WO2015035894A1 - Method for producing profile for aircraft wing stringer - Google Patents

Method for producing profile for aircraft wing stringer Download PDF

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WO2015035894A1
WO2015035894A1 PCT/CN2014/086114 CN2014086114W WO2015035894A1 WO 2015035894 A1 WO2015035894 A1 WO 2015035894A1 CN 2014086114 W CN2014086114 W CN 2014086114W WO 2015035894 A1 WO2015035894 A1 WO 2015035894A1
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aluminum alloy
profile
temperature
collector
nozzle
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PCT/CN2014/086114
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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滕奎
张豪
段瑞芬
章骏
李红萍
张捷
范曦
冯永平
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中国商用飞机有限责任公司
中国商用飞机有限责任公司上海飞机设计研究院
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Priority to CN201310415627.9A priority Critical patent/CN103451583B/en
Priority to CN201310415627.9 priority
Application filed by 中国商用飞机有限责任公司, 中国商用飞机有限责任公司上海飞机设计研究院 filed Critical 中国商用飞机有限责任公司
Publication of WO2015035894A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015035894A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/10Alloys based on aluminium with zinc as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/053Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with zinc as the next major constituent

Abstract

A method for producing an aluminum alloy profile for a stringer of an aircraft wing comprises: determining the composition of an aluminum alloy, and calculating required quantity of raw materials according to the determined composition of the aluminum alloy; melting and refining the raw materials, to produce a molten aluminum alloy material; performing spray forming in a double-nozzle spray forming device, to form a billet; after the billet is formed, performing backward extrusion on the billet in a backward extruder, to form an aluminum alloy profile.

Description

生产飞机机翼长桁用型材的方法Method for producing profiles for aircraft wing lengths 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种生产用于飞机机翼长桁的型材的方法,更具体来说,本发明涉及用例如7055铝合金之类的铝合金来生产机翼长桁的方法。The present invention relates to a method of producing a profile for a long wing of an aircraft wing, and more particularly to a method of producing a long wing of a wing using an aluminum alloy such as 7055 aluminum alloy.
背景技术Background technique
机翼长桁是飞机机翼中关键的负荷承载结构件,因此,对选择用来制造机翼长桁的材料有较高的要求,所涉及的指标包括综合力学性能、疲劳性能、抗蚀性能等。The wing long raft is a key load-bearing structural part in the wing of the aircraft. Therefore, there are high requirements for the materials selected for the manufacture of the long wing of the wing. The indicators involved include comprehensive mechanical properties, fatigue properties, and corrosion resistance. Wait.
7055铝合金是目前变形铝合金中强度最高的合金,因此在许多场合用7055铝合金来生产机翼长桁。而要用来生产机翼长桁,则需要7055铝合金型材具有较大的厚度。7055铝合金的主要特点是,强度高、断裂韧性好、抗疲劳裂纹扩展能力强,且该种合金对晶间破裂和腐蚀都有较好的抵抗能力。7055 aluminum alloy is the most strong alloy in the current deformed aluminum alloy, so in many occasions 7055 aluminum alloy is used to produce the long wing of the wing. For the production of wing long rafts, the 7055 aluminum alloy profile is required to have a large thickness. The main features of 7055 aluminum alloy are high strength, good fracture toughness and strong fatigue crack growth resistance, and the alloy has good resistance to intergranular cracking and corrosion.
目前,用于机翼长桁的型材的生产工艺流程是:首先通过铸造工艺来生产型材的铸锭;然后,通过正向挤压工艺,生产出具有规定形状和规格的型材。At present, the production process of the profile for the long wing of the wing is: first, the ingot of the profile is produced by a casting process; and then, the profile having the specified shape and specification is produced by a forward extrusion process.
但是,对于7055铝合金来说,由于其具有很高的强度,因此在将上述生产工艺应用于7055铝合金时会产生问题。However, for the 7055 aluminum alloy, since it has a high strength, there is a problem in applying the above production process to the 7055 aluminum alloy.
首先,从铸造铝锭的工艺角度来说,由于7055合金含量在已有高强度铝合金中其强度最高,因此在铸造过程会存在缓慢凝固所引起的组织缺陷,容易产生严重的宏观偏析、粗大的晶粒和合金相,开裂倾向严重。因此,7055铝合金的铸造生产难度在所有的铝合金中是最大的。并且,在铸造过程中产生的缺陷会影响后续的成型加工性能和力学性能;First of all, from the perspective of the process of casting aluminum ingots, since the content of 7055 alloy is the highest in existing high-strength aluminum alloys, there will be structural defects caused by slow solidification during the casting process, which is prone to severe macrosegregation and coarseness. The grain and alloy phases have a strong tendency to crack. Therefore, the casting difficulty of the 7055 aluminum alloy is the largest among all aluminum alloys. Moreover, defects generated during the casting process may affect subsequent molding processability and mechanical properties;
其次,从挤压成形工艺角度来说,在正向挤压时,铸锭和挤压筒之间存在有较大的摩擦力,而这种摩擦力会导致金属流动以及变形不均匀性,从而难以保证产品组织的一致性。同时,铸锭表层在金属变形时剪切变形激烈,容易形成较大的粗晶环。Secondly, from the viewpoint of the extrusion forming process, there is a large frictional force between the ingot and the extrusion cylinder during the forward extrusion, and this frictional force causes metal flow and deformation unevenness, thereby It is difficult to guarantee the consistency of product organization. At the same time, the surface of the ingot is severely sheared and deformed when the metal is deformed, and a large coarse crystal ring is easily formed.
目前,就国内来说,尚未掌握7055铝合金型材的成分控制、熔铸工艺、型 材挤压和热处理工艺等各方面的关键技术,按传统生产工艺生产出的型材无法满足应用于飞机机翼长桁的需求。而在国际上,目前只有美国铝业能生产此种铝合金型材。但是,受7055铝合金难以铸造的制约,其产品的成品率和稳定性方面均存在问题。At present, for the domestic, the composition control, casting process, and type of 7055 aluminum alloy profiles have not yet been mastered. The key technologies in various aspects such as material extrusion and heat treatment process, the profiles produced by the traditional production process can not meet the needs of the long wing of the aircraft. At the international level, only the aluminum industry can produce such aluminum alloy profiles. However, due to the difficulty of casting the 7055 aluminum alloy, there are problems in the yield and stability of the product.
因此,在飞机制造领域中,需要一种改进的生产机翼长桁、尤其是用7055铝合金来生产机翼长桁的方法。Therefore, in the field of aircraft manufacturing, there is a need for an improved method of producing a long wing of a wing, especially a 7055 aluminum alloy for producing a long wing of a wing.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明是为了解决现有技术中的上述问题而作出的,其目的在于提供一种生产飞机机翼长桁用型材的方法,尤其是用7055铝合金来生产该型材,该方法可以减少铸造锭坯的均匀化工序,节约生产时间和成本,并解决正向挤压过程带来的严重粗晶环及力学性能不一致问题,使材料的综合性能达到机翼长桁的技术要求。The present invention has been made to solve the above problems in the prior art, and an object thereof is to provide a method for producing a profile for an aircraft wing long raft, in particular to use a 7055 aluminum alloy to produce the profile, which can reduce the casting ingot. The homogenization process of the billet saves production time and cost, and solves the problem of inconsistency of serious coarse crystal ring and mechanical properties brought about by the forward extrusion process, so that the comprehensive performance of the material can meet the technical requirements of the long wing of the wing.
根据本发明的生产飞机机翼长桁用铝合金型材的方法包括如下步骤:a.确定铝合金的成分,并依据所确定的铝合金成分来计算原料的用量;b.熔化并精炼原料,以形成熔融铝合金材料;c.在双喷嘴喷射成形装置中进行喷射成形,以形成坯锭;以及d.在形成坯锭之后,在反向挤压机中对坯锭进行反向挤压,以形成铝合金型材。The method for producing an aluminum alloy profile for aircraft wing length according to the present invention comprises the steps of: a. determining the composition of the aluminum alloy, and calculating the amount of the raw material according to the determined aluminum alloy composition; b. melting and refining the raw material to Forming a molten aluminum alloy material; c. performing spray forming in a two-nozzle spray forming apparatus to form a billet; and d. after forming the billet, inverting the billet in a reverse extruder to Forming an aluminum alloy profile.
通过对合金成分的优化以及采用喷射成形工艺来生产铝合金的坯锭,使坯锭的微观组织精细均匀,从而提高型材的综合性能。此外,利用反向挤压技术,可减少材料组织的粗晶环缺陷,提高型材的表面质量,且可提高挤压型材的头、尾力学性能的一致性。By optimizing the composition of the alloy and using the spray forming process to produce the billet of the aluminum alloy, the microstructure of the billet is fine and uniform, thereby improving the overall performance of the profile. In addition, by using the reverse extrusion technology, the coarse crystal ring defects of the material structure can be reduced, the surface quality of the profile can be improved, and the consistency of the mechanical properties of the head and the tail of the extruded profile can be improved.
较佳地,方法还包括以下步骤中的至少一个:e.在步骤c和步骤d之间,对坯锭进行车削加工和预挤压;f.在步骤d之后,对铝合金型材进行固溶热处理和应力消除;g.在步骤d之后,对铝合金型材进行双级时效处理;以及h.在步骤d之后,对铝合金型材进行矫直。Preferably, the method further comprises at least one of the following steps: e. turning and pre-extruding the ingot between steps c and d; f. after step d, solidifying the aluminum alloy profile Heat treatment and stress relief; g. After step d, the aluminum alloy profile is subjected to two-stage aging treatment; and h. after step d, the aluminum alloy profile is straightened.
在本发明中,经优化的铝合金成分如下:Si≤0.08%,Fe≤0.12%,Cu2.2~2.5%,Mn≤0.5%,Mg1.8~2.1%,Cr≤0.4%,Zn7.8~8.2%,Ti≤0.06%,Zr0.10~0.13%,其他杂质合计不大于0.15%,余量为铝。In the present invention, the optimized aluminum alloy composition is as follows: Si ≤ 0.08%, Fe ≤ 0.12%, Cu 2.2 to 2.5%, Mn ≤ 0.5%, Mg 1.8 to 2.1%, Cr ≤ 0.4%, Zn 7.8 ~8.2%, Ti≤0.06%, Zr0.10~0.13%, the total amount of other impurities is not more than 0.15%, and the balance is aluminum.
较佳地,双喷嘴喷射成形装置包括:沉积室,沉积室中设置有可旋转和 可升降的收集器,收集器具有沉积盘;以及漏包,漏包容纳熔融铝合金材料,并且漏包设置有至少一个喷嘴;其中,至少一个喷嘴向收集器的沉积盘喷射熔融铝合金材料,熔融铝合金材料在沉积盘上凝固,并且,在喷射的同时,收集器旋转并下降,从而在收集器的沉积盘上形成坯锭。Preferably, the dual nozzle spray forming device comprises: a deposition chamber in which the spin chamber is provided with a rotatable a hoistable collector having a deposition tray; and a leakage pack containing a molten aluminum alloy material, and the leakage package is provided with at least one nozzle; wherein at least one nozzle sprays the molten aluminum alloy material to the deposition tray of the collector, The molten aluminum alloy material solidifies on the deposition disk, and while being sprayed, the collector rotates and descends to form a billet on the deposition tray of the collector.
在反向挤压的过程中,挤压机的挤压筒温度为380~420℃,且反向挤压速度为3~5mm/分钟。In the reverse extrusion process, the extruder has a barrel temperature of 380 to 420 ° C and a reverse extrusion speed of 3 to 5 mm/min.
喷射成形过程中,可以包括如下参数中的至少一个:熔融铝合金材料的喷射温度在685~710℃的范围内,漏包液位高度控制在200~540mm,喷嘴口的直径可以为5~10mm,喷嘴的喷射高度为350~700mm,收集器的沉积盘的旋转速度为35~200rpm,收集器的下降速度为10~60mm/min,喷嘴的摆动角度可为4~10°,而其摆动频率为2~20HZ,以及所喷出的铝合金的雾化压力为0.5~1.5MPa。During the injection molding process, at least one of the following parameters may be included: the injection temperature of the molten aluminum alloy material is in the range of 685 to 710 ° C, the drain liquid level is controlled to be 200 to 540 mm, and the diameter of the nozzle opening may be 5 to 10 mm. The spray height of the nozzle is 350-700 mm, the rotation speed of the deposition disk of the collector is 35-200 rpm, the descending speed of the collector is 10-60 mm/min, and the swing angle of the nozzle can be 4-10, and the swing frequency thereof It is 2 to 20 Hz, and the atomization pressure of the aluminum alloy to be ejected is 0.5 to 1.5 MPa.
较佳地,所述固溶热处理包括:用时2小时,将型材坯料从室温升至400~460℃,此后保温0.5小时;接着,用时0.5小时,将型材坯料温度升至460~480℃,并在此温度下保温1小时;然后,对型材坯料进行水冷淬火;最后,将坯料的入水前温度控制在460~480℃,淬火水温40~45℃,淬火时间0.5小时。Preferably, the solution heat treatment comprises: raising the profile blank from room temperature to 400-460 ° C for 2 hours, and then holding the profile for 0.5 hour; then, for 0.5 hour, increasing the profile blank temperature to 460-480 ° C. And the temperature is kept at this temperature for 1 hour; then, the profile blank is subjected to water quenching; finally, the temperature of the billet before entering the water is controlled at 460 to 480 ° C, the quenching water temperature is 40 to 45 ° C, and the quenching time is 0.5 hour.
较佳地,双级时效处理包括:用时1.5小时,使型材从室温升温至110~130℃,在此温度下保温6小时;接着,用时1小时,使型材温升至150~170℃,并在此温度下保温6.5小时。在保温结束之后,将型材冷却至室温。Preferably, the two-stage aging treatment comprises: heating the profile from room temperature to 110-130 ° C for 1.5 hours, and maintaining the temperature for 6 hours; then, for one hour, raising the profile temperature to 150-170 ° C, and The temperature was kept at this temperature for 6.5 hours. After the end of the holding, the profile was cooled to room temperature.
通过固溶热处理、双级时效处理以及对预拉伸的优化,可有效消除材料应力,提高材料的抗蚀性能。Through solution heat treatment, two-stage aging treatment and optimization of pre-stretching, material stress can be effectively eliminated and the corrosion resistance of the material can be improved.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1示出了本发明的生产飞机机翼长桁用型材的方法中用于形成铝合金坯锭的双喷嘴喷射成形装置。BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Figure 1 is a view showing a dual nozzle spray forming apparatus for forming an aluminum alloy ingot in the method for producing an aircraft wing long raft profile of the present invention.
图2A示出了喷射成形所形成的坯锭的微观组织结构。Fig. 2A shows the microstructure of a billet formed by spray forming.
图2B示出了铸造工艺所形成的坯锭的微观组织结构。Figure 2B shows the microstructure of the ingot formed by the casting process.
图3A和3B分别示出了两种反向挤压机及其挤压过程中坯锭材料流向的示 意图。Figures 3A and 3B show the flow of billet material flow in two reverse extruders and their extrusion processes, respectively. intention.
图4A是反向挤压所生成的型材的断口低倍组织照片。Figure 4A is a photograph of a fractured low magnification of a profile produced by reverse extrusion.
图4B是正向挤压所生成的型材的断口低倍组织照片。Figure 4B is a photograph of a fractured low magnification of a profile produced by forward extrusion.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面,对本发明的优选实施方式进行具体说明。应理解的是,相关领域中的技术人员可以对所公开的实施方式中的细节作各种等效变换,而这些等效变换同样在本发明所要求的保护范围之内。Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be specifically described. It should be understood that those skilled in the art can make various equivalents of the details of the disclosed embodiments, and such equivalent transformations are also within the scope of the claimed invention.
下面,对本发明的生产飞机机翼长桁型材的方法进行具体描述。Next, a method of producing an aircraft wing long 桁 profile of the present invention will be specifically described.
<原料熔炼><raw material smelting>
首先,根据铝合金成分优化调整方案计算铝锭、中间合金、纯金属合金的用量,在例如中频炉等的熔炉中对原料进行熔炼。其中,铝合金成分的计算是依据7055铝合金成分的数据进行计算的。本发明中所采用的7055铝合金成分具体如下:Si≤0.08%,Fe≤0.12%,Cu2.2~2.5%,Mn≤0.5%,Mg1.8~2.1%,Cr≤0.4%,Zn7.8~8.2%,Ti≤0.06%,Zr0.10~0.13%,其他杂质合计不大于0.15%,余量为铝。此处关于铝合金成分的百分比是指重量百分比。First, the amount of the aluminum ingot, the intermediate alloy, and the pure metal alloy is calculated according to the aluminum alloy composition optimization adjustment scheme, and the raw material is smelted in a furnace such as an intermediate frequency furnace. Among them, the calculation of the composition of the aluminum alloy is based on the data of the composition of the 7055 aluminum alloy. The composition of the 7055 aluminum alloy used in the present invention is specifically as follows: Si ≤ 0.08%, Fe ≤ 0.12%, Cu 2.2 to 2.5%, Mn ≤ 0.5%, Mg 1.8 to 2.1%, Cr ≤ 0.4%, Zn 7.8 ~8.2%, Ti≤0.06%, Zr0.10~0.13%, the total amount of other impurities is not more than 0.15%, and the balance is aluminum. The percentages herein regarding the composition of the aluminum alloy refer to the weight percentage.
在确定了各种原料的用量之后,将这些原料熔化,以备之后的精炼工艺。对原料的熔化可在中频炉中进行,熔炼温度例如在680~750℃的范围内。After determining the amount of each raw material, these raw materials are melted for later refining processes. The melting of the raw material can be carried out in an intermediate frequency furnace, and the melting temperature is, for example, in the range of 680 to 750 °C.
在熔化完毕之后且在对原料进行进一步精炼之前,较佳地可对熔化的原料进行取样分析,以确保铝合金的成分符合要求。如分析结果显示铝合金成分不符合要求,则需要进行合金成分的调整,直到合金成分符合要求为止。之后,将熔融铝合金从中频炉转移到中间包中。在中间包内进行精炼,除气、除渣。中间包中的精炼温度在680~750℃的范围内。可以在将熔融铝合金从中频炉转移到中间包之前使铝合金达到上述精炼温度,并在该精炼温度下进行转移操作,或者也可在转移到中间包之后使铝合金达到该精炼温度。精炼时间可以在5~15分钟。然后进行保温和静置,保温温度可为680~730℃,保温时间10~30分钟。After the melting is completed and before the raw material is further refined, the molten raw material is preferably sampled and analyzed to ensure that the composition of the aluminum alloy meets the requirements. If the analysis results show that the aluminum alloy composition does not meet the requirements, the alloy composition needs to be adjusted until the alloy composition meets the requirements. Thereafter, the molten aluminum alloy is transferred from the intermediate frequency furnace to the tundish. Refine in the tundish, degas and slag. The refining temperature in the tundish is in the range of 680 to 750 °C. The aluminum alloy may be brought to the above refining temperature prior to transferring the molten aluminum alloy from the intermediate frequency furnace to the tundish and subjected to a transfer operation at the refining temperature, or the aluminum alloy may be brought to the refining temperature after transfer to the tundish. The refining time can be 5 to 15 minutes. Then, the heat preservation and standing are carried out, and the heat preservation temperature can be 680 to 730 ° C, and the heat preservation time is 10 to 30 minutes.
<喷射成形><Jet Forming>
在对铝合金原料进行熔融、精炼即保温之后,在喷射成形装置中制备铝 合金(如7055铝合金)坯锭。After melting, refining or keeping the aluminum alloy raw material, preparing aluminum in the spray forming device Alloy (such as 7055 aluminum alloy) billet.
图1中示意性地示出了一种双喷嘴喷射成形装置的结构。如图1所示,双喷嘴喷射成形装置1具有设置在沉积室8的顶部的漏包2,在漏包2的底部设置可设置至少一个喷嘴。在图1所示的装置中设有内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4,它们向沉积室8内喷射熔融的铝合金。对应于内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4,分别设置内喷嘴扫描变频电机5和外喷嘴扫描变频电机6,以对内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4的动作进行控制。在沉积室8的内部设置有可升降且可旋转的收集器7,内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4所喷出的熔融铝合金将在收集器7上凝固并形成坯锭。The structure of a two-nozzle injection molding apparatus is schematically shown in FIG. As shown in Fig. 1, the dual nozzle spray forming apparatus 1 has a leaky pack 2 disposed at the top of the deposition chamber 8, and at the bottom of the leaky pack 2, at least one nozzle is disposed. In the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, an inner nozzle 3 and an outer nozzle 4 are provided which spray a molten aluminum alloy into the deposition chamber 8. Corresponding to the inner nozzle 3 and the outer nozzle 4, an inner nozzle scanning frequency conversion motor 5 and an outer nozzle scanning frequency conversion motor 6 are provided to control the operations of the inner nozzle 3 and the outer nozzle 4. Inside the deposition chamber 8, a liftable and rotatable collector 7 is provided, and the molten aluminum alloy sprayed from the inner nozzle 3 and the outer nozzle 4 will solidify on the collector 7 and form a billet.
喷射成形过程具体如下:将经过精炼和保温的熔融铝合金转移到漏包2中。较佳地,漏包2中的熔融铝合金的量可由漏包液位自动控制系统(未示出)来控制。漏包液位的较佳范围在200~540mm。然后,通过漏包2底部的内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4,将熔融铝合金喷射到收集器7的沉积盘上。所喷射的熔融铝合金的喷射温度可以在685~710℃的范围内。在喷射的过程中,收集器7旋转,且同时下降,从而在收集器7的沉积盘上形成圆柱形的坯锭。此外,在喷射的过程中,内喷嘴3和外喷嘴4可在内喷嘴扫描变频电机5和外喷嘴扫描变频电机6的致动作用下进行摆动,以调整所形成的坯锭的形状。The spray forming process is specifically as follows: The refined and insulated molten aluminum alloy is transferred to the leak bag 2. Preferably, the amount of molten aluminum alloy in the leak bag 2 can be controlled by a leak level automatic control system (not shown). The preferred range of the leaking liquid level is 200 to 540 mm. Then, the molten aluminum alloy is sprayed onto the deposition tray of the collector 7 through the inner nozzle 3 and the outer nozzle 4 at the bottom of the leak bag 2. The injection temperature of the molten aluminum alloy to be sprayed may be in the range of 685 to 710 °C. During the spraying, the collector 7 is rotated and simultaneously lowered to form a cylindrical billet on the deposition tray of the collector 7. Further, during the spraying, the inner nozzle 3 and the outer nozzle 4 are oscillated under the action of the inner nozzle scanning inverter motor 5 and the outer nozzle scanning inverter motor 6 to adjust the shape of the formed billet.
可以对双喷嘴喷射成形装置1及其喷射成形操作过程中的参数进行优化。例如,喷嘴口的直径可以为5~10mm,喷嘴的喷射高度为350~700mm,收集器的沉积盘的旋转速度为35~200rpm,收集器的下降速度为10~60mm/min,喷嘴的摆动角度可为4~10°,而其摆动频率为2~20HZ,所喷出的铝合金的雾化压力为0.5~1.5MPa。在此工艺参数下,喷射成形得到7055圆锭的规格为(Φ500±30mm)×1600mm。上述工艺参数可以根据所期望的坯锭规格而进行调整。The parameters of the dual nozzle spray forming apparatus 1 and its injection forming operation can be optimized. For example, the diameter of the nozzle opening may be 5 to 10 mm, the ejection height of the nozzle is 350 to 700 mm, the rotation speed of the deposition tray of the collector is 35 to 200 rpm, and the descending speed of the collector is 10 to 60 mm/min, and the swing angle of the nozzle It can be 4 to 10°, and its swing frequency is 2 to 20 Hz, and the atomization pressure of the sprayed aluminum alloy is 0.5 to 1.5 MPa. Under this process parameter, the specification of the 7055 round ingot by injection molding is (Φ500±30mm)×1600mm. The above process parameters can be adjusted according to the desired billet specifications.
与铸造形成的7055铝合金相比,通过上述对合金成分的优化以及喷射成形工艺,所产生的坯锭的微观组织结构更加均匀。图2A和2B中对两种成形工艺所形成的坯锭的微观金相组织结构进行了比较。其中,图2A示出的是喷射成形所形成的坯锭的微观组织结构,而图2B则示出了铸造工艺(如半连续铸造)所形成的坯锭的微观组织结构。通过比较可见,喷射成形所形成的铝合金的微观金相组织比铸造而成的铝合金更为细小,且呈等轴晶状,其平均晶粒 度<30μm。这样的金相组织结构更有利于解决热裂敏感和成份偏析的缺陷,并能提高材料的冷热加工性能以及强度、韧性、塑性等综合性能。通过检验可以看到,通过喷射成形工艺所形成的坯锭的综合性能超出了美国航空材料标准(AMS4336)的要求。表1中对本发明所制成的坯锭的综合性能与AMS4336的标准进行了比较。可以看到,本发明的坯锭在各项参数方面都达到或超过了AMS4336标准。Compared with the 7055 aluminum alloy formed by casting, the microstructure of the resulting ingot is more uniform by the above optimization of the alloy composition and the spray forming process. The microscopic metallographic structure of the ingots formed by the two forming processes is compared in Figures 2A and 2B. 2A shows the microstructure of the ingot formed by spray forming, and FIG. 2B shows the microstructure of the ingot formed by the casting process (such as semi-continuous casting). By comparison, the microscopic metallographic structure of the aluminum alloy formed by spray forming is finer than that of the cast aluminum alloy, and is equiaxed and has an average grain size. Degree <30 μm. Such metallographic structure is more conducive to solving the defects of thermal cracking and component segregation, and can improve the hot and cold processing properties of the material as well as the comprehensive properties such as strength, toughness and plasticity. It can be seen from inspection that the overall performance of the billet formed by the spray forming process exceeds the requirements of the American Aeronautical Material Standard (AMS4336). The overall performance of the ingots produced in accordance with the present invention is compared to the standard of AMS 4336 in Table 1. It can be seen that the ingot of the present invention meets or exceeds the AMS 4336 standard in terms of various parameters.
表1Table 1
Figure PCTCN2014086114-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2014086114-appb-000001
<坯锭车削和预挤压><Blank turning and pre-extrusion>
在形成坯锭之后,为了更好地对坯锭进行反向挤压,可选地,可在对坯锭进行反向挤压之前对坯锭进行车削加工。例如,对于以上提到的直径为Φ500的坯锭,可以将其外圆车削至Φ480,且使其表面粗糙度不大于Ra12.5。After forming the ingot, in order to better reversely compress the ingot, optionally, the ingot can be turned prior to the reverse pressing of the ingot. For example, for the above-mentioned billet having a diameter of Φ500, its outer circumference can be turned to Φ480, and its surface roughness is not more than Ra12.5.
在对坯锭进行车削之后,还可对车削过的坯锭进行加热,例如加热到400~450℃,并在此温度下保温2~3小时。然后将加热的圆锭预挤压成Φ320mm,挤压比为5,挤压温度为430~460℃。After turning the ingot, the turned ingot can also be heated, for example to 400-450 ° C, and held at this temperature for 2 to 3 hours. The heated pellet was then pre-extruded to Φ 320 mm, the extrusion ratio was 5, and the extrusion temperature was 430-460 °C.
<反向挤压><reverse extrusion>
在形成坯锭之后,通过反向挤压机对坯锭进行反向挤压,以形成用作机翼长桁的型材坯料。After forming the ingot, the ingot is reverse extruded by a reverse extruder to form a profile blank for use as a long wing of the wing.
图3A和3B分别示出了两种反向挤压机以及挤压过程中坯锭材料流向的示意图。如图3A和3B所示,在挤压过程中,挤压轴20推动坯锭10,使坯锭10沿着挤压方向A向着挤压模30前进,从而迫使金属从挤压模30的孔沿挤压模30相反的方向流出,从而形成挤压制品40。Figures 3A and 3B show schematic views of the two reverse extruders and the flow direction of the billet material during extrusion, respectively. As shown in Figs. 3A and 3B, during the pressing, the pressing shaft 20 pushes the ingot 10 to advance the ingot 10 in the pressing direction A toward the extrusion die 30, thereby forcing the metal from the hole of the extrusion die 30. The flow is made in the opposite direction of the extrusion die 30 to form the extruded article 40.
在本发明中,所使用的反向挤压机可以是45MN双动反向挤压机。In the present invention, the reverse extruder used may be a 45 MN double action reverse extruder.
在挤压过程中,需要对坯锭进行加热,以使其具有流变性能。较佳地, 在本发明的反向挤压工艺中,先将坯锭加热到400~460℃,并在此温度下保温2~3小时。然后,再将加热的坯锭加载到反向挤压机中,并对其进行反向挤压。挤压机的各种参数可以依据所生产的具体产品以及具体的工艺要求而进行选取。例如,在生产飞机机翼长桁的一种应用场合中,挤压机具有如下工艺参数:挤压筒直径为φ320mm,挤压筒温度为380~420℃,反向挤压速度为3~5mm/分钟。此外,挤压机模具的工作带宽度可为≤5mm。During the extrusion process, the ingot needs to be heated to impart rheological properties. Preferably, In the reverse extrusion process of the present invention, the ingot is first heated to 400 to 460 ° C and held at this temperature for 2 to 3 hours. The heated ingot is then loaded into a reverse extruder and reverse extruded. The various parameters of the extruder can be selected based on the specific product being produced and the specific process requirements. For example, in an application for producing a long wing of an aircraft wing, the extruder has the following process parameters: a diameter of the extrusion cylinder of φ320 mm, a temperature of the extrusion cylinder of 380 to 420 ° C, and a reverse extrusion speed of 3 to 5 mm. /minute. In addition, the working belt width of the extruder die can be ≤ 5 mm.
与正向挤压相比,反向挤压所形成的型材的粗晶环缺陷深度远低于正向挤压的粗晶环深度。图4A和4B中分别示出了反向挤压和正向挤压所生成的型材的断口照片。Compared to forward extrusion, the depth of the coarse ring defect of the profile formed by reverse extrusion is much lower than the depth of the coarse ring of the forward extrusion. Photographs of the fractures of the profiles produced by reverse extrusion and forward extrusion are shown in Figures 4A and 4B, respectively.
此外,在表2中对反向挤压和正向挤压所生成的型材的头部、尾部性能进行了比较。从中可以看出,反向挤压所形成的型材的头、尾性能比较一致,其具有较好的整体性能均匀性。从表2中可见,本发明的型材的头、尾力学性能一致性>94%,满足飞机机翼长桁的使用要求。In addition, the head and tail properties of the profiles produced by reverse extrusion and forward extrusion were compared in Table 2. It can be seen that the head and tail properties of the profile formed by reverse extrusion are relatively consistent, and it has better overall performance uniformity. It can be seen from Table 2 that the head and tail mechanical properties of the profile of the present invention are consistent by >94%, which satisfies the requirements for use of the aircraft wing.
表2Table 2
Figure PCTCN2014086114-appb-000002
Figure PCTCN2014086114-appb-000002
<固溶热处理和应力消除><Solution heat treatment and stress relief>
在形成铝合金型材的坯料之后,较佳地可以对其进行固溶热处理并进行应力消除。其主要步骤如下。After forming the blank of the aluminum alloy profile, it is preferably subjected to solution heat treatment and stress relief. The main steps are as follows.
经过2小时,将型材坯料从室温升至400~460℃,此后保温0.5小时。接着,用时0.5小时,将型材坯料温度升至460~480℃,并在此温度下保温1小时。接着,对型材坯料进行水冷淬火。将坯料的入水前温度控制在460~480℃,淬火水温40~45℃,淬火时间0.5小时。After 2 hours, the profile blank was raised from room temperature to 400 to 460 ° C, and thereafter held for 0.5 hour. Next, the profile blank temperature was raised to 460 to 480 ° C over a period of 0.5 hours, and held at this temperature for 1 hour. Next, the profile blank is subjected to water quenching. The temperature of the billet before entering the water is controlled at 460 to 480 ° C, the quenching water temperature is 40 to 45 ° C, and the quenching time is 0.5 hour.
接着,在长度方向上对型材坯料进行永久变形量为0.5~3%的预拉伸,以 消除挤压和淬火过程中所产生的残余应力。该预拉伸可以利用例如2000T张力矫直机来执行。Next, the profile material is pre-stretched in a length direction of 0.5 to 3% for the permanent deformation of the profile material. Eliminates residual stresses generated during extrusion and quenching. This pre-stretching can be performed using, for example, a 2000T tension leveler.
<双级时效处理><Double-level aging treatment>
附加地,在以上所公开的工艺步骤之后,本发明的工艺中还包括对型材进行双级时效处理的工艺。该工艺过程如下:在一级时效温度(110~130℃)条件下对型材进行保温6小时。然后,在二级实效温度(150~170℃)下对型材进行保温6.5小时。上述双级时效处理具体过程为,用时1.5小时,使型材从室温升温至110~130℃,在此温度下保温6小时;接着,用时1小时,使型材温升至150~170℃,并在此温度下保温6.5小时。在保温结束之后,将型材冷却至室温。Additionally, after the process steps disclosed above, the process of the present invention also includes a process of two-stage aging treatment of the profile. The process is as follows: the profile is insulated for 6 hours at a primary aging temperature (110 to 130 ° C). The profile was then held at the secondary effective temperature (150-170 ° C) for 6.5 hours. The specific process of the above two-stage aging treatment is to raise the profile from room temperature to 110-130 ° C for 1.5 hours, and then hold it at this temperature for 6 hours; then, for 1 hour, the profile temperature is raised to 150-170 ° C, and This temperature was kept for 6.5 hours. After the end of the holding, the profile was cooled to room temperature.
<矫直><straightening>
可选地,基于对型材实际尺寸的要求,在进行了预拉伸和时效处理之后,可以对型材坯料进行矫直。该矫直也可由以上所提到的2000T张力矫直机来进行。Alternatively, the profile blank can be straightened after the pre-stretching and aging treatments have been carried out based on the actual dimensions of the profile. This straightening can also be carried out by the 2000T tension leveler mentioned above.
<效果><effect>
经检验,由本发明的方法所生产的铝合金(具体为7055铝合金)型材的化学成分、室温拉伸、室温压缩、电导率、抗剥落腐蚀等性能指标皆满足AMS4436材料标准和飞机设计的要求。此外,对多批次的样本的性能数据进行统计分析,其拉伸屈服强度、抗拉强度、压缩屈服强度、电导率满足“同炉次内变异系数小于3%,炉次间变异系数小于5%”的要求。因此,由本发明的方法所生产的铝合金型材符合飞机机翼长桁的要求。 It has been verified that the chemical composition, room temperature stretching, room temperature compression, electrical conductivity, anti-flaking corrosion and other performance indexes of the aluminum alloy (specifically 7055 aluminum alloy) profiles produced by the method of the invention all meet the requirements of AMS4436 material standard and aircraft design. . In addition, the performance data of multi-batch samples were statistically analyzed, and the tensile yield strength, tensile strength, compressive yield strength, and electrical conductivity satisfied that “the coefficient of variation within the same furnace was less than 3%, and the coefficient of variation between furnaces was less than 5”. %" requirement. Therefore, the aluminum alloy profile produced by the method of the present invention meets the requirements of the aircraft wing length.

Claims (9)

  1. 一种生产飞机机翼长桁用铝合金型材的方法,其特征在于,所述方法包括如下步骤:A method for producing an aluminum alloy profile for an aircraft wing long raft, characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
    a.确定铝合金的成分,并依据所确定的铝合金成分来计算原料的用量;a. determining the composition of the aluminum alloy, and calculating the amount of the raw material according to the determined aluminum alloy composition;
    b.熔化并精炼所述原料,以形成熔融铝合金材料;b. melting and refining the raw material to form a molten aluminum alloy material;
    c.在双喷嘴喷射成形装置中进行喷射成形,以形成坯锭;以及c. performing injection molding in a dual nozzle spray forming apparatus to form a billet;
    d.在形成所述坯锭之后,在反向挤压机中对所述坯锭进行反向挤压,以形成铝合金型材。d. After forming the ingot, the ingot is reverse extruded in a reverse extruder to form an aluminum alloy profile.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述方法还包括以下步骤中的至少一个:The method of claim 1 wherein said method further comprises at least one of the following steps:
    e.在步骤c和步骤d之间,对坯锭进行车削加工和预挤压;e. between step c and step d, turning and pre-squeezing the ingot;
    f.在步骤d之后,对所述铝合金型材进行固溶热处理和应力消除;f. after step d, the solution heat treatment and stress relief of the aluminum alloy profile;
    g.在步骤d之后,对所述铝合金型材进行双级时效处理;以及g. after step d, the aluminum alloy profile is subjected to two-stage aging treatment;
    h.在步骤d之后,对所述铝合金型材进行矫直。h. After step d, the aluminum alloy profile is straightened.
  3. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述铝合金成分如下:Si≤0.08%,Fe≤0.12%,Cu2.2~2.5%,Mn≤0.5%,Mg1.8~2.1%,Cr≤0.4%,Zn7.8~8.2%,Ti≤0.06%,Zr0.10~0.13%,其他杂质合计不大于0.15%,余量为铝。The method according to claim 1, wherein said aluminum alloy composition is as follows: Si ≤ 0.08%, Fe ≤ 0.12%, Cu 2.2 to 2.5%, Mn ≤ 0.5%, Mg 1.8 to 2.1%, Cr ≤0.4%, Zn 7.8 to 8.2%, Ti ≤ 0.06%, Zr 0.10 to 0.13%, the total amount of other impurities is not more than 0.15%, and the balance is aluminum.
  4. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述双喷嘴喷射成形装置包括:The method of claim 1 wherein said dual nozzle spray forming apparatus comprises:
    沉积室,所述沉积室中设置有可旋转和可升降的收集器,所述收集器具有沉积盘;以及a deposition chamber in which is disposed a rotatable and liftable collector, the collector having a deposition tray;
    漏包,所述漏包容纳所述熔融铝合金材料,并且所述漏包设置有至少一个喷嘴;Leaking a bag, the leak bag containing the molten aluminum alloy material, and the leak bag is provided with at least one nozzle;
    其中,所述至少一个喷嘴向所述收集器的所述沉积盘喷射所述熔融铝合金材料,所述熔融铝合金材料在所述沉积盘上凝固,并且,在喷射的同时,所述收集器旋转并下降,从而在所述收集器的所述沉积盘上形成所述坯锭。Wherein the at least one nozzle sprays the molten aluminum alloy material to the deposition tray of the collector, the molten aluminum alloy material solidifies on the deposition tray, and, while being sprayed, the collector Rotating and descending to form the ingot on the deposition tray of the collector.
  5. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述反向挤压的过程中,所述挤压机的挤压筒温度为380~420℃,且反向挤压速度为3~5mm/分钟。 The method according to claim 1, wherein during said reverse extrusion, said extruder has a temperature of 380 to 420 ° C and a reverse extrusion speed of 3 to 5 mm. /minute.
  6. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,在步骤c中包括如下参数中的至少一个:所述熔融铝合金材料的喷射温度在685~710℃的范围内,漏包液位高度控制在200~540mm,喷嘴口的直径可以为5~10mm,喷嘴的喷射高度为350~700mm,收集器的沉积盘的旋转速度为35~200rpm,收集器的下降速度为10~60mm/min,喷嘴的摆动角度可为4~10°,而其摆动频率为2~20HZ,以及所喷出的铝合金的雾化压力为0.5~1.5MPa。The method according to claim 1, wherein at least one of the following parameters is included in step c: the injection temperature of the molten aluminum alloy material is in the range of 685 to 710 ° C, and the drain liquid level is controlled at 200 to 540 mm, the diameter of the nozzle opening can be 5 to 10 mm, the ejection height of the nozzle is 350 to 700 mm, the rotation speed of the deposition disk of the collector is 35 to 200 rpm, and the descending speed of the collector is 10 to 60 mm/min. The swing angle may be 4 to 10°, and the swing frequency thereof is 2 to 20 Hz, and the atomization pressure of the sprayed aluminum alloy is 0.5 to 1.5 MPa.
  7. 如权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,所述双级时效处理包括:用时1.5小时,使型材从室温升温至110~130℃,在此温度下保温6小时;接着,用时1小时,使型材温升至150~170℃,并在此温度下保温6.5小时。在保温结束之后,将型材冷却至室温。The method according to claim 2, wherein said two-stage aging treatment comprises: heating the profile from room temperature to 110 to 130 ° C for 1.5 hours, and holding at this temperature for 6 hours; and then, for 1 hour, The profile was allowed to warm to 150-170 ° C and held at this temperature for 6.5 hours. After the end of the holding, the profile was cooled to room temperature.
  8. 如权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,所述固溶热处理包括:用时2小时,将型材坯料从室温升至400~460℃,此后保温0.5小时;接着,用时0.5小时,将型材坯料温度升至460~480℃,并在此温度下保温1小时;然后,对型材坯料进行水冷淬火;最后,将坯料的入水前温度控制在460~480℃,淬火水温40~45℃,淬火时间0.5小时。The method according to claim 2, wherein the solution heat treatment comprises: raising the profile material from room temperature to 400 to 460 ° C for 2 hours, and then holding the profile for 0.5 hour; and then, for 0.5 hour, using the profile The temperature of the billet is raised to 460-480 ° C, and is kept at this temperature for 1 hour; then, the profile blank is subjected to water quenching; finally, the temperature of the billet before entering the water is controlled at 460-480 ° C, the quenching water temperature is 40-45 ° C, quenching The time is 0.5 hours.
  9. 如权利要求1~8中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述铝合金为7055铝合金。 The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the aluminum alloy is a 7055 aluminum alloy.
PCT/CN2014/086114 2013-09-12 2014-09-09 Method for producing profile for aircraft wing stringer WO2015035894A1 (en)

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CN111424199A (en) * 2020-04-02 2020-07-17 山东南山铝业股份有限公司 2-series aluminum alloy section for lower stringer of civil aircraft wing and manufacturing method thereof
CN111411273A (en) * 2020-04-02 2020-07-14 山东南山铝业股份有限公司 7-series aluminum alloy section for civil aircraft I-shaped rib and preparation method thereof
CN111676400A (en) * 2020-04-26 2020-09-18 西北铝业有限责任公司 Aluminum alloy section for stringer of upper panel of large aircraft wing and preparation method thereof

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