安全性。

Description

一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器 技术领域
本发明属于电机起动装置技术领域,具体涉及一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,主要用于商用制冷压缩机电机的起动,亦可用于普通单相交流感应式或单相交流永磁式电机(以下,统称为单相交流电机)的起动。
背景技术
单相交流电机通常由转子和定子构成,所述的定子具有主、副两组绕组,只有当两个定子绕组相互配合才能产生起动转矩,使电机起动。由于设计结构的不同,副绕组除了起到电机起动的作用外,也可在电机正常运行时继续参加工作,因此,完整的单相交流电机的副绕组电路通常可以由并联的副绕组运行电路和副绕组起动电路表示。对于正常运行时副绕组不能参加工作的电机,则没有所述的副绕组运行电路;而所述的副绕组起动电路仅在电机起动时参加工作,当电机完成起动后,需要将副绕组起动电路断开以关闭其功能,使电机切换到正常工作状态实现断开。电机起动器的作用就是在电机起动时接通副绕组起动电路并保持一定时间,并在电机完成起动过程后断开副绕组起动电路,目前通常由正温度系数热敏电阻(PTC)元件来实现。当电机起动时,正温度系数热敏电阻的阻值为其常温阻值,当副绕组起动电路接通电源参与工作时,电路中会产生较大的副绕组起动电流。在该电流的作用下,PTC元件迅速发热升温,其阻值迅速增大,最终使副绕组起动电路基本断开。在电机正常运行时,PTC元件中仍然需要一能维持其发热的较小电流,用于保持副绕组起动电路的断开状态。由该电流在PTC元件上产生的功耗约为3瓦,由于此种电机应用广泛,因此该发热功耗会导致电能的大量浪费。对于较大功率压缩机(功率范围:50~400W)的起动,则主要依赖重锤式起动器,重锤式起动器是电流型器件,其吸合线圈与压缩机运行绕组串联,因此需要与压缩机作严格的匹配。虽然重锤式起动器可靠性高,不易坏,且起动失败(插头没插紧,在几秒内系统未形成高低压)之后可在短时间(热机最好间隔20秒)内再次起动。但存在成本高、触点寿命有限、吸放时容易产生火花或电磁干扰等缺陷。
在已公开的中国专利文献中不乏关于电机起动器的技术信息,中国发明专利授权公告号CN1024157C介绍了一种“用于启动单相感应电机的电子电路”,其通过在电机起动电路中使用一个常态触发、定时截止的双向可控硅以及相对应的触发/定时截止电路,实现电机起动电路从通电接通到定时断开的转换,从而完成电机的起动。但是,该电路所 用分立元件的数量,对于长期频繁间歇起动的典型应用场合,在很大程度上会降低电机起动的可靠性;尤其在电机工作状态下,多个毫安的工作电流通过触发电路中的电阻元件和定时截止电路中的多个晶体管,且该电子电路运作于复杂的电机工作电路中,未与复杂的用电环境作有效隔离,因此整个脆弱的弱电电路系统没有得到良好的保护,会给电机系统的可靠性带来巨大的负面影响;另外,该电路中采用的双向可控硅在电机起动电路接通前,必须要实现定时器的复位,即必须使定时器电路失电,在定时器定时电容经一段时间基本完成放电后,才能再次实现双向可控硅的延时截止,否则,只要在触发电路/定时截止电路中有电流存在,双向可控硅将一直处于截止状态,无法完成电机从非运转小电流状态到起动的转变。日本专利文献特开平10-94279利用电机在起动和运转情况下电流不同的原理,利用放置在电机总回路中的电流检测电阻将主回路电流(电机总电流)信号转变为电压信号,同时该专利通过设定一个“基准电流值设定器”和“比较回路”,对主电路电流信号和设定电流值进行比较,根据该比较结果来控制电机起动电路中串入的双向可控硅的通断,以此达到控制起动电路通断的目的。但该电路利用电阻来将电机总回路中的电流信号采样成电压信号,由于电阻是纯阻性元件,且电机总回路的电流通常都在安培级或接近安培级,因此在整个电机的运行过程中,该电阻消耗了瓦特级或者接近瓦特级的无用发热功耗,使得该电路在能够起动电机的情况下大大降低了能源的利用率;此外,“基准电流值设定器”和“比较回路”等辅助电路在一定程度上降低了电机起动功能的可靠性。中国发明专利授权公告号CN1294694C以及中国发明专利授权公告号CN1283037C推荐的两种“互感式无触点起动器”,分别适用于各种不同类型的单相交流电机。上述两种互感式无触点起动器的特点是采用电流互感器,根据单相交流电机的不同,在电机电路的不同位置对电流进行采样转换,用于触发串接在电机副绕组起动电路中的双向可控硅。它们利用了电机在起动之初的回路电流远远大于正常工作电流的特点,在电机起动时触发副绕组双向可控硅并使其短时间内导通,以此完成电机的起动。而本发明不使用PTC元件,通过使用电流互感器和双向可控硅不同于中国发明专利授权公告号CN1294694C以及中国发明专利授权公告号CN1283037C的组合方式,并辅以电感、电容来实现商用制冷压缩机电机无触点电流起动器。
鉴于上述已有技术,有必要对现有的电机起动器的结构加以改进,为此,本申请人作了有益的设计,下面将要介绍的技术方案便是在这种背景下产生的。
发明内容
本发明的任务在于提供一种起动可靠性高、稳定性好、安全性高、消耗功率少、通用性良好,且能承受大电流的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器。
为了完成所述的任务,本发明所提供的技术方案是:一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,所述的商用制冷压缩机电机具有由至少一个主绕组和副绕组构成的定子,主、副绕组合并引出端L连接交流电源的B端,其特征在于,所述的新型互感式无触点电流起动器包括具备一初级线圈和一次级线圈的电流互感器L1以及双向可控硅T,所述的电流互感器L1初级线圈的一端与次级线圈的一端共同连接至交流电源的A端,电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端和双向可控硅T的T1极共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M,电流互感器L1次级线圈的另一端与双向可控硅T的G极连接,双向可控硅T的T2极与电机副绕组引出端S连接。
在本发明的一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,起动电容C1的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
在本发明的另一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
在本发明的又一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端与起动电容C1的一端连接。
在本发明的再一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
在本发明的还有一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
在本发明的更而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
在本发明的进而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感 式无触点电流起动器还包括起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,起动电容C1的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
在本发明的又更而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
在本发明的又进而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端连接起动电容C1的一端。
在本发明的再更而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
在本发明的再进而一个具体的实施例中,所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器还包括限流电阻R,所述的限流电阻R的一端与电流互感器L1次级线圈的另一端连接,限流电阻R的另一端连接所述的双向可控硅T的G极。
本发明由于采用了上述结构,与现有技术相比,具有的有益效果:通过使用电流互感器L1采样电机回路中的电流信号,可以有效控制在电流采样过程中产生功率消耗,从而极大地提高节能效率;另外,电路结构简单,元件数量少,通用性好,能够承受大电流,在保证电机可靠起动的同时,提高了电机起动的安全性。
附图说明
图1为本发明的第1种实施例的电原理图。
图2为本发明的第2种实施例的电原理图。
图3为本发明的第3种实施例的电原理图。
图4为本发明的第4种实施例的电原理图。
图5为本发明的第5种实施例的电原理图。
图6为本发明的第6种实施例的电原理图。
图7为本发明的第7种实施例的电原理图。
图8为本发明的第8种实施例的电原理图。
图9为本发明的第9种实施例的电原理图。
图10为本发明的第10种实施例的电原理图。
图11为本发明的第11种实施例的电原理图。
图12为本发明的第12种实施例的电原理图。
图13为本发明的第13种实施例的电原理图。
图14为本发明的第14种实施例的电原理图。
图15为本发明的第15种实施例的电原理图。
图16为本发明的第16种实施例的电原理图。
图17为本发明的第17种实施例的电原理图。
图18为本发明的第18种实施例的电原理图。
图19为本发明的第19种实施例的电原理图。
图20为本发明的第20种实施例的电原理图。
图21为本发明的第21种实施例的电原理图。
图22为本发明的第22种实施例的电原理图。
图中:C1.起动电容;L1.电流互感器、L2.电感;T.双向可控硅;R.限流电阻。
具体实施方式
为了使公众能充分了解本发明的技术实质和有益效果,申请人将在下面结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式详细描述,但申请人对实施例的描述不是对技术方案的限制,任何依据本发明构思作形式而非实质的变化都应当视为本发明的保护范围。
请参阅图1,图1为实施例1。一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,所述的商用制冷压缩机电机具有由至少一个主绕组和副绕组构成的定子,电机主绕组引出端设为M,电机副绕组引出端设为S,电机主、副绕组合并引出端设为L;商用制冷压缩机电机对应的外部交流电源AC的两对外连接端分别设为A端和B端,A端和B端可以互换,主、副绕组合并引出端L连接交流电源的B端。所述的新型互感式无触点电流起动器包括具备一初级线圈和一次级线圈的电流互感器L1以及双向可控硅T,所述的电流互感器L1初级线圈的1端与次级线圈的3端共同连接至交流电源的A端,电流互感器L1初级线圈的2端和双向可控硅T的T1极共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M,电流互感器L1次级线圈的4端与双向可控硅T的G极连接,双向可控硅T的T2极与电机副绕组引出端S连接。此处,电流互感器L1以及双向可控硅T均为常规元件,电流互感器 L1的1、2端即为初级线圈的一端和另一端,3、4端即为次级线圈的一端和另一端。
请继续参阅图1,对本实施例的工作原理进行说明。在电机开始起动之初,由于电机转子尚未高速转动,在电机主绕组回路中会产生一较大的起动电流。电流互感器L1由于初级线圈串接在电机的主绕组回路中,因此会在次级线圈中产生一对应于初级线圈中电机起动电流的较大的次级感应电流。通过选择适当的电流互感器L1的参数,可以使该感应电流触发双向可控硅T导通。双向可控硅T导通后使电机起动器电路接通进入工作状态。此时,电机开始起动,转子转速迅速上升,当流过电路的交流电达到零点时,电机起动器电路基本断开,电机进入正常运行状态。在电机进入运行状态后,电机电路系统的工作电流也大幅下降到接近正常工作状态电流,电流互感器L1的次级感应电流也随之大幅下降,最终无法触发双向可控硅T导通,此时,电机起动器电路被完全断开。由于此时电机已处于正常运行状态,因此双向可控硅T已不能被电流互感器L1次级线圈的输出电流触发,电机起动器电路将一直保持当前状态,直至电机停止转动,由此实现电机起动器电路仅在电机起动时参与工作,而在电机进入正常工作状态后断开以关闭其功能。该电路使用电流互感器L1采集电机回路中的电流信号,可以有效控制电流采样过程中的功率消耗,经验证,该功耗通常都能低达毫瓦级,即实现了通常所说的“零功耗”商用制冷压缩机电机起动器,从而极大地提高了节能效率。
请参阅图2,图2为实施例2,是在实施例1所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,起动电容C1的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。所述的起动电容C1用于辅助电机起动器电路接通进入工作状态或断开以关闭其功能。
请参阅图3,图3为实施例3,是在实施例2所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的2端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的2端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。所述的电感L2为常规元件,其的1、2端即为电感L2的一端和另一端。电感L2同样用于辅助电机起动器电路接通进入工作状态或断开以关闭其功能。
请参阅图4,图4为实施例4,同样是在实施例2所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的2端与起动电容C1的一端连接。
请参阅图5,图5为实施例5,同样是在实施例2所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型 互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的2端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
请参阅图6,图6为实施例6,是在实施例1所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的2端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的2端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
请参阅图7,图7为实施例7,同样是在实施例1所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的2端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
请参阅图8,图8为实施例8,是在实施例1所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,起动电容C1的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的2端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
请参阅图9,图9为实施例9,是在实施例8所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的2端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
请参阅图10,图10为实施例10,同样是在实施例8所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的2端连接起动电容C1的一端。
请参阅图11,图11为实施例11,同样是在实施例8所述的商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器中增设一电感L2,所述的电感L2的1端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的2端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的2端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
请参阅图12~22,图12~22分别为实施例12~22,是对实施例1~11中所述的双向可控硅T的G极和电流互感器L1次级线圈的4端之间串联一限流电阻R。通过选择适当的电流互感器L1的参数和限流电阻R的阻值,可以在电机开始起动之初、电机转子尚未高速转动时,使电流互感器L1次级线圈中产生的较大的次级感应电流能够触发双向可控硅T导通,而电机的正常工作状态电流无法触发双向可控硅T导通。
在上述各实施例中,不同的电机与电流互感器L1初级线圈串接处的电流变化情况各有不相同,与电机起动电路中电流的相位关系也各不相同。通过选择以上各种不同的实 施方式,可以使电流互感器L1次级线圈获得与电机起动器电路中的电流相位关系最佳的触发电流,同时使触发电流获得起动电机所需的最佳变化情况,用于触发串接在电机起动器电路中的双向可控硅T。

Claims (12)

  1. 一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,所述的商用制冷压缩机电机具有由至少一个主绕组和副绕组构成的定子,主、副绕组合并引出端L连接交流电源的B端,其特征在于:所述的新型互感式无触点电流起动器包括具备一初级线圈和一次级线圈的电流互感器L1以及双向可控硅T,所述的电流互感器L1初级线圈的一端与次级线圈的一端共同连接至交流电源的A端,电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端和双向可控硅T的T1极共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M,电流互感器L1次级线圈的另一端与双向可控硅T的G极连接,双向可控硅T的T2极与电机副绕组引出端S连接。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,起动电容C1的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
  4. 根据权利要求2所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端与起动电容C1的一端连接。
  5. 根据权利要求2所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括起动电容C1,所述的起动电容C1的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极 连接,起动电容C1的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T2极连接,电感L2的另一端连接电机副绕组引出端S。
  10. 根据权利要求8所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与双向可控硅T的T1极连接,电感L2的另一端连接起动电容C1的一端。
  11. 根据权利要求8所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括电感L2,所述的电感L2的一端与起动电容C1的另一端连接,电感L2的另一端与电流互感器L1初级线圈的另一端共同连接至电机主绕组引出端M。
  12. 根据权利要求1~11中任一项所述的一种商用制冷压缩机电机用新型互感式无触点电流起动器,其特征在于还包括限流电阻R,所述的限流电阻R的一端与电流互感器L1次级线圈的另一端连接,限流电阻R的另一端连接所述的双向可控硅T的G极。
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